Intervention Review

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Physical rehabilitation for older people in long-term care

  1. Tom Crocker1,
  2. Anne Forster1,2,*,
  3. John Young1,2,
  4. Lesley Brown1,
  5. Seline Ozer1,
  6. Jane Smith1,
  7. John Green1,
  8. Jo Hardy1,
  9. Eileen Burns3,
  10. Elizabeth Glidewell4,
  11. Darren C Greenwood5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Stroke Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 28 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004294.pub3


How to Cite

Crocker T, Forster A, Young J, Brown L, Ozer S, Smith J, Green J, Hardy J, Burns E, Glidewell E, Greenwood DC. Physical rehabilitation for older people in long-term care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004294. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004294.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Academic Unit of Elderly Care and Rehabilitation, Bradford, UK

  2. 2

    Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Elderly Care and Rehabilitation, Bradford, UK

  3. 3

    Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Elderly Care, Leeds, UK

  4. 4

    Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Primary Care, Leeds, UK

  5. 5

    University of Leeds, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds, UK

*Anne Forster, a.forster@leeds.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Alessi 1999 {published data only}
  • Alessi CA, Yoon EJ, Schnelle JF, Al-Samarrai NR, Cruise PA. A randomized trial of a combined physical activity and environmental intervention in nursing home residents: do sleep and agitation improve?. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1999;47:784-91.
Au-Yeung 2002 {published data only}
  • Au-Yeung SS, Ho HP, Lai JW, Lau RW, Wong AY, Lau SK. Did mobility and balance of residents living in private old age homes improve after a mobility exercise programme? A pilot study. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal 2002;20:16-21.
Baum 2003 {published data only}
  • Baum EE, Jarjoura D, Polen AE, Faur D, Rutecki G. Effectiveness of a group exercise program in a long-term care facility: a randomized pilot trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2003;4:74-80.
Bautmans 2005 {published data only}
  • Bautmans I, Van Hees E, Lemper JC, Mets T. The feasibility of whole body vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Geriatrics 2005;5:17.
Brill 1998 {published data only}
  • Brill P, Jensen R, Koltyn K, Morgan LA, Morrow JR, Keller MJ, et al. The feasibility of conducting a group-based progressive strength training program in residents of a multi-level care facility. Activities, Adaptation & Aging 1998;22(4):53-63.
Brittle 2009 {published data only}
  • Brittle N, Patel S, Wright C, Baral S, Versfeld P, Sackley C. An exploratory cluster randomized controlled trial of group exercise on mobility and depression in care home residents. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009;23(2):146-54.
Brown 2004 {published data only}
  • Brown VM, Allen AC, Dwozan M, Mercer I, Warren K. Indoor gardening and older adults: effects on socialization, activities of daily living, and loneliness. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2004;30:34-42.
Bruunsgaard 2004 {published data only}
Bruyere 2005 {published data only}
  • Bruyere O, Wuidart MA, Di Palma E, Gourlay M, Ethgen O, Richy F, et al. Controlled whole body vibration to decrease fall risk and improve health-related quality of life of nursing home residents. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2005;86(2):303-7.
Buettner 1997 {published data only}
  • Buettner LL, Ferrario J. Therapeutic recreation-nursing team: a therapeutic intervention for nursing home residents with dementia. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation 1997-1998;7:21-8.
Cheung 2008 {published data only}
  • Cheung KKW, Au KY, Lam WWS, Jones AYM. Effects of a structured exercise programme on functional balance in visually impaired elderly living in a residential setting. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal 2008;26:45-50.
Chin A Paw 2004 {published data only}
  • Chin A Paw MJ, van Poppel MNM, Twisk JWR, van Mechelen W. Effects of resistance and all-round, functional training on quality of life, vitality and depression of older adults living in long-term care facilities: a 'randomized' controlled trial. BMC Geriatrics 2004;4:5.
  • Chin A Paw MJ, van Poppel MNM, Twisk JWR, van Mechelen W. Once a week not enough, twice a week not feasible? A randomised controlled exercise trial in long-term care facilities. Patient Education & Counseling 2006;63(1-2):205-14.
  • Chin A Paw MJ, van Poppel MNM, van Mechelan W. Effects of resistance and functional-skills training on habitual activity and constipation among older adults living in long-term care facilities: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Geriatrics 2006;6:9.
Choi 2005 {published data only}
Christofoletti 2008 {published data only}
  • Christofoletti G, Oliani MM, Gobbi S, Stella F, Gobbi LTB, Canineu PR. A controlled clinical trial on the effects of motor intervention on balance and cognition in institutionalized elderly patients with dementia. Clinical Rehabilitation 2008;22:618-26.
Clark 1975 {published data only}
  • Clark BA, Wade MG, Massey BH, Van Dyke R. Response of institutionalized geriatric mental patients to a twelve week program of regular physical activity. Journal of Gerontology 1975;30(5):565-73.
Cott 2002 {published data only}
  • Cott CA, Dawson P, Sidani S, Wells D. The effects of a walking/talking program on communication, ambulation, and functional status in residents with Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 2002;16(2):81-7.
Crilly 1989 {published data only}
  • Crilly RG, Willems DA, Trenholm KJ, Hayes KC, Delaquerrière-Richardson LFO. Effect of exercise on postural sway in the elderly. Gerontology 1989;35:137-43.
de Bruin 2007 {published data only}
DeKuiper 1993 {published data only}
  • DeKuiper WP, Nelson DL, White BE. Materials-based occupation versus imagery-based occupation versus rote exercise: a replication and extension. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research 1993;13(3):183-97.
Donat 2007 {published data only}
  • Donat H, Ozcan A. Comparison of the effectiveness of two programmes on older adults at risk of falling: unsupervised home exercise and supervised group exercise. Clinical Rehabilitation 2007;21(3):273-83.
Dorner 2007 {published data only}
  • Dorner T, Kranz A, Zettl-Wiedner K, Ludwig C, Rieder A, Gisinger C. The effect of structured strength and balance training on cognitive function in frail, cognitive impaired elderly long-term care residents. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2007;19(5):400-5.
Faber 2006 {published data only}
  • Faber MJ, Bosscher RJ, Chin A Paw MJ, van Wieringen PC. Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006;87:885-95.
Fiatarone 1994 {published data only}
  • Fiatarone MA, O'Neill EF, Ryan ND, Clements KM, Solares GR, Nelson ME, et al. Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. The New England Journal of Medicine 1994;330(25):1769-75.
Gillies 1999 {published data only}
  • Gillies E, Aitchision T, MacDonald J, Grant S. Outcomes of a 12-week functional exercise programme for institutionalised elderly people. Physiotherapy 1999;85(7):349-57.
Hruda 2003 {published data only}
  • Hruda KV, Hicks AL, McCartney N. Training for muscle power in older adults: effects on functional abilities. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003;28:178-89.
Karl 1982 {published data only}
  • Karl CA. The effect of an exercise program on self-care activities for the institutionalized elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1982;8:282-5.
Kerse 2008 {published data only}
  • Kerse N, Peri K, Robinson E, Wilkinson T, von Randow M, Kiata L, et al. Does a functional activity programme improve function, quality of life, and falls for residents in long term care? Cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;337:a1445.
Kinion 1993 {published data only}
  • Kinion ES, Christie N, Villella AM. Promoting activity in the elderly through interdisciplinary linkages. Nursing Connections 1993;6(3):19-26.
Lang 1992 {published data only}
  • Lang EM, Nelson DL, Bush MA. Comparison of performance in materials-based occupation, imagery-based occupation, and rote exercise in nursing home residents. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 1992;46(7):607-11.
Lazowski 1999 {published data only}
  • Lazowski DA, Ecclestone NA, Myers AM, Paterson DH, Tudor-Locke C, Fitzgerald C, et al. A randomized outcome evaluation of group exercise programs in long-term care institutions. Journal of Gerontology 1999;54(12):M621-8.
Lee 2009 {published data only}
MacRitchie 2001 {unpublished data only}
  • MacRitchie RF. Reducing the incidence of falls among nursing home residents: an evaluation of an ameliorative program. MSc Thesis 2001.
Makita 2006 {published data only}
  • Makita M, Nakadaira H, Yamamoto M. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness of exercise therapy (Takizawa Program) for frail elderly. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 2006;11:221-7.
McMurdo 1993 {published data only}
McMurdo 1994 {published data only}
  • McMurdo MET, Rennie LM. Improvements in quadriceps strength with regular seated exercise in the institutionalized elderly. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1994;75:600-3.
Meuleman 2000 {published data only}
  • Meuleman JR, Brechue WF, Kubilis PS, Lowenthal DT. Exercise training in the debilitated aged: strength and functional outcomes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2000;81:312-8.
Mihalko 1996 {published data only}
  • Mihalko SL, McAuley E. Strength training effects on subjective well-being and physical function in the elderly. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 1996;4:56-68.
Morris 1999 {published data only}
  • Morris JN, Fiatarone M, Kiely DK, Belleville-Taylor P, Murphy K, Littlehale S, et al. Nursing rehabilitation and exercise strategies in the nursing home. Journal of Gerontology 1999;54(10):M494-500.
Mulrow 1994 {published data only}
  • Mulrow CD, Gerety MB, Kanten D, Cornell JE, DeNino LA, Chiodo L, et al. A randomized trial of physical rehabilitation for very frail nursing home residents. JAMA 1994;271(7):519-24.
Naso 1990 {published data only}
  • Naso F, Carner E, Blankfort-Doyle W, Coughey K. Endurance training in the elderly nursing home patient. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1990;71:241-3.
Ouslander 2005 {published data only}
  • Ouslander JG, Griffiths P, McConnell E, Riolo L, Schnelle JF. Functional incidental training: applicability and feasibility in the Veterans Affairs nursing home patient population. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2005;6(2):121-7.
Peri 2008 {published data only}
  • Peri K, Kerse N, Robinson E, Parsons M, Parsons J, Latham N. Does functionally based activity make a difference to health status and mobility? A randomised controlled trial in residential care facilities (The Promoting Independent Living Study; PILS). Age and Ageing 2008;37(1):57-63.
Pomeroy 1993 {published data only}
  • Pomeroy VM. The effect of physiotherapy input on mobility skills of elderly people with severe dementing illness. Clinical Rehabilitation 1993;7:163-70.
Przybylski 1996 {published data only}
  • Przybylski BR, Dumont ED, Watkins ME, Warren SA, Beaulne AP, Lier DA. Outcomes of enhanced physical and occupational therapy service in a nursing home setting. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1996;77:554-61.
Resnick 2009 {published data only}
  • Resnick B, Galik E, Pretzer-Aboff I, Gruber-Baldini AL, Russ K, Cayo J, et al. Treatment fidelity in nursing home research: the Res-Care intervention study. Research in Gerontological Nursing 2009;2(1):30-8.
  • Resnick B, Gruber-Baldini AL, Zimmerman S, Galik E, Pretzer-Aboff I, Russ K, et al. Nursing home resident outcomes from the Res-Care intervention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2009;57(7):1156-65.
Riccio 1990 {published data only}
  • Riccio CM, Nelson DL, Bush MA. Adding purpose to the repetitive exercise of elderly women through imagery. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 1990;44(8):714-9.
Rolland 2007 {published data only}
Rosendahl 2006 {published data only}
  • Littbrand H, Lundin-Olsson L, Gustafson Y, Rosendahl E. The effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on activities of daily living: a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2009;57(10):1741-9.
  • Littbrand H, Rosendahl E, Lindelöf N, Lundin-Olsson L, Gustafson Y, Nyberg L. A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program for older people dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities: evaluation of the applicability with focus on cognitive function. Physical Therapy 2006;86(4):489-98.
  • Rosendahl E, Gustafson Y, Nordin, E, Lundin-Olsson L, Nyberg L. A randomized controlled trial of fall prevention by a high-intensity functional exercise program for older people living in residential care facilities. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2008;20(1):67-75.
  • Rosendahl E, Lindelöf N, Littbrand H, Yifter-Lindgren E, Lundin-Olsson L, Håglin L, et al. High-intensity functional exercise program and protein-enriched energy supplement for older persons dependent in activities of daily living: a randomised controlled trial. The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2006;52(2):105-13.
Sackley 2006 {published data only}
  • Sackley CM, Wade DT, Mant D, Atkinson JC, Yudkin P, Cardoso K, et al. Cluster randomized pilot controlled trial of an occupational therapy intervention for residents with stroke in UK care homes. Stroke 2006;37(9):2336-41.
Sackley 2008 {published data only}
  • Sackley CM, Rodriguez NA, van den Berg M, Badger F, Wright C, Besemer J, et al. A phase II exploratory cluster randomized controlled trial of a group mobility training and staff education intervention to promote urinary continence in UK care homes. Clinical Rehabilitation 2008;22(8):714-21.
Sackley 2009 {published data only}
  • Sackley CM, Patel S, Wright C. Rehabilitation in care homes (RICH-T): a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Physiotherapy Research International 2007;12(4):205.
    Direct Link:
  • Sackley CM, van den Berg ME, Lett K, Patel S, Hollands K, Wright CC, et al. Effects of a physiotherapy and occupational therapy intervention on mobility and activity in care home residents: a cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2009;339:b3123.
Santana-Sosa 2008 {published data only}
Sauvage 1992 {published data only}
  • Sauvage LR, Myklebust MB, Crow-Pan J, Novak S, Millington P, Hoffman MD, et al. A clinical trial of strengthening and aerobic exercise to improve gait and balance in elderly male nursing home residents. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1992;71:333-42.
Schnelle 1995 {published data only}
  • Schnelle JF, MacRae PG, Ouslander JG, Simmons SF, Nitta M. Functional incidental training, mobility performance, and incontinence care with nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1995;43:1356-62.
Schnelle 1996 {published data only}
  • Schnelle JF, MacRae PG, Giacobassi K, MacRae HSH, Simmons SF, Ouslander JG. Exercise with physically restrained nursing home residents: maximizing benefits of restraint reduction. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1996;44(5):507-12.
Schnelle 2002 {published data only}
  • Schnelle JF, Alessi CA, Simmons SF, Al-Samarrai NR, Beck JC, Ouslander JG. Translating clinical research into practice: a randomized controlled trial of exercise and incontinence care with nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002;50:1476-83.
  • Schnelle JF, Kapur K, Alessi C, Osterweil D, Beck JG, Al-Samarrai NR, et al. Does an exercise and incontinence intervention save healthcare costs in a nursing home population?. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2003;51(2):161-8.
  • Simmons SF, Ferrell BA, Schnelle JF. Effects of a controlled exercise trial on pain in nursing home residents. Clinical Journal of Pain 2002;18(6):380-5.
  • Simmons SF, Schnelle JF. Effects of an exercise and scheduled-toileting intervention on appetite and constipation in nursing home residents. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging 2004;8(2):116-21.
Schoenfelder 2000 {published data only}
  • Schoenfelder DP. A fall prevention program for elderly individuals. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2000;26:43-51.
Schoenfelder 2004 {published data only}
Sihvonen 2004 {published data only}
  • Sihoven SE, Sipilä S, Era P. Changes in postural balance in frail elderly women during a 4-week visual feedback training: a randomized controlled trial. Gerontology 2004;50:87-95.
Stamford 1972 {published data only}
  • Stamford BA. Physiological effects of training upon institutionalized geriatric men. Journal of Gerontology 1972;27(4):451-5.
Stevens 2006 {published data only}
  • Stevens J, Kileen M. A randomised controlled trial testing the impact of exercise on cognitive symptoms and disability of residents with dementia. Contemporary Nurse 2006;21:32-40.
Sung 2009 {published data only}
  • Sung K. The effects of 16-week group exercise program on physical function and mental health of elderly Korean women in long-term assisted living facility. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2009;24(5):344-51.
Taboonpong 2008 {published data only}
  • Taboonpong S, Puthsri N, Kong-In W, Saejew A. The effects of Tai Chi on sleep quality, well-being and physical performances among older adults. Thai Journal of Nursing Research 2008;12(1):1-13.
Tappen 1994 {published data only}
Tappen 2000 {published data only}
  • Tappen RM, Roach KE, Applegate EB, Stowell P. Effect of a combined walking and conversation intervention on functional mobility of nursing home residents with Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 2000;14(4):196-201.
Urbscheit 2001 {published data only}
  • Urbscheit NL, Wiegand MR. Effect of two exercise programs on balance scores in elderly ambulatory people. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics 2001;19(4):49-58.
Yoder 1989 {published data only}
  • Yoder RM, Nelson DL, Smith DA. Added-purpose versus rote exercise in female nursing home residents. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 1989;43(9):581-6.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Alessi 1995b {published data only}
  • Alessi CA, Schnelle JF, MacRae PG, Ouslander JG, Al-Samarrai N, Simmons SF, et al. Does physical activity improve sleep in impaired nursing home residents?. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1995;43:1098-102.
Alexander 2001 {published data only}
  • Alexander NB, Galecki AT, Genier ML, Nyquist LV, Hofmeyer MR, Grunawalt JC, et al. Task-specific resistance training to improve the ability of activities of daily living-impaired older adults to rise from a bed and from a chair. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2001;49:1418-27.
  • Alexander NB, Grunawalt JC, Carlos S, Augustine J. Bed mobility task performance in older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2000;37:633-8.
Backman 1986 {published data only}
  • Backman SJ, Mannell RC. Removing attitudinal barriers to leisure behavior and satisfaction: a field experiment among the institutionalized elderly. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 1986;20:46-53.
Beck 2009 {published data only}
  • Beck AM, Damkjaer K, Tetens I. Lack of compliance of staff in an intervention study with focus on nutrition, exercise and oral care among old (65+ yrs) Danish nursing home residents. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2009;21(2):143-9.
Becker 2003 {published data only}
Binder 1995 {published data only}
  • Binder EF. Implementing a structured exercise program for frail nursing home residents with dementia: issues and challenges. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 1995;3:383-95.
Blair 1996 {published data only}
Brill 1999b {published data only}
  • Brill PA, Cornman CB, Davis DR, Lane MJ, Mustafa T, Sanderson M, et al. The value of strength for older adults. Home Care Provider 1999;4(2):62-6.
  • Brill PA, Matthews M, Mason J, Davis D, Mustafa T, Macera C. Improving functional performance through a group-based free weight strength training program in residents of two assisted living communities. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics 1998;15(3):57-69.
Carmeli 2000 {published data only}
  • Carmeli E, Reznick AZ, Coleman R, Carmeli V. Muscle strength and mass of lower extremities in relation to functional abilities in elderly adults. Gerontology 2000;46:249-57.
Collier 2007 {published data only}
  • Collier L. The use of multi-sensory stimulation to improve functional performance in older people with dementia: a randomised single blind trial. England, University of Southampton (United Kingdom) 2007:219.
de Carvalho Bastone 2004 {published data only}
  • de Carvalho Bastone A, Wilson JF. Effect of an exercise program on functional performance of institutionalized elderly. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2004;41(5):659-68.
Dyer 2004 {published data only}
Eggermont 2009 {published data only}
  • Eggermont LH, Swaab DF, Hol EM, Scherder EJ. Walking the line: a randomised trial on the effects of a short term walking programme on cognition in dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2009;7:802-4.
Evans 1995 {published data only}
  • Evans WJ. Effects of exercise on body composition and functional capacity of the elderly. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 1995;50A(Special Issue):147-50. [DOI: 10.1093/gerona/50A.Special_Issue.147]
Fisher 1991 {published data only}
  • Fisher NM, Pendergast DR, Calkins E. Muscle rehabilitation in impaired elderly nursing home residents. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1991;72:181-5.
Fitzimmons 2001 {published data only}
  • Fitzsimmons S, Buettner LL. Easy rider wheelchair biking: a nursing-recreation therapy clinical trial for the treatment of depression. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2001;27(5):14-23.
Fox 2000 {published data only}
  • Fox P, Richardson J, McInnes B, Tait D, Bedard M. Effectiveness of a bed positioning program for treating older adults with knee contractures who are institutionalized. Physical Therapy 2000;80(4):363-72.
Friedman 1991 {published data only}
Goldberg 1980 {published data only}
  • Goldberg WG, Fitzpatrick JJ. Movement therapy with the aged. Nursing Research 1980;29(6):339-46.
Hagen 2003 {published data only}
  • Hagen B, Armstrong-Esther C, Sandilands M. On a happier note: validation of musical exercise for older persons in long-term care settings. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2003;40:347-57.
Hara 2007 {published data only}
  • Hara T, Shimada T. Effects of exercise on the improvement of the physical functions of the elderly. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2007;19(1):15-26.
Hopman-Rock 1999 {published data only}
Ikezoe 2005 {published data only}
  • Ikezoe T, Tsutou A, Asakawa Y, Tsuboyama T. Low intensity training for frail elderly women: long-term effects on motor function and mobility. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2005;17(1):43-9.
Jensen 2002 {published data only}
  • Jensen J, Lundin-Olsson L, Nyberg L, Gustafson Y. Fall and injury prevention in older people living in residential care facilities: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;136(10):733-41.
Jensen 2004 {published data only}
  • Jensen J, Nyberg L, Rosendahl E, Gustafson Y, Lundin-Olsson L. Effects of a fall prevention program including exercise on mobility and falls in frail older people living in residential care facilities. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2004;16(4):283-92.
Judge 1993 {published data only}
Kapasi 2007 {published data only}
  • Kapasi Z, Ignatius J, Kuhn B, Master P, Schnelle J, Fahey J. Effects of an exercise intervention on the relationship between muscle strength and immune cells in frail elderly nursing home residents. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy 2007;30(3):142-3.
Kelly 1983 {published data only}
  • Kelly GR, McNally E, Chambliss L. Therapeutic recreation for long-term care patients. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 1983;1:33-41.
Kerse 2004 {published data only}
Koc 2008 {published data only}
  • Koc A, Turgut G, Kilic M, Karabulut N, Tufekci FG, Kockar C. Exercise therapy for vital symptoms and daily functioning. International Journal of Stroke 2008;3 Suppl 1:297 (Abst. PO02-135).
Krishnamurthy 2007 {published data only}
  • Krishnamurthy MN, Telles S. Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: effects of yoga and ayurveda on older adults in a residential home. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2007;33(2):17-23.
Light 1984 {published data only}
  • Light KE, Nuzik S, Personius W, Barstrom A. Low-load prolonged stretch vs. high-load brief stretch in treating knee contractures. Physical Therapy 1984;64(3):330-3.
MacRae 1996 {published data only}
  • MacRae PG, Asplund LA, Schnelle JF, Ouslander JG, Abrahamse A, Morris C. A walking program for nursing home residents: effects on walk endurance, physical activity, mobility, and quality of life. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1996;44:175-80.
McMurdo 2000 {published data only}
Moye 1996 {published data only}
  • Moye J, Hanlon S. Relaxation training for nursing home patients: suggestions for simplifying and individualizing treatment. Clinical Gerontologist 1996;16(3):37-48.
Mozley 2007 {published data only}
  • Mozley CG, Schneider J, Cordingley L, Molineux M, Duggan S, Hart C, et al. The care home activity project: does introducing an occupational therapy programme reduce depression in care homes?. Aging & Mental Health 2007;11(1):99-107.
Nowalk 2001 {published data only}
O'Hagan 1994 {published data only}
Ray 1997 {published data only}
  • Ray WA, Taylor JA, Meador KG, Thapa PB, Brown AK, Kajihara HK, et al. A randomized trial of a consultation service to reduce falls in nursing homes. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 1997;278(7):557-62.
Remsburg 1999 {published data only}
  • Remsburg RE, Armacost KA, Radu C, Bennett RG. Two models of restorative nursing care in the nursing home: designated versus integrated restorative nursing assistants. Geriatric Nursing 1999;20(6):321-6.
Rydwik 2004 {published data only}
  • Rydwik E, Frändin K, Akner G. Physical training in institutionalized elderly people with multiple diagnoses - a controlled pilot study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2005;40:29-44.
Sato 2007 {published data only}
  • Sato D, Kaneda K, Wakabayashi H, Nomura T. Some effect of water exercise frequency on functional mobility in nursing care elderly. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine 2007;56(1):141-8.
Sherrington 1997 {published data only}
  • Sherrington C, Lord SR. Home exercise to improve strength and walking velocity after hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1997;78:208-12.
Shimada 2003 {published data only}
Shumway-Cook 1997 {published data only}
  • Shumway-Cook A, Gruber W, Baldwin M, Liao S. The effect of multidimensional exercises on balance, mobility, and fall risk in the community-dwelling older adults. Physical Therapy 1997;77(1):46-57.
Stasi 2004 {published data only}
  • Stasi MF, Amati D, Costa C, Resta D, Senepa G, Scarafioiti C, et al. Pet-Therapy: a trial for institutionalized frail elderly patients. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2004;9:407-12.
Steffen 1995 {published data only}
  • Steffen TM, Mollinger LA. Low-load, prolonged stretch in the treatment of knee flexion contractures in nursing home residents. Physical Therapy 1995;75(10):886-97.
Stones 1993 {published data only}
Tan 2004 {published data only}
  • Tan YSC, Alina I, Chua SH, Lee SL, Kumari PM, Vasanthi V. The effects of exercise on the functional status of the elderly persons living in the long-term care setting of a psychiatric hospital. Annals Academy of Medicine 2004;33(5):S22-4.
Tseng 2006 {published data only}
van Heugten 2000 {published data only}
  • van Heugten CM, Dekker J, Deelman BG, Stehmann-Saris JC, Kinebanian A. Rehabilitation of stroke patients with apraxia: the role of additional cognitive and motor impairments. Disability and Rehabilitation 2000;22(12):547-54.
Wolf 2001 {published data only}
  • Wolf B, Feys H, De Weerdt W, van der Meer J, Noom M, Aufdemkampe G. Effect of a physical therapeutic intervention for balance problems in the elderly: a single-blind, randomized, controlled multicentre trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2001;15:624-36.
Yip 2004 {published data only}
  • Yip YB, Sit JWH, Wong DYS. A quasi-experimental study on improving arthritis self-management for residents of an aged people's home in Hong Kong. Psychology Health and Medicine 2004;9(2):235-46.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Cakar 2010 {published data only}
  • Cakar E, Dincer U, Kiralp MZ, Cakar DB, Durmus O, Kilac H, et al. Jumping combined exercise programs reduce fall risk and improve balance and life quality of elderly people who live in a long-term care facility. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2010;46(1):59-67.
Chang 2010 {published data only}
Chen 2010a {published data only}
  • Chen KM, Fan JT, Wang HH, Wu SJ, Li CH, Lin HS. Silver yoga exercises improved physical fitness of transitional frail elders. Nursing Research 2010;59(5):364-70.
Ciairano 2010 {published data only}
  • Ciairano S, Liubicich ME, Rabaglietti E. The effects of a physical activity programme on the psychological wellbeing of older people in a residential care facility: an experimental study. Ageing & Society 2010;30(4):609-26.
Dechamps 2010 {published data only}
Dechamps 2010a {published data only}
  • Dechamps A, Diolez P, Thiaudière E, Tulon A, Onifade C, Vuong T, et al. Effects of exercise programs to prevent decline in health-related quality of life in highly deconditioned institutionalized elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010;170(2):162-9.
de Greef 2006 {published data only}
  • de Greef MH, Weening-Dijksterhuis B, van Buren M, Hardeman F, Slutter K. The effect of a physiotherapeutic exercise programme on disability in older adults. Nederlands tijdschrift voor Fysiotherapie 2006;5:106-10. [: ISSN 0377 208X]
Deschamps 2009 {published data only}
  • Deschamps A, Onifade C, Decamps A, Bourdel-Marchasson I. Health-related quality of life in frail institutionalized elderly: effects of a cognition-action intervention and Tai Chi. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 2009;17(2):236-48.
Fonseca 2010 {published data only}
  • Fonseca MD, Cader SA, Dantas EHM, Bacelar SC, Silva EB, Leal SM. Respiratory muscle training programs: impact on the functional autonomy of the elderly. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 2010;56(6):642-8.
Frändin 2009 {published data only}
  • Andresen M, Runge U, Hoff M, Puggaard L. Perceived autonomy and activity choices among physically disabled older people in nursing home settings: a randomized trial. Journal of Aging and Health 2009;21(8):1133-58.
  • Bergland A, Narum I, Grönstedt H, Hellström K, Helbostad JL, Puggaard L, et al. Evaluating the feasibility and intercorrelation of measurements on the functioning of residents living in Scandinavian nursing homes. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics 2010;28(2):154-69.
  • Frändin K, Borell L, Grönstedt H, Bergland A, Helbostad J L, Puggaard L, et al. A Nordic multi-center study on physical and daily activities for residents in nursing home settings: design of a randomized, controlled trial. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2009;21(4-5):314-22.
  • Vinsnes AG, Helbostad JL, Nyronning S, Granbo R, Seim A. A general physical training programme for residents in nursing homes and the effect on urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. Neurourology and Urodynamics 2010;29(6):852-3.
Gallon 2011 {published data only}
  • Gallon D, Rodacki ALF, Hernandez SG, Drabovski B, Outi T, Bittencourt LR, et al. The effects of stretching on the flexibility, muscle performance and functionality of institutionalized older women. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2011;44(3):229-35.
Gerritsen 2011 {published data only}
  • Gerritsen DL, Smalbrugge M, Teerenstra S, Leontjevas R, Adang EM, Vernooij-Dassen MJFJ, et al. Act In case of Depression: the evaluation of a care program to improve the detection and treatment of depression in nursing homes. Study Protocol. BMC Psychiatry 2011;11(91):1-7. [: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1477]
Holmerová 2010 {published data only}
  • Holmerová I, Machácovv K, Vanková H, Veleta P, Jurasková B, Hrnciariková D, et al. Effect of the Exercise Dance for Seniors (EXDASE) program on lower-body functioning among institutionalized older adults. Journal of Aging and Health 2010;22(1):106-19.
Hsu 2011 {published data only}
  • Hsu JK, Thibodeau R, Wong SJ, Zukiwsky D, Cecile S, Walton DM. A "Wii" bit of fun: the effects of adding Nintendo Wii® Bowling to a standard exercise regimen for residents of long-term care with upper extremity dysfunction. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2011;27(3):185-93.
Jeon 2009 {published data only}
  • Jeon EY, Kim SY, Yoo HS. Effects of music therapy and rhythmic exercise on quality of life, blood pressure and upper extremity muscle strength in institution-dwelling elderly women. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 2009;39(6):829-39.
Kemoun 2010 {published data only}
  • Kemoun G, Thibaud M, Roumagne N, Carette P, Albinet C, Toussaint L, et al. Effects of a physical training programme on cognitive function and walking efficiency in elderly persons with dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2010;29(2):109-14.
Lee 2007 {published data only}
  • Lee YK. Promoting psychosocial health of elderly residential care home residents: implementation of a Tai Chi program. Chinese University of Hong Kong (People's Republic Of China) 2007.
Lee 2010 {published data only}
Montgomery 2010 {published data only}
  • Montgomery CA. Effects of quantitative progressive exercise rehabilitation on muscle function, functional performance, and quality of life of assisted living residents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2010.
Nalbant 2009 {published data only}
  • Nalbant O, Toktaş N, Toraman NF, Ogüş C, Aydin H, Kaçar C, et al. Vitamin E and aerobic exercise: effects on physical performance in older adults. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2009;21(2):111-21.
Pan 2011 {published data only}
  • Pan T-L, Lin S-Y. Ameliorating elder frailty in nursing home residents: the efficacy of group play. Journal of Nursing & Healthcare Research 2011;7(1):54.
Piedras-Jorge 2010 {published data only}
  • Piedras-Jorge C, Meléndez-Moral JC, Tomás-Miguel JM. Benefits of physical activity in nursing home residents. Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología 2010;45(3):131-5.
Resnick 2009 awaiting {published data only}
  • Resnick B, Cayo J, Galik E, Pretzer-Aboff I. Implementation of the 6-week educational component in the Res-Care intervention: process and outcomes. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 2009, issue 8:353-60.
Rosendahl 2006 awaiting {published data only}
  • Carlsson M, Littbrand H, Gustafson Y, Lundin-Olsson L, Lindelöf N, Rosendahl E, et al. Effects of high-intensity exercise and protein supplement on muscle mass in ADL dependent older people with and without malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging 2011;15(7):554-60.
  • Conradsson M, Littbrand H, Lindelof N, Gustafson Y, Rosendahl E. Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aging & Mental Health 2010;14(5):565-76.
  • Littbrand H, Carlsson M, Lundin-Olsson L, Lindelöf N, Håglin L, Gustafson Y, et al. Effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on functional balance: preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2011;59(7):1274-82.
  • Rosendahl E. Fall prediction and a high-intensity functional exercise programme to improve physical functions and to prevent falls among older people living in residential care facilities. Umeå University Medical Dissertations, 2006.
Sackley 2010 {published data only}
  • Health Technology Assessment. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an occupational therapy intervention for residents with stroke living in UK care-homes (Project record). Health Technology Assessment 2010.
Serra-Rexach 2011 {published data only}
  • Serra-Rexach JA, Bustamante-Ara N, Hierro Villarán M, González Gil P, Sanz Ibáñez MJ, Blanco Sanz N, et al. Short-term, light- to moderate-intensity exercise training improves leg muscle strength in the oldest old: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2011;59(4):594-602.
Sung 2007 {published data only}
  • Sung KW. The effect of a health maintenance program on physical function and mental health of the elderly in nursing homes. Daehan Ganho Haghoeji 2007;37(4):478-89.
Swiniarek 2009 {published data only}
  • Swiniarek D, Elchner G, Kleist B, Beyer WF. Effects of 3-month whole-body vibration training on hip density trunk muscle strength, and balance in elderly people. Manuelle Medizin 2009;47(2):117-22.
Takeuchi 2011 {published data only}
  • Takeuchi R, Hatano Y, Yamasaki M. The influence of different exercise intervention programs on changes in quality of life and activity of daily living levels among geriatric nursing home residents. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2011;23(1):133-6.
Tse 2010 {published data only}
Żak 2006 {published data only}
  • Żak M. Physical rehabilitation regimens designed to aid the frail elderly in executing postural shifts safely and coping after incidental falls. Postępy Rehabilitacji [Advances in Rehabilitation] 2006;20(1):17-24.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
ISRCTN43769277 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN43769277. Older people's exercise intervention in residential and nursing accommodation. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN43769277 (accessed November 2007).
NCT00105807 {published data only}
  • NCT00105807. The effect of exercise on muscle, function and cost in VA nursing home residents. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00105807 (accessed December 2007).
NCT00218842 {published data only}
  • NCT00218842. Physical and daily activity for residents in a nursing home setting - A Nordic multi-centre study. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00218842 (accessed November 2007).
Serra-Rexach 2009 {published data only}
  • Serra-Rexach JA, Ruiz JR, Bustamante-Ara N, Villarán MH, Gil PG, Sanz Ibáñez MJ, et al. Health enhancing strength training in nonagenarians (STRONG): rationale, design and methods. BMC Public Health 2009;9:152.

Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
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