This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:
1. To determine the effectiveness and safety of any antioxidant supplementation during pregnancy on the risk of:
(b) small for gestational age infants;
(c) stillbirth and neonatal death;
(d) maternal and neonatal morbidity;
(e) long term development of the child;
(f) side effects and adverse events.
Subgroup analyses will test whether any effects on the primary outcomes are influenced by:
(a) whether women are at low/moderate or high risk of pre-eclampsia;
(b) whether women are randomised in the first rather than the second half of pregnancy (before or after 20 weeks' gestation);
(c) the type of antioxidant supplement(s);
(d) the dosage of the antioxidant supplement(s) (above, within or below accepted pharmacological range);
(e) whether women have low or adequate dietary antioxidant(s) intake (where applicable) before trial entry.
2. If antioxidants are effective, to determine which of these agents are best, what is the ideal dose, and to compare antioxidants with other interventions.