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Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome

  1. Vicente Ruiz Garcia1,*,
  2. Eduardo López-Briz2,
  3. Rafael Carbonell Sanchis3,
  4. Jose Luis Gonzalvez Perales4,
  5. Sylvia Bort-Marti5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 AUG 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004310.pub3


How to Cite

Ruiz Garcia V, López-Briz E, Carbonell Sanchis R, Gonzalvez Perales JL, Bort-Marti S. Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004310. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004310.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Unidad de Hospitalización a Domicilio & CASP Spain, Valencia, Valencia, Spain

  2. 2

    Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Department of Pharmacy & CASP Spain, Valencia, Valencia, Spain

  3. 3

    Hospital de Sagunt, Servicio de Otorrinolaringologia, Sagunt, Valencia, Spain

  4. 4

    National Health Service, Algemesi, Valencia, Spain

  5. 5

    University of Valencia, Intellectual Property Department, Valencia, Spain

*Vicente Ruiz Garcia, Unidad de Hospitalización a Domicilio & CASP Spain, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, Valencia, Valencia, 46026, Spain. vicenteruizgarcia@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Batterham 2001 {published data only}
  • Batterham M, Garsia R. Randomised prospective medium term comparison of megestrol acetate, nandrolone decanoate and dietary therapy alone for HIV associated weight loss [abstract]. Australasian Society for HIV Medicine 1997;9:91.
  • Batterham MJ, Garsia R. A comparison of megestrol acetate, nandrolone decanoate and dietary counselling for HIV associated weight loss. International Journal of Andrology 2001;24(4):232-40.
Beller 1997 {published data only}
  • Beller E, Tattersall M. Improved quality of life with megestrol acetate in patients with endocrine-insensitive advanced cancer: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Annals of Oncology 1997;8:277-83.
Casado 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Casado Herráez A. Phase II randomized study of two dose levels of megestrol acetate versus placebo for the treatment of anorexia and cachexia in patients with locoregional advanced or metastatic cancer [Estudio de fase II randomizado de dos niveles posológicos de acetato de Megestrol versus placebo para el tratamiento de la anorexia y la caquexia en pacientes con cáncer locoregional avanzado o metastásico. (Tesis de Doctorado - Universidad Complutense Madrid)]. Available from http://eprints.ucm.es/8119/1/T30450.pdf 2008 (accessed 24 December 2011).
De Conno 1998 {published data only}
  • De Conno F, Martini C. Megestrol acetate for anorexia in patients with far-advanced cancer: a double-blind controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Cancer 1998;34:1705-9.
Eubanks 2002 {published data only}
Feliu 1992 {published data only}
  • Feliu J, Gonzalez-Baron M. Usefulness of megestrol acetate in cancer cachexia and anorexia. A placebo controlled study. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1992;15:436-40.
  • Gonzalez Baron M, Feliu J, Zamora P, Artal A, Garrido P, Chacon I. Usefulness of megestrol acetate on cancer cachexia: a double blind randomized study. Annals of Oncology 1990;1:29-31.
Fietkau 1996 {published data only}
  • Fietkau R, Riepl M. Supportive treatment with megestrol acetate during radio (chemo) therapy. A randomised trial. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 1996;172:162-8.
  • Fietkau R, Riepl M, Kettner H, Hinke A, Sauer R. Supportive use of megestrol acetate in patients with head and neck cancer during radio(chemo)therapy. European Journal of Cancer 1997;33:75-9. [: CN-00137738]
Gambardella 1998 {published data only}
  • Gambardella A, Pesce L, Bolognino P, Lombardi G, Barbieri M, Rinaldi C. Megestrol acetate prevents cachexia in elderly cancer patient. Annals of Oncology 1998;9(Suppl 3):72. [: CN-00305911]
  • Gambardella A, Pesce L, Lammardo AM, Lombardi G, Barbagallo M, Tirelli P, et al. New factors involvement in elderly cancer patients with anorexia/cachexia syndrome role of megestrol acetate. Annals of Oncology 2000;9 Suppl 2:22.
Gebbia 1996 {published data only}
  • Gebbia V, Testa A. Prospective randomised trial of two dose levels of megestrol acetate in the management of anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with metastatic cancer. British Journal of Cancer 1996;73:1576-80.
Giacosa 1997 {published data only}
  • Giacosa A, Frascio F, Sukkar SG, Costantini M, Baracco G, Capelli M. Changes of nutritional and psychological status after megestrol acetate treatment of cancer cachexia. Rivista Italiana Di Nutrizione Parenterale Ed Enterale. 1997;15:20-3.
Heckmayr 1992 {published data only}
  • Heckmayr M, Gatzemeier U. Treatment of cancer weight loss in patients with advanced lung cancer. Oncology 1992;49(Suppl 2):32-4.
Herrejon 2011 {published data only}
  • Herrejon A, Catalan P, Palop J, Inchaurraga I, Blanquer R, Lopez A. Effect of 8-week 320 mg megestrol acetate daily administration in severe COPD and weight loss [Abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010;181:A4484.
  • Herrejon A, Palop J, Inchaurraga I, Lopez A, Bañuls C, Hernandez A, et al. Low doses of megestrol acetate increase weight and improve nutrition status in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and weight loss. Medicina Clinica 2011;137:193-8.
Jatoi 2002 {published data only}
  • Jatoi A, Windschitl HE. Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination for cancer-associated anorexia: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20:567-73.
Jatoi 2004 {published data only}
  • Jatoi A, Rowland K, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, MacDonald N, et al. An eicosapentaenoic acid supplement versus megestrol acetate versus both for patients with cancer-associated wasting: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group and National Cancer Institute of Canada collaborative effort. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004;22:2469-76.
Lesser 2006 {published data only}
  • Lesser GJ, Case D, Sharp S, Choksi J, Miller A, Atkins J, et al. A phase III randomized study comparing the effects of oxandrolone (Ox) and megestrol acetate (Meg) on weight (wt), lean body mass (LBM) and quality of life (QOL) in solid tumor patients (pts) receiving chemotherapy (chemo). Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2006 ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings Part I 2006;24(18S (June 20 Suppl)):18546.
Loprinzi 1990b {published data only}
Loprinzi 1994 {published data only}
  • Loprinzi CL, Bernath AM. Phase III evaluation of 4 doses of megestrol acetate for patients with cancer anorexia and/or cachexia. Oncology 1994;51:2-7.
  • Loprinzi CL, Michalak JC, Schaid DJ, Mailliard JA, Athmann LM, Goldberg RM, et al. Phase III evaluation of four doses of megestrol acetate as therapy for patients with cancer anorexia and/or cachexia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1993;11:762-7. [: CN-00092689]
Loprinzi 1999a {published data only}
  • Loprinzi CL, Kugler J, Sloan J, Mailliard J, Krook J, Wilwerding M, et al. Phase III randomized comparison of megestrol acetate, dexamethasone, and fluoxymesterone for the treatment of cancer anorexia/cachexia [Meeting abstract no 167]. ASCO Annual Meeting. 1997.
  • Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW. Randomized comparison of megestrol acetate versus dexamethasone versus fluoxymesterone for the treatment of cancer anorexia/cachexia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1999;17:3299-306.
Loprinzi 1999b {published data only}
  • Loprinzi CL, Kugler J, Sloan J, Mailliard J, Krook J, Wilwerding M, et al. Phase III randomized comparison of megestrol acetate, dexamethasone, and fluoxymesterone for the treatment of cancer anorexia/cachexia [Meeting abstract no 167]. ASCO Annual Meeting. 1997.
  • Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW. Randomized comparison of megestrol acetate versus dexamethasone versus fluoxymesterone for the treatment of cancer anorexia/cachexia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1999;17:3299-306.
Macbeth 1994 {published and unpublished data}
  • Macbeth FR, Grgeor A, Cott. A randomised study of megestrol acetate (MA) and prednisolone (P) for anorexia and weight loss in patients with lung cancer. Lung Cancer 1994;1 Suppl 1:88.
Madeddu 2012 {published data only}
  • Madeddu C, Dessì M, Panzone F, Serpe R, Antoni G, Cau MC, et al. Randomized phase III clinical trial of a combined treatment with carnitine + celecoxib ± megestrol acetate for patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome. Clinical Nutrition 2012;31:176-82.
McMillan 1994 {published data only}
Mwamburi 2004 {published data only}
  • Mwamburi DM, Gerrior J, Wilson IB, Chang H, Scully E, Saboori S, et al. Comparing megestrol acetate therapy with oxandrolone therapy for HIV-related weight loss: similar results in 2 months. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004;38:895-902.
Oster 1994 {published data only}
  • Oster MH, Enders SR. Megestrol acetate in patients with AIDS and cachexia. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994;121:400-8.
Sancho-Cuesta 1993 {published data only}
  • Sancho-Cuesta JF. Megestrol acetate and weight loss in advanced cancer [Abstract no: 1141]. European Journal of Cancer 1993;29A:S204.
Schmoll 1991 {published data only}
  • Schmoll E, Wilke H, Thole R, Preusser P,  Wildfang I,  Schmoll HJ. Megestrol acetate in cancer cachexia. Seminars in Oncology 1991;18(1 Suppl 2):32-4. [: CN-00072963]
Schmoll 1992 {published data only}
  • Schmoll E. Risks and benefits of various therapies for cancer anorexia. Oncology 1992;49:43-5.
Summerbell 1992 {published data only}
  • Summerbell CD, Youle M, McDonald V, Catalan J, Gazzard BG. Megestrol acetate vs cyproheptadine in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV infection. International Journal of STD and AIDS 1992;3:278-80.
Tchekmedyian 1992 {published data only}
  • Tchekmedyian NS, Hickman M. Megestrol acetate in cancer anorexia and weight loss. Cancer 1992;69:1268-74.
Timpone 1997 {published data only}
  • Timpone JG, Wright DJ. The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 1997;13:305-15.
Ulutin 2002 {published data only}
  • Ulutin HC, Arpaci F, Pak Y. Megestrol acetate for cachexia and anorexia in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized study comparing two different doses. Tumori 2002;88:277-80.
Vadell 1998 {published data only}
  • Segui MA, Vadell C, Gimenez-Arnau JM, Morales S, Cirera L, Bestit I, et al. Double-blind randomized trial for the treatment of cancer related cachexia: comparison of placebo vs two different doses of megestrol acetate [Abstract 99]. Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 1996;15:529.
  • Vadell C, Segui MA. Anticachectic efficacy of megestrol acetate at different doses and versus placebo in patients with neoplastic cachexia. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1998;21:347-51.
Von Roenn 1994 {published data only}
  • Von Roenn JH, Armstrong D. Megestrol acetate in patients with AIDS-related cachexia. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994;121:393-9.
Wanke 2007 {published data only}
  • Cilla DD, Gutierrez JL, Kristensen A, Kramer LD. The safety of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension (MA-CS) and megestrol acetate oral suspension (MA-OS) in a pilot study in patients with HIV-associated unintended weight loss (UWL) [Abstract]. Blood 2006;108:43.
  • Wanke C, Gutierrez J, Kristensen A, MacEarchern, L. Safety and efficacy of two preparations of megestrol acetate in HIV-infected individuals with weight loss in Africa, India, and the United States. Journal of Applied Research 2007;7:206-16.
Weisberg 2002 {published data only}
Yeh 2000 {published data only}
  • Yeh SS, Lovitt S, Schuster MW. Usage of megestrol acetate in the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome in the elderly. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 2009;13:448-54.
  • Yeh SS, Wu SY. Improvement in quality of life measures and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate oral suspension in geriatric cachexia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2000;48(5):485-92.
  • Yeh SS, Wu SY, Levine DM, Parker TS, Olson JS, Stevens MR, et al. The correlation of cytokine levels with body weight after megestrol acetate treatment in geriatric patients. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2001;56:M48-54.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Aguilera 2001 {published data only}
  • Aguilera A, Selgas R, Diez JJ, Bajo MA, Codoceo R, Alvarez V. Anorexia in end-stage renal disease: pathophysiology and treatment. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 2001;2(11):1825-38.
Aisner 1988 {published data only}
  • Aisner J, Tchekmedyian NS, Tait N, Parnes H, Novak M. Studies of high-dose megestrol acetate: potential applications in cachexia. Seminars in Oncology 1988;15(2 Suppl 1):68-75.
Anonymous 1995 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Megestrol found effective in two trials. AIDS Patient Care 1995;9(1):41.
Ansfield 1982 {published data only}
  • Ansfield FJ, Kallas GJ, Singson JP. Clinical results with megestrol acetate in patients with advanced carcinoma of the breast. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 1982;155(6):888-90.
Argiles 2007 {published data only}
Argiles 2008 {published data only}
Argiles 2010 {published data only}
  • Argiles JM, Olivan M, Busquets S, Lopez-Soriano FJ. Optimal management of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Cancer Management and Research 2010;2(1):27-38.
Behl 2007 {published data only}
Bossola 2006 {published data only}
Bossola 2009 {published data only}
Bruera 1990 {published data only}
Bruera 1992a {published data only}
  • Bruera E. Clinical management of anorexia and cachexia in patients with advanced cancer. Oncology 1992;49 Suppl 2:35-42.
Bruera 1998 {published data only}
  • Bruera E, Scott E. Effectiveness of megestrol acetate in patients with advanced cancer: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Cancer Prevention and Control 1998;2(2):74-8.
Bruera 1998a {published data only}
Cardona 2006 {published data only}
  • Cardona D. Pharmacological therapy of cancer anorexia-cachexia. Nutricion Hospitalaria 2006;21:Suppl 26.
Carroll 2007 {published data only}
Cat 1994 {published data only}
Celik 2009 {published data only}
Chen 1997 {published data only}
  • Chen HC,  Leung SW,  Wang CJ,  Sun LM,  Fang FM,  Hsu JH. Effect of megestrol acetate and prepulsid on nutritional improvement in patients with head and neck cancers undergoing radiotherapy. Radiotherapy and Oncology 1997;43:75-9.
Chlebowski 1996 {published data only}
Costero 2004 {published data only}
  • Costero O, Bajo MA, del Peso G, Gil F, Aguilera A, Ros S, et al. Treatment of anorexia and malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis patients with megestrol acetate. Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis 2004;20:209-21.
Cruz 1990 {published data only}
  • Cruz JM, Muss HB, Brockschmidt JK, Evans GW. Weight changes in women with metastatic breast cancer treated with megestrol acetate: a comparison of standard versus high-dose therapy. Seminars in Oncology 1990;17:63-7.
Cuerda 1998 {published data only}
  • Cuerda Compes M, Breton Lesmes I, Camblor Alvarez M, Garcia Peris P. Pharmacological modulation of the appetite. Nutricion Hospitalaria 1998;13(2):69-75.
Desport 2000 {published data only}
  • Desport JC, Blanc-Vincent MP, Gory-Delabaere G, Bachmann P, Beal J, Benamouzig R, et al. Standards, Options and Recommendations (SOR) for the use of appetite stimulants in oncology. Work group. Federation of the French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC). Bulletin du Cancer 2000;87(4):315-28.
Elovic 2000 {published data only}
Erkurt 2000 {published data only}
  • Erkurt E, Erkisi M, Tunali C. Supportive treatment in weight-losing cancer patients due to the additive adverse effects of radiation treatment and/or chemotherapy. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research  2000;19:431-9.
Farmer 2005 {published data only}
  • Farmer M, Case D, Lesser G, Monitto D, Smathers S, May B, et al. A phase III, double blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized trial on the effect of megestrol acetate on weight and health related quality of life in lung cancer and head and neck cancer patients receiving curative radiation therapy. Proceedings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 47th.Annual Meeting; 2005 Oct 16-19; Denver, Colorado, USA. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 2005;63:S77-8.
Farrar 1999 {published data only}
Fearon 2002 {published data only}
Fossati 1998 {published data only}
  • Fossati R, Confalonieri C, Torri V, Ghislandi E, Penna A, Pistotti V, et al. Cytotoxic and hormonal treatment for metastatic breast cancer: a systematic review of published randomized trials involving 31,510 women. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1998;16(10):3439-60.
Fox 2009 {published data only}
  • Fox CB, Treadway AK, Blaszczyk AT, Sleeper RB. Megestrol acetate and mirtazepine for the treatment of unplanned weight loss in the elderly. Pharmacotherapy 2009;29(4):383-97.
Freyer 1996 {published data only}
Freyer 1996a {published data only}
Gaducci 2001 {published data only}
  • Gadducci A, Cosio S, Fanucchi A, Genazzani AR. Malnutrition and cachexia in ovarian cancer patients: pathophysiology and management. Anticancer Research 2011;21(4B):2941-7.
Garg 2010 {published data only}
  • Garg S, Yoo J, Winquist E. Nutritional support for head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a systematic review [Review]. Supportive Care in Cancer 2010;18(6):667-77.
Gullett {published data only}
  • Gullett NP, Mazurak VC, Hebbar G, Ziegler TR. Nutritional Interventions for cancer-induced cachexia. Current Problems in Cancer 2011;35:58-90.
Hanson 2011 {published data only}
Haren 2006 {published data only}
Hellerstein 1990 {published data only}
  • Hellerstein MK, Kahn J, Mudie H, Viteri F. Current approach to the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated weight loss: pathophysiologic considerations and emerging management strategies. Seminars in Oncology 1990;17(6 Suppl 9):33.
Hoffman 1998 {published data only}
  • Hoffman KR, Green NJ. Megestrol acetate (Megace) to prevent cachexia and marasmus in elderly cancer patients (Meeting abstract no 233). ASCO Annual Meeting. 1998.
Inui 2002 {published data only}
Jatoi 2001 {published data only}
Kalantar-Zadeh 2008 {published data only}
  • Kalantar-Zadeh K, Anker SD, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC. Nutritional and anti-inflammatory interventions in chronic heart failure. American Journal of Cardiology 2008;101:89E-103E.
Karcic 2002 {published data only}
  • Karcic E, Philpot C, Morley JE. Treating malnutrition with megestrol acetate: literature review and review of our experience. Journal of Nutrition, Health, and Aging 2002;6:191-200.
Khojasteh 1996 {published data only}
  • Khojasteh A, Khojasteh S, Reynolds R. Combined nortriptyline + megestrol acetate regimen for cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome [abstract]. Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 1996;15:451.
Krznaric 2007 {published data only}
  • Krznaric Z, Juretic A, Samija M, Dintinjana RD, Vrdoljak E, Samarzija M, et al. Croatian guidelines for use of eicosapentaenoic acid and megestrol acetate in cancer cachexia syndrome [Croatian]. Lijecnicki Vjesnik 2007;129:381-6.
Kumar 2010 {published data only}
  • Kumar NB, Kazi A, Smith T, Crocker T, Yu D, Reich RR, et al. Cancer cachexia: traditional therapies and novel molecular mechanism-based approaches to treatment. Current Treatment Options in Oncology 2010;11:107-17.
Lai 1994 {published data only}
  • Lai YL, Fang FM, Yeh CY. Management of anorexic patients in radiotherapy: a prospective randomized comparison of megestrol and prednisolone. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1994;9:265-8.
Lelli 2003 {published data only}
  • Lelli G, Montanari M, Gilli G, Scapoli D, Antonietti C, Scapoli D. Treatment of the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a critical reappraisal. Journal of Chemotherapy 2003;15:220-5.
Lesniak 2008 {published data only}
  • Lesniak W, Bala M, Jaeschke R, Krzakowski M. Effects of megestrol acetate in patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome--a systematic review and meta-analysis. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej 2008;118:636-44.
Loprinzi 1992 {published data only}
Loprinzi 1992a {published data only}
  • Loprinzi CL, Johnson PA, Jensen M. Megestrol acetate for anorexia and cachexia. Oncology 1992;49 Suppl 2:46-9.
Loprinzi 1993 {published data only}
  • Loprinzi CL, Schaid DJ, Dose AM, Burnham NL, Jensen MD. Body-composition changes in patients who gain weight while receiving megestrol acetate. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1993;11:152-4.
Loprinzi 1995 {published data only}
Mak 2007 {published data only}
Malone 2005 {published data only}
Maltoni 2001a {published data only}
  • Maltoni M, Nanni O, Scarpi E, Rossi D, Serra P, Amadori D. High-dose progestins for the treatment of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Annals of Oncology 2001;12:289-300.
Mantovani 1998a {published data only}
  • Mantovani G, Maccio A, Lai P, Massa E, Ghiani M, Santona MC. Cytokine involvement in cancer anorexia/cachexia: role of megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on cytokine downregulation and improvement of clinical symptoms. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis 1998;9:99-106.
Mantovani 2001 {published data only}
Mantovani 2008 {published data only}
  • Mantovani G, Macciò A, Madeddu C, Gramignano G, Serpe R, Massa E, et al. Randomized phase III clinical trial of five different arms of treatment for patients with cancer cachexia: interim results. Nutrition 2008;24:305-13.
Mantovani 2010 {published data only}
  • Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Serpe R, Massa E, Dessi M, et al. Randomized phase III clinical trial of five different arms of treatment in 332 patients with cancer cachexia. Oncologist 2010;15:200-11.
Marchand 2000 {published data only}
  • Marchand V, Baker SS. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of megestrol acetate in malnourished children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;31:264-9.
Mateen 2006 {published data only}
McHugh 2011 {published data only}
McMillan 1999 {published data only}
McQuellon 2002 {published data only}
  • McQuellon RP, Moose DB, Russell GB, Case LD, Greven K, Stevens M, et al. Supportive use of megestrol acetate (Megace) with head/neck and lung cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2002;52:1180-5.
Monfared 2009 {published data only}
Morán 1998 {published data only}
  • Morán S, Ortega R, Garcia G, Uribe M. Megestrol acetate improve appetite and induce anti-catabolic effect in post-hepatitis C cirrhotic patients. A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial [Abstract 80]. Hepatology 1998;28:609A.
Morley 2002 {published data only}
Mulligan 2007 {published data only}
  • Mulligan K, Zackin R, Von-Roenn JH, Chesney MA, Egorin MJ, Sattler FR, et al. Testosterone supplementation of megestrol therapy does not enhance lean tissue accrual in men with human immunodeficiency virus-associated weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2007;92:563-70.
Muss 1990 {published data only}
  • Muss HB, Case LD, Capizzi RL, Cooper MR, Cruz J, Jackson D, et al. High- versus standard-dose megestrol acetate in women with advanced breast cancer: a phase III trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1990;8:1797-805.
Navari 2010 {published data only}
  • Navari RM, Brenner MC. Treatment of cancer-related anorexia with olanzapine and megestrol acetate: a randomized trial. Supportive Care in Cancer 2010;18:951-6.
Nelson 2002 {published data only}
  • Nelson KA, Walsh D, Hussein M. A phase II study of low-dose megestrol acetate using twice-daily dosing for anorexia in nonhormonally dependent cancer. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care 2002;19:206-10.
Osoba 1994 {published data only}
  • Osoba D, Murray N, Gelmon K, Karsai H, Knowling MA, Shah A, et al. Phase II trial of megestrol in the supportive care of patients receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy. Oncology 1994;8:43-9.
Pardo 2003a {published data only}
  • Pardo J, Mena AM, Montsech L. Megestrol acetate for anorexia in lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. A randomized trial comparing the efficacy of two different doses in 130 patients [Abstract 3076]. Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2003;22:765.
Pardo 2006 {published data only}
  • Pardo J, Mena A, Monleon A, Macias V, Sole J, Hernandez M, et al. Reversal of anorexia with megestrol acetate (MA): impact on quality of life (QoL) in non-metastatic lung cancer patients (pts) undergoing radiation therapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006;24:18613.
Pascual 2004 {published data only}
  • Pascual Lopez A, Figuls M, Urrutia Cuchi G, Berenstein EG, Almenar Pasies B, Balcells Alegre M, et al. Systematic review of megestrol acetate in the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2004;27:360-9.
Pruthi 2007 {published data only}
  • Pruthi S, Boughey JC, Brandt KR, Degnim AC, Dy GK, Goetz MP, et al. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of breast cancer, part 2: Therapeutic considerations. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2007;82:1131-40.
Reuben 2005 {published data only}
Ross 2001 {published data only}
  • Ross DD, Alexander CS. Management of common symptoms in terminally ill patients: Part I. Fatigue, anorexia, cachexia, nausea and vomiting. American Family Physician 2001;64:807-14.
Rowland 1996 {published data only}
  • Rowland KM, Loprinzi CL. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of cisplatin and etoposide plus megestrol acetate/placebo in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1996;14:135-41.
Ruiz-Garcia 2002 {published data only}
  • Ruiz-Garcia V, Juan O, Perez Hoyos S, Peiro R, Ramon N, Rosero MA, et al. Megestrol acetate: a systematic review usefulness about the weight gain in neoplastic patients with cachexia. Medicina Clinica 2002;119:166-70.
Sanz-Ortiz 2004 {published data only}
Schacter 1989 {published data only}
Schmoll 1992a {published data only}
  • Schmoll E. Risks and benefits of various therapies for cancer anorexia. Oncology 1992;49 Suppl 2:43-5.
Simmons 2004 {published data only}
  • Simmons SF, Walker KA, Osterweil D. The effect of megestrol acetate on oral food and fluid intake in nursing home residents: a pilot study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2004;5:24-30.
Skarlos 1993 {published data only}
  • Skarlos DV, Fountzilas G, Pavlidis N, Beer M, Makrantonakis P, Aravantinos G, et al. Megestrol acetate in cancer patients with anorexia and weight loss. A Hellenic Co-operative Oncology Group (HeCOG) study. Acta Oncologica 1993;32:37-41.
Spaulding 1989 {published data only}
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Sullivan 2007 {published data only}
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Tchekmedyian 1990 {published data only}
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Tchekmedyian 1991 {published data only}
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Tchekmedyian 1993 {published data only}
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Tchekmedyian 1993a {published data only}
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Tchekmedyian 2006 {published data only}
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Thomas 2006 {published data only}
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Tisdale 1993 {published data only}
Tisdale 2006 {published data only}
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Tomiska 2003 {published data only}
  • Tomíska M, Tomisková M, Salajka F, Adam Z, Vorlícek J. Palliative treatment of cancer anorexia with oral suspension of megestrol acetate. Neoplasma 2003;50:227-33.
Vigano 1994 {published data only}
von Haehling 2009 {published data only}
Von Roenn 1994a {published data only}
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Vyzula 1997 {published data only}
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Westman 1999 {published data only}
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Yavuzsen 2005 {published data only}
Yeh 2004 {published data only}
Yeh 2006 {published data only}
Yeh 2007 {published data only}
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Yeh 2010 {published data only}
  • Yeh SS, Marandi M, Thode HC, Levine DM, Parker T, Dixon T, et al. Report of a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of megestrol acetate in elderly dialysis patients with cachexia. Journal of Renal Nutrition 2010; Vol. 20:52-62.
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References to other published versions of this review

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
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  4. References to other published versions of this review
Berenstein G 2005
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