Intervention Review

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Community-based interventions for the prevention of burns and scalds in children

  1. Cathy Turner1,
  2. Anneliese Spinks2,*,
  3. Roderick J McClure3,
  4. Jim Nixon4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 19 APR 2004

Assessed as up-to-date: 19 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004335.pub2


How to Cite

Turner C, Spinks A, McClure RJ, Nixon J. Community-based interventions for the prevention of burns and scalds in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004335. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004335.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Queensland, School of Nursing, Herston, Queensland, Australia

  2. 2

    Griffith University, School of Medicine, Meadowbrook, Queensland, Australia

  3. 3

    Monash University, Accident Research Centre, Victoria, Victoria, Australia

  4. 4

    University of Queensland, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Herston, Queensland, Australia

*Anneliese Spinks, School of Medicine, Griffith University, University Drive, Meadowbrook, Queensland, 4031, Australia. anneliese.spinks@csiro.au. a.spinks@griffith.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 19 APR 2004

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Characteristics of included studies [ordered by study ID]
Guyer 1989

MethodsControlled before-and-after study evaluating a community-based intervention


ParticipantsIntervention: nine cities in Massachusetts (total pop 139,810)

Control: five communities (total pop 146,866) matched on demographic characteristics


Interventions"Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program (SCIPP)" consisting of five individual intervention programmes targeting a range of injuries in children. The project was implemented from September 1980 to June 1982.
Burn and scald injuries were targeted by "Project Burn Prevention" curricula, an education campaign delivered through schools and the community.


OutcomesAge-specific injury rates for:
a) 12 months pre-intervention
b) 22 months during the intervention
(post-intervention period too brief to analyse)


Notes

MacKay 1982

MethodsControlled before-and-after study evaluating a community-based intervention


ParticipantsIntervention: two communities within the Boston Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) - Lynn (pop 78,000), and Quincy (pop 91,000)

Control 1: two communities within the Boston SMSA which received mass media education only - Salem and Saugus

Control 2: two communities within the Springfield SMSA - Holyoke and South Hadley


Interventions"Project Burn Prevention"
Education delivered from October 1977 to May 1978 through three channels:

  1. mass media (television, radio, newspapers) - implemented in Lynn, Quincy, Salem and Saugus
  2. schools - Lynn only
  3. community organisations - Quincy only


OutcomesBurn and scalds incidence and severity (from death records and hospital discharge summaries and emergency department logbooks of 19 hospitals) for the six communities for:
a) 4 years prior to intervention
b) 8 months during intervention
c) 12 months after the intervention


Notes

Peleg 2005

MethodsControlled before-and-after study comparing changes in injury rates in communities without and without burn and scald prevention campaigns


ParticipantsIntervention: 15 Israeli communities (13 Jewish, 2 non-Jewish)
(1998 population: 70200)

Control: 76 communities (35 Jewish, 41 non-Jewish)
(1998 population 211700)

Note - communities with an injury prevention campaign implemented prior to 1988 or which began in 2000 were excluded


InterventionsAny childhood injury prevention program with a burn/scald prevention component implemented during 1988 and 1989.


OutcomesBurn and scald injury rates retrieved from the Central Database of Hospitalizations.
Results are reported separately for infants and toddlers (0-4 years) and school-aged children (5-14 years).


Notes

Ytterstad 1995

MethodsControlled before-and-after study evaluating a community-based intervention


ParticipantsIntervention: Harstad, Norway (pop 22,000)

Control 1: Six municipalities surrounding Harstad

Control 2: Trondheim, Norway (pop 134, 000), located 1000 km from Harstad


Interventions"Harstad Injury Prevention Study" - WHO Safe Communities
Specific activities related to burn and scald injury included:
- promotion of child safety through local private and public organisations
- awareness raising through local media
- promotion of tap water thermostat setting at 55°C
- promotion of cooker safeguards
- public health counselling to increase parent vigilance
- promotion of parent skills in first aid


OutcomesBurns and scalds incidence measured by hospital-based injury recording system for:
a) baseline - 19.5 months pre-intervention)
b) for seven-year period during the intervention (reported in 1995)
c) for 10 year period during the intervention (reported in 1998)


Notes

 
Characteristics of excluded studies [ordered by study ID]

StudyReason for exclusion

Argenio 1996No control community used for comparison.

Ballesteros 2005No injury outcomes assessed.

Cagle 2006No control community used for comparison.

Clark 1992No control community used for comparison.

Corrarino 2000No injury outcomes assessed.

DiGuiseppi 2002Intervention targeted all ages - injury outcomes are not separated for paediatric population.

Eckelt 1985Not a community based intervention. No injury outcomes assessed.

Elberg 1987No control community used for comparison.

Erdmann 1991No control community used for comparison.

Fallat 1993No control community used for comparison.

Gorman 1985No injury outcomes assessed.

Grant 1992Not a community based intervention. No injury outcomes assessed.

Hammond 1990No injury outcomes assessed.

Harre 2000No injury outcomes assessed.

Heinle 1995Not a community based intervention. No injury outcomes assessed.

Hwang 2006No injury outcomes assessed.

Katcher 1987No injury outcomes assessed.

Macarthur 2003No injury outcomes assessed.

Maguina 2004No injury outcomes assessed.

Mallonee 2000Intervention targeted all ages - injury outcomes are not separated for paediatric population.

Mondozzi 2001Not a community based intervention. No injury outcomes assessed.

NSW Health 1998No control community used for comparison.

Schmeer 1986No injury outcomes assessed.

Shani 1998No control community used for comparison.

Sheller 1995No control community used for comparison.

Sheller 1998No control community used for comparison.

Sorensen 1976Not a community based intervention.

Varas 1988Not a community based intervention.
No injury outcomes assessed.

Victor 1988No injury outcomes assessed.

Wade 1990Not a community based intervention.
No injury outcomes assessed.

Waller 1993No injury outcomes assessed.

Webne 1989Not a community based intervention.
No injury outcomes assessed.

 
Table 1. Results: measures of association post versus pre-intervention

StudyResult TypeValueSignificance

Guyer 1989Odds Ratio1.2695% CI, 0.84 to 1.90

Mackay 1982Relative Risk0.990% CI, 0.80 to 1.10

Peleg 2005Relative Risk0.76P = 0.03

Ytterstad 1995Relative Risk0.49P = 0.04