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Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation

  1. Kate Cahill*,
  2. Rafael Perera

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 13 APR 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 23 NOV 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004307.pub4


How to Cite

Cahill K, Perera R. Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004307. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004307.pub4.

Author Information

  1. University of Oxford, Department of Primary Health Care, Oxford, UK

*Kate Cahill, Department of Primary Health Care, University of Oxford, 23-38 Hythe Bridge Street, Oxford, OX1 2ET, UK. kate.cahill@phc.ox.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 13 APR 2011

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Crowley 1995 {published data only}
De Paul 1994 {published data only}
Gallagher 2007 {published data only}
  • Gallagher SM, Penn PE, Schindler E, Layne W. A comparison of smoking cessation treatments for persons with schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2007;39(4):487-97.
Glasgow 1993 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Ary DV, Boles SM. Results of a year-long incentives-based worksite smoking-cessation program. Addictive Behaviors 1993;18:455-64.
  • Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Ary DV, Lando HA. Employee and organizational factors associated with participation in an incentive-based worksite smoking cessation program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1990;13(4):403-18.
  • Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Pettigrew L, Foster L, Givi MJ, Morrisette G. Implementing a year-long worksite-based incentive program for smoking cessation. American Journal of Health Promotion 1991;5(3):192-9.
Gomel 1993 {published data only}
  • Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N. Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: a randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83(9):1232-8.
Hennrikus 2002 {published data only}
  • Hennrikus DJ, Jeffery RW, Lando HA, Murray DM, Brelje K, Davidann B, et al. The SUCCESS project: the effect of program format and incentives on participation and cessation in worksite smoking cessation programs. American Journal of Public Health 2002;92(2):274-9.
  • Lando HA, Thai DT, Murray DM, Robinson LA, Jeffery RW, Sherwood NE, et al. Age of initiation, smoking patterns, and risk in a population of working adults. Preventive Medicine 1999;29:590-8.
  • Martinson BC, Murray DM, Jeffery RW, Hennrikus DJ. Intraclass correlation for measures from a worksite health promotion study: estimates, correlates and applications. American Journal of Health Promotion 1999;13:347-57.
  • Sherwood NE, Hennrikus DJ, Jeffery RW, Lando HA, Murray DM. Smokers with multiple behavioral risk factors: how are they different?. Preventive Medicine 2000;31(4):299-307.
Klesges 1986 {published data only}
Klesges 1987 {published data only}
  • Klesges RC, Glasgow RE, Klesges LM, Morray K, Quayle R. Competition and relapse prevention training in worksite smoking modification. Health Education Research 1987;2(1):5-14.
Koffman 1998 {published data only}
  • Koffman DM, Lee JW, Hopp JW, Emont SL. The impact of including incentives and competition in a workplace smoking cessation program on quit rates. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998;13(2):105-11.
  • Matson D M. The impact of an incentive/competition program on participation and smoking cessation among high-risk smokers at the worksite. Proquest Digital Dissertations AAT 9300218, DAI-B 53/12, p.6252, June 1993 1992.
Maheu 1990 {published data only}
  • Maheu MM, Gervitz RN, Sallis JF, Schneider NG. Competition/cooperation in worksite smoking cessation using nicotine gum. Preventive Medicine 1990;18(6):867-76.
Paxton 1980 {published data only}
Paxton 1981 {published data only}
Paxton 1983 {published data only}
Rand 1989 {published data only}
Shoptaw (A) 2002 {published data only}
Shoptaw (B) 2002 {published data only}
  • See Shoptaw (A) 2002.
Tevyaw 2009 {published data only}
  • Tevyaw TO, Colby SM, Tidey JW, Kahler CW, Rohsenow DJ, Barnett NP, et al. Contingency management and motivational enhancement: a randomized clinical trial for college students. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009;11(6):739-49.
Volpp 2006 {published data only}
  • Volpp KG, Levy AG, Asch DA, Berline JA, Murphy JJ, Gomez A, et al. A randomized controlled trial of financial incentives for smoking cessation. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2006;15(1):12-8.
Volpp 2009 {published data only}
  • Volpp KG, Troxel AB, Pauly MV, Glick HA, Puig A, Asch DA, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of financial incentives for smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine 2009;360(7):699-709. [: clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT00128375]
Windsor (A) 1988 {published data only}
  • Windsor RA, Lowe JB. Behavioral impact and cost analysis of a worksite self-help smoking cessation program. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 1989;392:231-42.
  • Windsor RA, Lowe JB, Bartlett EE. The effectiveness of a worksite self-help smoking cessation program: a randomized trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1988;11(4):407-21.
Windsor (B) 1988 {published data only}
  • See Windsor (A) 1988.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alessi 2008 {published data only}
  • Alessi SM Petry NM, Urso J. Contingency management promotes smoking reduction in residential substance abuse patients. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2008;41:617-22. [: Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT00408265]
Bowers 1987 {published data only}
Cavallo 2007 {published data only}
  • Cavallo DA, Cooney JL, Duhig AM, Smith AE, Liss TB, McFetridge AK, et al. Combining cognitive behavioral therapy with contingency management for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers: a preliminary comparison of two different CBT formats. American Journal on the Addictions 2007;16(6):468-74.
  • Duhig A, Cavallo D, McFetridge A, Liss T, Dahl T, Krishnan-Sarin S. Contingency management for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers (POS2-51). Society for Research in Nicotine and Tobacco 12th Annual Meeting February 15-18, Orlando FLA. 2006:87.
  • Krishnan-Sarin S, Duhig AM, McKee SA, McMahon TJ, Liss T, McFetridge A. Contingency management for smoking cessation in adolescents. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2006;14(3):306-10.
  • Krishnan-Sarin S, Reynolds B, Duhig AM, Smith A, Liss T, McFetridge A, et al. Behavioral impulsivity predicts treatment outcome in a smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2007;88(1):79-82.
Chivers 2008 {published data only}
  • Chivers LL, Higgins ST, Heil SH, Proskin RW, Thomas CS. Effects of initial abstinence and programmed lapses on the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2008;41:481-97.
Correia 2006 {published data only}
Crowley 1991 {published data only}
Cummings 1988 {published data only}
Curry 1991 {published data only}
  • Curry SJ, Wagner EH, Grothaus LC. Evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation interventions with a self-help smoking cessation program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1991;59(2):318-24.
Dallery 2008 {published data only}
De Paul 1989 {published data only}
  • Jason LA, Lesowitz T, Michaels M, Blitz C, Victors L, Dean L, et al. A worksite smoking cessation intervention involving the media and incentives. American Journal of Community Psychology 1989;17:785-99.
  • Salina D, Jason LA, Hedeker D, Kaufman J, Lesondak L, McMahon SD, et al. A follow-up of a media-based, worksite smoking cessation program. American Journal of Community Psychology 1994;22:257-71.
Donatelle 2000a {published data only}
  • Donatelle RJ, Prows SL, Champeau D, Hudson D. Randomised controlled trial using social support and financial incentives for high risk pregnant smokers: Significant Other Support (SOS) program. Tobacco Control 2000;9(Supplement III):iii67-iii69.
Donatelle 2000b {published data only}
  • Donatelle RJ, Prows SL, Champeau D, Hudson D. Using social support, biochemical feedback, and incentives to motivate smoking cessation during pregnancy: comparison of three intervention trials. Poster at American Public Health Association meeting, Boston MA 2000.
Donatelle 2002 {published data only}
  • Donatelle RJ, Hudson D. Using 5 A's and incentives to promote prenatal smoking cessation [presentation to National Conference of Tobacco or Health, 2002]. http://ncth.confex.com/ncth/responses/2002/257.ppt retrieved August 10 2004 2002.
Dunn 2010 {published data only}
  • Dunn KE, Sigmon SC, Reimann EF, Badger GJ, Heil SH, Higgins ST. A contingency management intervention to promote initial smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2010;18:37-50.
  • Dunn KE, Sigmon SC, Thomas CS, Heil SH, Higgins ST. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of smoking abstinence among methadone-maintained patients: a pilot study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2008;41:527-38.
Elliott 1968 {published data only}
  • Elliott R, Tighe T. Breaking the cigarette habit: Effects of a technique involving threatened loss of money. Psychological Record 1968;18:503-13.
Emont 1992 {published data only}
Fortmann 1995 {published data only}
  • Fortmann SP, Killen JD. Nicotine gum and self-help behavioral treatment for smoking relapse prevention: results from a trial using population-based recruitment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1995;63(3):460-8.
Gadomski 2010 {published data only}
  • Gadomski A, Adams L, Tallman N, Krupa N, Jenkins P. Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2010;14:nn-n.
Gilbert 1999 {published data only}
  • Gilbert DG, Crauthers DM, Mooney DK, McClernon FJ, Jensen RA. Effect of monetary contingencies on smoking relapse: Influences of trait depression, personality, and habitual nicotine intake. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 1999;7(2):174-81.
  • Gilbert DG, McClernon FJ, Rabinovich NE, Plath LC, Jensen RA, Meliska CJ. Effects of smoking abstinence on mood and craving in men: influences of negative-affect-related personality traits, habitual nicotine intake and repeated measurements. Personality and Individual Differences 1998;25:399-423.
Gilbert 2002 {published data only}
  • Gilbert DG, McClernon FJ, Rabinovich NE, Plath LC, Masson CL, Anderson AE, et al. Mood disturbance fails to resolve across 31 days of cigarette abstinence in women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2002;70(1):142-52.
Gottlieb 1990 {published data only}
Graham 2007 {published data only}
  • Graham AL, Cobb NK, Raymond L, Sill S, Young J. Effectiveness of an internet-based worksite smoking cessation intervention at 12 months. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2007;49(8):821-8.
Hanewinkel 2007 {published data only}
  • Etter JF, Bouvier P. Some doubts about one of the largest smoking prevention programmes in Europe, the smokefree class competition. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2006;60(9):757-9.
  • Hanewinkel R. ["Be smart - don't start". Results of a non-smoking competition in Germany 1997-2007] [German]. Gesundheitswesen 2007;69(1):38-44.
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G. [Diffusion of the non-smoking campaign "Be smart - don't start" between 1997 and 2003 in Germany] [German]. Gesundheitswesen 2003;65(4):250-4.
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G. [Primary and secondary prevention of smoking in adolescents: results of the campaign "Be smart - don't start"] [German]. Gesundheitswesen 2002;64(8-9):492-8.
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G, Abdennbi K, Ariza C, Bollars C, Bowker S, et al. European smokefree class competition: a measure to decrease smoking in youth. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2007;61(8):750.
  • Hanewinkel R, Wiborg G, Isensee B, Nebot M, Vartiainen E. "Smoke-free Class Competition": Far-reaching conclusions based on weak data. Preventive Medicine 2006;43(2):150-1.
  • Pick O, Nolte B, Koller M, Vogelmeier M, Engenhart-Cabilic R. [Significance of a health campaign in 11- to 14-year-old school children for smoking prevention - Effect evaluation on the school competition "Be smart - don't start"] [German]. Gesundheitswesen 2005;67(7):542.
  • Schneider S, Mohnen SM, Tonges S, Potschke-Langer M, Schulze A. Are competitions an appropriate instrument for youth smoking cessation? A 1-year follow-up of the Germany-wide 'Smoke-free 2004' campaign. Medizinische Klinik 2006;101(9):711-7.
  • Schulze A, Mons U, Edler L, Potshcke-Langer M. Lack of sustainable prevention effect of the "Smoke-free Class Competition" on German pupils. Preventive Medicine 2006;42(1):33-9.
  • Wiborg G, Hanewinkel R, Kliche KO. ["Be smart - don't start" campaign to prevent children from starting to smoke: an analysis according to type of school they attend] [German]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2002;127(9):430-6.
Heil 2008 {published data only}
Higgins 2004 {published data only}
  • Higgins ST, Heil SH, Badger GJ, Skelly JM, Solomon LJ, Bernstein IM. Educational disadvantage and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2009;104:s100-5.
  • Higgins ST, Heil SH, Dumeer AM, Thomas CS, Solomon LJ, Bernstein IM. Smoking status in the initial weeks of quitting as a predictor of smoking-cessation outcomes in pregnant women. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2006;85(2):138-41.
  • Higgins ST, Heil SH, Solomon LJ, Bernstein IM, Lussier JP, Abel RL, et al. A pilot study on voucher-based incentives to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2004;6(6):1015-20.
  • Higgins TM, Higgins ST, Heil SH, Badger GJ, Skelly JM, Bernstein IM, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking cessation on breastfeeding duration. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010;12(5):483-8.
  • Yoon JH, Higgins ST, Heil SH, Sugarbaker RJ, Thomas CS, Badger GJ. Delay discounting predicts postpartum relapse to cigarette smoking among pregnant women. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2007;15(2):176-86.
Jason 1990 {published data only}
Jeffery 1988 {published data only}
  • Jeffery RW, Pheley AM, Forster JL, Kramer FM, Snell MK. Payroll contracting for smoking cessation: a worksite pilot study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1988;4:83-6.
Jeffery 1989 {published data only}
  • Jeffery RW, Forster JL, Schmid TL. Worksite health promotion: feasibility testing of repeated weight control and smoking cessation classes. American Journal of Health Promotion 1989;3(4):11-16.
Jeffery 1993 {published data only}
  • Jeffery RW, Forster JL, Baxter JE, French SA, Kelder SH. An empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of tangible incentives in increasing participation and behavior change in a worksite health promotion program. American Journal of Health Promotion 1993;8(2):98-100.
  • Jeffery RW, Forster JL, French SA, Kelder SH, Lando HA, McGovern PG, et al. The Healthy Worker Project: a work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83(3):395-402.
Kassaye 1984 {published data only}
Kollins 2010 {published data only}
  • Kollins SH, McClernon FJ, Van Voorhees EE. Monetary incentives promote smoking abstinence in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2010;18(3):221-8.
Lamb 2004 {published data only}
Lamb 2010 {published data only}
Lussier 2005 {published data only}
Monti 2006 {published data only}
  • Monti P, Tevyaw TO, Tidey J, Colby S, Kahler C, Barnett N, et al. Combining motivational enhancement and contingency management for young adult smokers (SYM3D). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 12th Annual Meeting February 15-18, Orlando FLA. 2006.
  • Ohmura Y, Takahashi T, Kitamura N. Discounting delayed and probabilistic monetary gains and losses by smokers of cigarettes. Psychopharmacology Berl 2005;182(4):508-15.
  • Tevyaw TO, Tidey J, Colby S, Kahler C, Barnett N, Luboyeski E, et al. Contingency management and MET for young adult smokers,: preliminary results (RP-065). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 11th Annual Meeting March, Prague, Czech Republic. 2005.
Mooney 2004 {unpublished data only}
  • Mooney ME. Interventions to increase use of nicotine gum: a randomized, controlled single-blind trial. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2004; Vol. 64:4052.
Olsen 1990 {published data only}
  • Olsen GW, Lacy SE, Sprafka JM, Arceneaux TG, Potts TA, Kravat BA, et al. A 5-year evaluation of a smoking cessation incentive program for chemical employees. Preventive Medicine 1991;20:774-84.
  • Olsen GW, Shellenberger RJ, Lacy SE, Fishbeck WA, Bond GG. A smoking cessation incentive program for chemical employees: design and evaluation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1990;6(4):200-7.
Pardell 2003 {published data only}
  • Pardell H, Faixedas MT, Salto E, Valverde A, Tresserras R, Taberner JL, et al. Influence of an economical incentive on smoking cessation at community level. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 5th European Meeting November 20-22 2003 Padua: Abstract book. 2003; Vol. Poster 41.
Perkins 2010 {published data only}
  • Perkins KA, Lerman C, Fonte CA, Mercincavage M, Stitzer ML, Chengappa KN, et al. Cross-validation of a new procedure for early screening of smoking cessation medications in humans. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2010;88(1):109-14.
Poole 2001 {published data only}
Rohsenow 2005 {unpublished data only}
  • Rohsenow D, Martin R, Tidey J, Monti P, Swift R. Motivational and contingency interventions for unmotivated smokers in substance abuse treatment (PA-7). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 11th Annual Meeting March, Prague, Czech Republic. 2005.
Roll 2008 {published data only}
Sloan 1990 {published data only}
Spring 1978 {published data only}
  • Spring FL, Sipich JF, Trimble RW, Goeckner DJ. Effects of contingency and noncontingency contracts in the context of a self-control-oriented smoking modification program. Behavior Therapy 1978;9(5):967-8.
Stitzer 1983 {published data only}
Stitzer 1984 {published data only}
Stitzer 1985 {published data only}
Stoops 2009 {published data only}
  • Stoops WW, Dallery J, Fields NM, Nuzzo PA, Schoenberg NE, Martin CA, et al. An internet-based abstinence reinforcement smoking cessation intervention in rural smokers. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2009;105(1-2):56-62.
Strecher 1983 {published data only}
Tanaka 2006 {published data only}
  • Tanaka H, Yamato H, Tanaka T, Kadowaki T, Okamura T, Nakamura M, et al. Effectiveness of a low-intensity intra-worksite intervention on smoking cessation in Japanese employees: a three-year intervention trial. Journal of Occupational Health 2006;48(3):175-82.
Winett 1973 {published data only}
Wiseman 2005 {published data only}
  • Wiseman EJ, Williams DK. Effectiveness of payments for reducing carbon monoxide levels and noncontingent payments on smoking behaviors in cocaine-abusing outpatients wearing nicotine or placebo patches. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2005;13(2):102-10.
Yi 2008 {published data only}
  • Yi R, Johnson MW, Giordano LA, Landes RD, Badger GJ, Bickel WK. The effects of reduced cigarette smoking on discounting future rewards: an initial evaluation. Psychological Record 2008;58:163-74.
Yoon 2009 {published data only}
  • Yoon JH, Higgins ST, Bradstreet MP, Badger GJ, Thomas CS. Changes in the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking as a function of initial abstinence. Psychopharmacology Berl 2009;205:305-18.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
NCT00273793 {unpublished data only}
  • Lamb RJ. Increasing contingency management success using shaping. Clinicaltrials.gov 2006.
NCT00508560 {unpublished data only}
  • Saxon A. Contingency management for smoking cessation among veterans with schizophrenia or other psychoses. Clinicaltrials.gov 2007.
NCT00690131 {unpublished data only}
  • Bennett ME. An integrated approach to smoking cessation in Severe Mental Illness (SMI). Clinicaltrials.gov 2008.
NCT00718835 {unpublished data only}
  • Sigmon SC. Incentive-based smoking cessation for methadone patients. Clinicaltrials.gov 2008.
NCT00865254 {unpublished data only}
  • Ledgerwood DM. Prize reinforcement for smoking cessation. Clinicaltrials.gov 2009.
NCT01145001 {unpublished data only}
  • Krishnan-Sarin S. Enhancing a High School-based smoking cessation program. Clinicaltrials.gov 2010.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ballard 2009
  • Ballard P, Radley A. Give it up for Baby: A smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women in Scotland. Cases in Public Health Communication & Marketing 2009; Vol. 3, issue www.gwumc.edu/sphhs/departments/pch/phcm/casesjournal/volume3/showcase/cases_3_09.pdf:147-60.
Benowitz 2002
  • SRNT Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification [Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Ahijevych K, Jarvis MJ, Hall S, LeHouezec J, et al. Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2002;4(2):149-59.
Cahill 2008a
  • Cahill, K, Moher M, Lancaster T. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003440.pub3]
Cahill 2008b
  • Cahill K, Perera R. Quit and win contests for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004986.pub2]
Grunberg 1990
  • Grunberg N. Cigarette smoking at work: data, issues, and models. In: Weiss S, Fielding J, Baum A editor(s). Health at Work. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1990.
Hughes 2003
  • Hughes JR, Keely JP, Niaura RS, Ossip-Klein DJ, Richmond RL, Swan GE. Measures of abstinence in clinical trials: issues and recommendations. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2003;5(1):13-25.
Lumley 2009
Martinson 1999
  • Martinson BC, Murray DM, Jeffery RW, Hennrikus DJ. Intraclass correlation for measures from a worksite health promotion study: estimates, correlates, and applications. American Journal of Health Promotion 1999;13(6):347-57.
NICE 2010
  • National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Should incentives be used to help people quit unhealthy habits? NICE's Citizens Council reveals its view. http://www.nice.org.uk/newsroom/pressreleases/CitizensCouncilIncentives.jsp (accessed 30/11/2010) 2010.
Reda 2009
SRNT 2002
  • SRNT Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification. Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2002;4(2):149-59.
USDHHS 1989
  • US Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Smoking and Health. Reducing the health consequences of smoking: 25 years of progress. CDC 89-8411, Rockville, Maryland 1989.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Cahill 2008
  • Cahill K, Perera R. Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004307.pub3]
Hey 2005