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Exercise for depression

  1. Gary M Cooney1,
  2. Kerry Dwan2,
  3. Carolyn A Greig3,
  4. Debbie A Lawlor4,
  5. Jane Rimer5,
  6. Fiona R Waugh6,
  7. Marion McMurdo7,
  8. Gillian E Mead8,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group

Published Online: 12 SEP 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 13 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub6

How to Cite

Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M, Mead GE. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD004366. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub6.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal Edinburgh Hospital, NHS Lothian, Division of Psychiatry, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK

  2. 2

    University of Liverpool, Institute of Child Health, Liverpool, England, UK

  3. 3

    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

  4. 4

    University of Bristol, MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, Bristol, Avon, UK

  5. 5

    NHS Lothian, University Hospitals Division, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

  6. 6

    Victoria Hostpital Kirkcaldy, General Surgery, NHS Fife, Kirkcaldy, Fife, UK

  7. 7

    University of Dundee, Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, Division of Medical Sciences, Dundee, UK

  8. 8

    University of Edinburgh, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh, UK

*Gillian E Mead, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Room S1642, Royal Infirmary, Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 12 SEP 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Blumenthal 1999 {published data only}
  • Babyak M, Blumenthal JA, Herman S, Khatri P, Doraiswamy M, Moore K, et al. Exercise treatment for major depression: maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months. Psychosomatic Medicine 2000;62(5):633-8.
  • Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Moore KA, Craighead WE, Herman S, Khatri P, et al. Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999;159(19):2349-56.
  • Herman S, Blumenthal JA, Babyak M, Khatri P, Craighead WE, Krishnan KR, et al. Exercise therapy for depression in middle-aged and older adults: predictors of early dropout and treatment failure. Health Psychology 2002;21(6):533-63.
  • Khatri P, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Craighead WE, Herman S, Baldewitz T, et al. Effects of exercise training on cognitive functioning among depressed older men and women. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 2001;9:43-57.
Blumenthal 2007 {published data only}
  • Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Doraiswamy PM, Watkins L, Hoffman BM, Barbour KA, et al. Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine 2007;69(7):587-96.
  • Hoffman BM, Babyak MA, Craighead WE, Sherwood A, Doraiswamy PM, Coons MJ, et al. Exercise and pharmacotherapy in patients with major depression: one-year follow-up of the SMILE study. Psychosomatic Medicine 2011;73(2):127-33.
Blumenthal 2012a {published data only}
  • Blumenthal J, Sherwood A, Babyak M, Watkins L, Smith PJ, Hoffman B, et al. Exercise and pharmacological treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2012;60(12):1053-63.
  • Blumenthal JA, Sherwood A, Rogers SD, Babyak MA, Doraiswamy M, Watkins L, et al. Understanding prognostic benefits of exercise and antidepressant therapy for persons with depression and heart disease: the UPBEAT study-rationale, design, and methodological issues. Clinical Trials 2007;4:548.
Bonnet 2005 {published data only}
  • Bonnet LH. Effects of Aerobic Exercise in Combination with Cognitive Therapy on Self Reported Depression [dissertation]. Hempstead, NY: Hofstra University, 2005.
Brenes 2007 {published data only}
  • Brenes GA, Williamson JD, Messier SP, Rejeski WJ, Pahor M, Ip E, et al. Treatment of minor depression in older adults: a pilot study comparing sertraline and exercise. Aging and Mental Health 2007;11(1):61-8.
Chu 2008 {published data only}
  • Chu IH. Effect of Exercise Intensity During Aerobic Training on Depressive Symptoms in Initially Sedentary Depressed Women [dissertation]. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, 2008.
  • Chu IH, Buckworth J, Kirby TE, Emery CF. Effect of exercise intensity on depressive symptoms in women. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2009;2(1):37-43.
Doyne 1987 {published data only}
  • Doyne EJ, Ossip-Klein DJ, Bowman ED, Osborn KM, McDougall-Wilson IB, Neimeyer RA. Running versus weight lifting in the treatment of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1987;55(5):748-54.
  • Ossip-Klein DJ, Doyne EJ, Bowman ED, Osborn KM, McDougall-Wilson IB, Neimeyer RA. Effects of running or weight lifting on self-concept in clinically depressed women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1989;7(1):158-61.
Dunn 2005 {published data only}
  • Dunn AL, Trivedi MH. Exercise and depression: meeting standards to establish treatment efficacy. Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, 2005 March 2-5, Vancouver, Canada. McLean, VA: American Psychosomatic Society, 2005:A19.
  • Dunn AL, Trivedi MH, Kampert JB, Clark CG, Chambliss HO. Exercise treatment for depression: efficacy and dose response. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2005;28(1):1-8.
  • Dunn AL, Trivedi MH, Kampert JB, Clark CG, Chambliss HO. The DOSE study: a clinical trial to examine efficacy and dose response of exercise as a treatment for depression. Controlled Clinical Trials 2002;23:584-603.
  • Kitzman HE, Trivedi MH, Dunn AL, Galper DI, Kampert JB, Greer TL. The effect of exercise dose on quality of life in depressed adults. Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, 2005 March 2-5, Vancouver, Canada. McLean, VA: American Psychosomatic Society, 2005:A110.
Epstein 1986 {published data only}
  • Epstein D. Aerobic Activity Versus Group Cognitive Therapy: an Evaluative Study of Contrasting Interventions for the Alleviation of Clinical Depression [dissertation]. Reno: University of Nevada, 1986.
Fetsch 1979 {published data only}
  • Fetsch RJ. A comparison of the psychological effects of running and transactional analysis stroking for the relief of reactive depression in adults [thesis]. Dissertation Abstracts International 1980;40(10-B):4999.
Foley 2008 {published data only}
  • Foley LS, Prapavessis H, Osuch EA, De Pace JA, Murphy BA, Podolinsky NJ. An examination of potential mechanisms for exercise as a treatment for depression: a pilot study. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2008;1(2):69-73.
Fremont 1987 {published data only}
  • Fremont J. The Separate and Combined Effects of Cognitively Based Counseling and Aerobic Exercise for the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Depression [dissertation]. PA, USA: Pennsylvania State University, 1983.
  • Fremont J, Wilcoxon Craighead L. Aerobic exercise and cognitive therapy in the treatment of dysphoric moods. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1987;11:241-51.
Gary 2010 {published data only}
  • Gary RA, Dunbar SB, Higgins MK, Musselman DL, Smith AL. Combined exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy improves outcomes in patients with heart failure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2010;69(2):119-31.
Greist 1979 {published data only}
  • Greist JH, Klein MH, Eischens RR, Faris J, Gurman AS, Morgan WP. Running as a treatment for depression. Proceedings of the 131st Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 1978 May 8-12; Atlanta, GA. 1978.
  • Greist JH, Klein MH, Eischens RR, Faris J, Gurman AS, Morgan WP. Running as treatment for depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1979;20(1):41-54.
  • Greist JH, Klein MH, Eischens RR, Faris J, Gurman AS, Morgan WP. Running through your mind. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1978;22(4):259-94.
Hemat-Far 2012 {published data only}
  • Hemat-Far A, Shahsavari A, Mousavi SR. Effects of selected aerobic exercises on the depression and concentrations of plasma serotonin in the depressed female students aged 18 to 25. Journal of Applied Research 2012;12(1):47-52.
Hess-Homeier 1981 {published data only}
  • Hess-Homeier MJ. A Comparison of Beck's Cognitive Therapy and Jogging as Treatments for Depression [dissertation]. Missoula: University of Montana, 1981.
Hoffman 2010 {published data only}
  • Hoffman JM, Bell KR, Powell JM, Behr J, Dunn EC, Dikmen S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of exercise to improve mood after traumatic brain injury. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2010;2:911-9.
  • Wise ER, Hoffman JM, Powell JM, Bombadier CH, Bell KR. Benefits of exercise maintenance after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2012;93(8):1319-23.
Klein 1985 {published data only}
  • Klein MH, Greist JH, Gurman RA, Neimeyer RA, Lesser DP, Bushnell NJ. A comparative outcome study of group psychotherapy vs. exercise treatments for depression. International Journal of Mental Health 1985;13:148-77.
Knubben 2007 {published data only}
  • Knubben K, Reischies FM, Adli M, Schlattmann P, Bauer M, Dimeo F. A randomised controlled study on the effects of a short-term endurance training programme in patients with major depression. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007;41:29-33.
Krogh 2009 {published data only}
  • Krogh J, Nordentoft M, Mohammad-Nezhad M, Westrin A. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 2010;125:189-97.
  • Krogh J, Petersen L, Timmermann M, Saltin B, Nordentoft M. Design paper: The DEMO trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of aerobic versus non-aerobic versus relaxation training for patients with light to moderate depression [NCT00103415]. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2007;28(1):79-89.
  • Krogh J, Saltin B, Gluud C, Nordentoft M. The DEMO Trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of strength versus aerobic versus relaxation training for patients with mild to moderate depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2009;70(6):790-800.
Martinsen 1985 {published data only}
Mather 2002 {published data only}
  • Mather AS, Rodrigues C, Guthrie MF, McHarg AM, Reid IC, McMurdo MET. Effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in older adults with poorly responsive depressive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 2002;180:411-5.
McCann 1984 {published data only}
McNeil 1991 {published data only}
Mota-Pereira 2011 {published data only}
  • Mota-Pereira J, Silverio J, Carvalho S, Ribiero JC, Fonte D, Ramos J. Moderate exercise improves depression parameters in treatment-resistant patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2011;45:1005-11.
Mutrie 1988 {published data only}
  • Mutrie N. Exercise as a Treatment for Depression within a National Health Service [dissertation]. PA, USA: Pennsylvania State University, 1986.
  • Mutrie N. Exercise as a treatment for moderate depression in the UK National Health Service [abstract]. Proceedings of Sport, Health Psychology and Exercise Symposium, Sports Council and Health Education Authority, London 1988:96-105.
Nabkasorn 2005 {published data only}
  • Nabkasorn C, Miyai N, Sootmongkol A, Junprasert S, Yamamoto H, Arita M, et al. Effects of physical exercise on depression, neuroendocrine stress hormones and physiological fitness in adolescent females with depressive symptoms. European Journal of Public Health 2005;16:179-84.
Orth 1979 {published data only}
  • Orth DK. Clinical Treatments for Depression [dissertation]. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University, 1979.
Pilu 2007 {published data only}
  • Carta MG, Hardoy MC, Pilu A, Sorba M, Floris AL, Mannu FA, et al. Improving physical quality of life with group physical activity in the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 2008;4:1.
  • Pilu A, Sorba M, Hardoy MC, Floris AL, Mannu F, Seruis ML, et al. Efficacy of physical activity in the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorders: preliminary results. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 2007;3(8):doi:10.1186/1745-0179-3-8.
Pinchasov 2000 {published data only}
  • Pinchasov BB, Shurgaja AM, Grischin OV, Putilov AA. Mood and energy regulation in seasonal and non-seasonal depression before and after midday treatment with physical exercise or bright light. Psychiatry Research 2000;94:29-42.
Reuter 1984 {published data only}
  • Reuter M, Mutrie N, Harris DV. Running as an adjunct to counseling in the treatment of depression [unpublished manuscript]. Pennsylvania State University, 1984.
Schuch 2011 {published data only}
  • Schuch FB, Vasconcelos-Moreno MP, Borowsky C, Fleck MP. Exercise and severe depression: preliminary results of an add-on study. Journal of Affective Disorders 2011;133:615-8.
Setaro 1985 {published data only}
  • Setaro JL. Aerobic Exercise and Group Counseling in the Treatment of Anxiety and Depression [dissertation]. Maryland: University of Baltimore, 1985.
Shahidi 2011 {published data only}
  • Shahidi M. Reply to the letter to the editor re Shahidi M, Mojtahed A, Modabbernia a, et al. 2011. Laughter yoga versus group exercise program in elderly depressed women: A randomized controlled trial. Int j geriatr psychiatr 26: 322-327. First things first! Caveats in research on "laughter yoga". International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2012;27(8):875-6.
  • Shahidi M, Mojtahed A, Modabbernia A, Mojtahed M, Shafiabady A, Delavar A, et al. Laughter yoga versus group exercise program in elderly depressed women: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2011;26(3):322-7.
Sims 2009 {published data only}
Singh 1997 {published data only}
Singh 2005 {published data only}
  • Singh NA, Stavrions TM, Scarbek Y, Galambos G, Liber C, Fiatorone Singh MA. A randomised controlled trial of high versus low intensity weight training versus general practitioner care for clinical depression in older adults. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2005;60A:768-76.
Veale 1992 {published data only}
  • Veale D, Le Fevre K, Pantelis C, De Souza V, Mann A, Sargeant A. Aerobic exercise in the adjunctive treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1992;85(9):541-4.
Williams 2008 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Abascal 2008 {published data only}
  • Abascal L. The Effect of Depression and Adherence in a Dietary and Physical Activity Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults [dissertation]. University of California, San Diego and San Diego State University 2008.
Akandere 2011 {published data only}
  • Ankandere M, Demir B. The effect of dance over depression. Collegium Antropologicum 2011;35(3):651-6.
Annesi 2010 {published data only}
  • Annesi JJ, Gorjala S. Association of reduction in waist circumference with normalization of mood in obese women initiating exercise supported by the Coach Approach protocol. Southern Medical Journal 2010;103(6):517-21.
Arcos-Carmona 2011 {published data only}
  • Arcos-Carmona IM, Castro-Sanchez AM, Mataran-Penarrocha GA, Gutierrez-Rubio AB, Ramos-Gonzalez E, Moreno-Lorenzo C. Effects of aerobic exericise program and relaxation techniques on anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia: A randomised controlled trial. Medicina Clinica 2011;137(9):398-401.
Armstrong 2003 {published data only}
Armstrong 2004 {published data only}
  • Armstrong K, Edwards H. The effectiveness of a pram-walking exercise programme in reducing depressive symptomatology for postnatal women. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2004;10:177-94.
Asbury 2009 {published data only}
  • Asbury EA, Kanji N, Ernst E, Barbir M, Collins P. Autogenic training to manage symptomology in women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries. Menopause 2009;16(1):60-5.
Attia 2012 {published data only}
  • Attia E. In the clinic eating disorders. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012;156(7):1-16.
Aylin 2009 {published data only}
  • Aylin K, Arzu D, Sabri S, Handan TE, Ridvan A. The effect of combined resistance and home-based walking exercises in type 2 diabetes patients. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries 2009;29(4):159-65.
Badger 2007 {published data only}
Baker 2006 {published data only}
Bartholomew 2005 {published data only}
  • Bartholomew JB, Morrison D, Ciccolo JT. Effects of acute exercise on mood and well-being in patients with major depressive disorder. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2005;37:2032-7.
Beffert 1993 {published data only}
  • Beffert JW. Aerobic Exercise as Treatment of Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents [dissertation]. University of Northern Colorado 1993.
Berke 2007 {published data only}
Berlin 2003 {published data only}
  • Berlin B, Moul DE, LePage JP, Mogge NL, Sellers DG. The effect of aquatic therapy interventions on patients with depression: a comparison study. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation 2003;12:7-13.
Biddle 1989 {published data only}
Blumenthal 2012b {published data only}
  • Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, O'Connor C, Keteyian S, Landzberg J, Howlett J, et al. Effects of exercise training on depressive symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. JAMA 2012;308(5):465-74.
Bodin 2004 {published data only}
  • Bodin T, Martinensen EW. Mood and self-efficacy during acute exercise in clinical depression. A randomised controlled study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 2004;26:623-33.
Bosch 2009 {published data only}
  • Bosch PR, Traustadóttir T, Howard P, Matt KS. Functional and physiological effects of yoga in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2009;15(4):24-31.
Bosscher 1993 {published data only}
  • Bosscher RJ. Running and mixed physical exercises with depressed psychiatric patients. International Journal of Sport Psychology 1993;24:170-84.
Bowden 2012 {published data only}
  • Bowden D, Gaudry C, An SC, Gruzelier J. A comparative randomised controlled trial of the effects of brain wave vibration training, Iyengar yoga, and mindfulness on mood, well-being, and salivary cortisol. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 Dec 15 [Epub ahead of print]. [DOI: 10.1155/2012/234713]
Boyll 1986 {published data only}
  • Boyll JF. The Effects of Active and Passive Electronic Muscle Stimulation on Self-concept, Anxiety and Depression [dissertation]. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University, 1986.
Brittle 2009 {published data only}
  • Brittle N, Patel S, Wright C, Baral S, Versfeld P, Sackley C. An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial of group exercise on mobility and depression in care home residents. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009;23:146-54.
Bromby 2010 {published data only}
  • Bromby S, Chandrasekara A. Study of the effect of physical activity on obese/overweight farm men and women on their psychological health and obesity related clinical co-morbidities. Available from (accessed May 2013). [: ACTRN12610000827033]
Broocks 1997 {published data only}
  • Broocks A, Meyer TF, George A, Pekrun G, Hillmer-Vogel U, Hajak G, et al. Value of sports in treatment of psychiatric illness. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie 1997;47(11):379-93.
Brown 1992 {published data only}
Burbach 1997 {published data only}
  • Burbach FR. The efficacy of physical activity interventions within mental health services: anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Mental Health 1997;6:543-66.
Burton 2009 {published data only}
  • Burton NW, Pakenham KI, Brown WJ. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: a cluster randomized trial of the READY program. BMC Public Health 2009;9:427.
Carney 1987 {published data only}
  • Carney RM, Templeton B, Hong BA, Harter HR, Hagberg JM, Schechtman KB, et al. Exercise training reduces depression and increases the performance of pleasant activities in haemodialysis patients. Nephron 1987;47:194-8.
Chalder 2012 {published data only}
  • Baxter H, Winder R, Chalder M, Wright C, Sherlock S, Haase A, et al. Physical activity as a treatment for depression: the TREAD randomised trial protocol. Trials 2010;11:105.
  • Chalder M, Wiles NJ, Campbell J, Hollinghurst SP, Haase AM, Taylor AH, et al. et al. Facilitated physical activity as a treatment for depressed adults: a randomised controlled clinical trial. BMJ 2012;344:e2758.
  • Chalder M, Wiles NJ, Campbell J, Hollinghurst SP, Searle A, Haase AM, et al. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a physical activity intervention as a treatment for depression: The treating depression with physical activity (TREAD) trial. Health Technology Assessment 2012;16(10):1-164.
  • Haase AM, Taylor AH, Fox KR, Thorp H, Lewis G. Rationale and development of the physical activity counselling intervention for a pragmatic TRial of Exercise and Depression in the UK (TREAD-UK). Mental Health and Physical Activity 2010;3(2):85-91.
  • Searle A, Calnan M, Lewis G, Campbell J, Taylor A, Turner K. Patients' views of physical activity as treatment for depression: a qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice 2011;61(585):149-56.
  • Searle A, Calnan M, Turner KM, Lawlor DA, Campbell J, Chalder M, et al. General Practitioners' beliefs about physical activity for managing depression in primary care [ISRCTN16900744;TREAD UK]. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2012;5(1):13-19.
Chan 2011 {published data only}
  • Chan AS, Cheung M-C, Tsui WJ, Sze SL, Shi D. Dejian mind-body intervention on depressive mood of community-dwelling adults: A randomised controlled trial. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011:473961.
Chen 2009 {published data only}
  • Chen KM, Chen MH, Chao HC, Hung HM, Lin HS, Li CH. Sleep quality, depression state, and health status of older adults after silver yoga exercises: cluster randomized trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2009;46(2):154-63.
Chou 2004 {published data only}
Chow 2012 {published data only}
Christensen 2012 {published data only}
  • Christensen SB, Dall CH, Prescott E, Pedersen SS, Gustafsson F. A high-intensity exercise program improves exercise capacity, self-perceived health, anxiety and depression in heart transplant recipients: A randomised, controlled trial. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 2012;31(1):106-7.
Ciocon 2003 {published data only}
  • Ciocon JO, Galindo-Ciocon D. Loneliness and depression in nursing home setting: the effect of a restorative program. International Psychogeriatrics [abstracts from The International Psychogeriatric Association 11th International Congress, Chicago, United States. 17-22 August 2003]. 2003; Vol. 15:S027-04.
Clegg 2011 {published data only}
  • Clegg A, Barber S, Young J, Forster A, Iliffe S. The home-based older people's exercise (HOPE) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials (Electronic Resource) 2011; Vol. 12, issue 143.
Courneya 2007 {published data only}
  • Courneya KS, Segal RJ, Gelmon K, Reid RD, Mackey JR, Friedenreich CM, et al. Six-month follow-up of patient-related outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of exercise training during breast cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2007;16(12):2572-8.
Dalton 1980 {published data only}
  • Dalton RB. Effects of Exercise and Vitamin B12 Supplementation on the Depression Scale Scores of a Wheelchair Confined Population [dissertation]. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, 1981.
Demiralp 2011 {published data only}
  • Demiralp M, Oflaz F. The effect of relaxation training on symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with breast cancer. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin 2011;10(2):165-74.
Deslandes 2010 {published data only}
  • Deslandes AC, Morales H, Alves H, Pompeu FAMS, Silveira, H, Mouta, R, et al. Effect of aerobic training on EEG alpha asymmetry and depressive symptoms in the elderly: A 1-year follow-up study. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2010;43(6):585-92.
DeVaney 1991 {published data only}
  • DeVaney SB. Comparative Effects of Exercise Reduction and Relaxation Training on Type A Behaviour and Dysphoric Mood States in Habitual Aerobic Exercisers [dissertation]. Greensboro: University of North Carolina, 1991.
DiLorenzo 1999 {published data only}
Eby 1985 {published data only}
  • Eby JM. An Investigation into the Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety and Depression [dissertation]. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto, 1985.
Elavsky 2007 {published data only}
Emery 1990a {published data only}
Emery 1990b {published data only}
Ersek 2008 {published data only}
  • Ersek M, Turner JA, Cain KC, Kemp CA. Results of a randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a chronic pain self-management group for older adults. Pain 2009;138(1):29-40.
Fitzsimmons 2001 {published data only}
  • Fitzsimmons S. Easy rider wheelchair biking: a nursing-recreation therapy clinical trial for the treatment of depression. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2001;27:14-23.
Fox 2007 {published data only}
  • Fox KR, Stathi A, McKenna J, Davis MG. Physical activity and mental well-being in older people participating in the better ageing project. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2007;100:591-602.
Gary 2007 {published data only}
  • Gary R, Lee SY. Physical function and quality of life in older women with diastolic heart failure: effects of a progressive walking program on sleep patterns. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing 2007;22:72-80.
Ghroubi 2009 {published data only}
  • Ghroubi S, Elleuch H, Chikh T, Kaffel N, Abid M, Elleuch MH. Physical training combined with dietary measures in the treatment of adult obesity. A comparison of two protocols. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2009;52:394-413.
Gottlieb 2009 {published data only}
  • Gottlieb SS, Kop WJ, Ellis SJ, Binkley P, Howlett J, O'Connor C, et al. Relation of depression to severity of illness in heart failure (from heart failure and a controlled trial investigating outcomes of exercise training [HF-ACTION]). American Journal of Cardiology 2009;103:1285-9.
Gusi 2008 {published data only}
  • Gusi N, Reyes MC, Gonzalez-Guerrero JL, Herrera E, Garcia JM. Cost-utility of a walking programme for moderately depressed, obese, or overweight elderly women in primary care: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2008;8:231.
Gustafsson 2009 {published data only}
  • Gustafsson G, Lira CM, Johansson J, Wisén A, Wohlfart, Ekman R, et al. The acute response of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a result of exercise in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Research 2009;169:244-8.
Gutierrez 2012 {published data only}
Haffmans 2006 {published data only}
Hannaford 1988 {published data only}
  • Hannaford CP, Harrell EH, Cox K. Psychophysiological effects of a running program on depression and anxiety in a psychiatric population. Psychological Record 1988;38:37-48.
Haugen 2007 {published data only}
  • Haugen TS, Stavem K. Rehabilitation in a warm versus a colder climate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention 2007;27:50-6.
Hedayati 2012 {published data only}
  • Hedayati SS, Yalamanchili, Finkelstein FO. A practical approach to the treatment of depression in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Kidney International 2012;81(3):247-55.
Hembree 2000 {published data only}
  • Hembree LD. Exercise and its Effect on Hopelessness and Depression in an Aging Female Population in Eastern Oklahoma [dissertation]. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas, 2001.
Herrera 1994 {published data only}
  • Herrera F. Efficacy of a psychological intervention for depression in patients on haemodialysis [Eficacia de la intervención psicológica en la depresión del paciente en hemodiálisis]. Psiquis 1994;15(4):175-8.
Hughes 1986 {published data only}
Hughes 2009 {published data only}
  • Hughes CW, Trivedi MH, Cleaver J, Greer TL, Emslie GJ, Kennard B, et al. DATE: Depressed adolescents treated with exercise: study rationale and design for a pilot study. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2009;2:76-85.
Immink 2011 {published data only}
  • Immink MA, Hillier SL. Yoga for chronic post-stroke hemiparesis: A pilot randomised controlled trial. International Journal of stroke. 2011; Vol. Abstract of the 22nd Stroke Society of Australasia Annual Scientific Meeting.
Jacobsen 2012 {published data only}
  • Jacobsen P, Phillips K, Jim H, Faul LA, Small B, Meade C, et al. Self-directed stress management and exercise training for cancer chemotherapy patients. Psycho-Oncology (abstracts of the 9th Annual Conference of the American Psychosocial Oncology Society). 2012; Vol. 21:17.
Johansson 2011 {published data only}
  • Johansson M, Hassmen P, Jouper J. Acute effects of Qigong exercise on mood and anxiety. Sport, Exercise and Performance Psychology 2011;15(2):199-207.
Karlsson 2007 {published data only}
  • Karlsson MR, Edström-Plüss C, Held C, Henriksson P, Billing E, Wallén NH. Effects of expanded cardiac rehabilitation on psychosocial status in coronary artery disease with focus on type D characteristics. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2007;30:253-61.
Kerr 2008 {published data only}
Kerse 2010 {published data only}
  • Kerse N, Hayman KJ, Moyes SA, Peri K, Robinson E, Dowell A, et al. Home-based activity program for older people with depressive symptoms: DeLLITE - a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Family Medicine 2010;8:214-23.
Kim 2004 {published data only}
  • Kim KB, Cohen SM, Oh HK, Sok SR. The effects of meridian exercise on anxiety, depression and self-esteem of female college students in Korea. Holistic Nursing Practice 2004;18:230-4.
Knapen 2003 {published data only}
  • Knapen J, Van De Vliet P, Van Coppenolle H, David A, Peuskens J, Knapen K, et al. The effectiveness of two psychomotor therapy programmes on physical fitness and physical concept in nonpsychotic psychiatric patients: a randomised controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;17:637-47.
Knapen 2006 {published data only}
  • Knapen J, Van Coppenolle H, Peuskens J, Pieters G, Knapen K. Comparison of changes in physical fitness, physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in non-psychotic psychiatric inpatients. The Concept of Self in Education, Family and Sports. Nova, 2006:Chapter 4.
Kubesh 2003 {published data only}
  • Kubesch S, Bretschneider V, Freudenmann R, Weiderhammer N, Lehmann M, Spitzer M, et al. Aerobic endurance exercise improves executive function in depressed patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2003;64:1005-12.
Kulcu 2007 {published data only}
  • Kulcu DG, Kurtais Y, Tur BS, Gülec S, Seckin B. The effect of cardiac rehabilitation on quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with congestive heart failure. A randomized controlled trial, short-term results. Europa Medicophysica 2007;43:489-97.
Kupecz 2001 {published data only}
  • Kupecz DB. Effects of a Structured Exercise Program in Older Veteran Patients [dissertation]. Greely, CO: University of Northern Colorado, 2001.
Labbe 1988 {published data only}
Lacombe 1988 {published data only}
  • Lacombe JB. The Role of Aerobic Conditioning and Psychosocial Factors in Mediating the Effect of Exercise on Depression [dissertation]. Hempstead, NY: Hofstra University, 1987.
Lai 2006 {published data only}
Latimer 2004 {published data only}
  • Latimer AE, Martin Ginis KA, Hicks AL, McCartney N. An examination of the mechanisms of exercise-induced change in psychological well-being among people with spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2004;41(5):643-51.
Lautenschlager 2008 {published data only}
  • Lautenschlager NT, Cox KL, Flicker L, Foster JK, Van Bockxmeer FM, Xiao J, et al. Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease. JAMA 2008;300(9):1027-37.
Lavretsky 2011 {published data only}
  • Lavretsky H, Alstein LL, Olmstead RE, Ercoli LM, Riparetti-Brown M, Cyr NS, et al. Complementary use of tai chi chih augments escitalopram treatment of geriatric depression: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2011;19(10):839-50.
Legrand 2009 {published data only}
  • Legrand FD, Mille CR. The effects of 60 minutes of supervised weekly walking (in a single vs. 3-5 session format) on depressive symptoms among older women: findings from a pilot randomized trial. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2009;2:71-5.
Leibold 2010 {published data only}
  • Leibold ML. Activites and adaptive strategies in late life depression: A qualitative study [thesis]. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2011; Vol. 71, issue 9-B:5425.
Leppämäki 2002 {published data only}
  • Leppämäki S, Haukka J, Lönnqvist J, Partonen T. Drop-out and mood improvement: a randomised controlled trial with light exposure and physical exercise. BMC Psychiatry 2004;4:22.
  • Leppämäki SJ, Partonen TT, Hurme J, Haukka JK, Lonnqvist JK. Randomised trial of the efficacy of bright-light exposure and aerobic exercise on depressive symptoms and serum lipids. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002;63(4):316-21.
Levendoglu 2004 {published data only}
  • Levendoğlu F, Altintepe L, Okudan N, Uğurlu H, Gökbel H, Tonbul Z, et al. A twelve exercise program improves the psychological status, quality of life and work capcity in hemodialysis patients. Journal of Nephrology 2004;17:826-32.
Lever-van Milligen 2012 {published data only}
  • Lever-van Milligen B. Mood treatment with antidepressants or running (MOTAR). June 2012. [: NTR 3460]
Levinger 2011 {published data only}
  • Levinger I, Selig S, Goodman C, Jerums G, Stewart A, Hare DL. Resistance training improves depressive symptoms in individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2011;25(8):2328-33.
Lin 2007 {published data only}
Littbrand 2011 {published data only}
  • Littbrand H, Carlsson M, Lundin-Olsson L, Lindelof N, Haglin L, Gustafson Y, et al. Effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on functional balance: Preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2011;59(7):1274-82.
Lolak 2008 {published data only}
  • Lolak S, Conors GL, Sherican MJ, Wise TN. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and depression in patients enrolled in an outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program. Psychotherapy and Pyschosomatics 2008;77(2):119-25.
Machado 2007 {published data only}
MacMahon 1988 {published data only}
  • MacMahon JR, Gross RT. Physical and psychological effects of aerobic exercise in delinquent adolescent males. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1988;142:1361-6.
Mailey 2010 {published data only}
  • Mailey EL, Wojcicki TR, Moti RW, Hu L, Strauser DR, Collins KD, et al. Internet-delivered physical activity intervention for college students with mental health disorders: a randomised pilot trial. Psychology Health and Medicine 2010;15(6):646-59.
Martin 2009 {published data only}
Martinsen 1988a {published data only}
  • Martinsen EW. Exercise intervention studies in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders. Proceedings of Sport, Health Psychology and Exercise Symposium. London: Sports Council and Health Education Authority, 1988:77-83.
Martinsen 1988b {published data only}
  • Martinsen EW. Comparing aerobic and non-aerobic forms of exercise in the treatment of clinical depression: a randomised trial. Proceedings of Sport, Health Psychology and Exercise Symposium. London: Sports Council and Health Education Authority, 1988:84-95.
Martinsen 1989c {published data only}
  • Martinsen EW. Aerobic exercise in the treatment of nonpsychotic mental disorders: an exploratory study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 1989;43:521-9.
Martinsen 1993 {published data only}
  • Martinsen EW. Therapeutic implications of exercise for clinically anxious and depressed patients. International Journal of Sport Psychology 1993;24:185-99.
Matthews 2011 {published data only}
McClure 2008 {published data only}
  • McClure JB, Catz SL, Ludman EJ, Richards J, Riggs K, Grothaus L. Feasibility and acceptability of a multiple risk factor intervention: the Step Up randomized pilot trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11(167):doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-167.
  • NCT00644995. Step up wellness program for depression, physical inactivity, and smoking. (http// (accessed 2008). [: NCT00644995]
Midtgaard 2011 {published data only}
  • Midtgaard J, Stage M, Moller T, Andersen C, Quist M, Rorth M, et al. Exercise may reduce depression but not anxiety in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Post-hoc analysis of data from the 'Body & Cancer' trial. Acta Oncologia 2011;50(5):660-9.
Milani 2007 {published data only}
Morey 2003 {published data only}
  • Morey MC, Dubbert PM, Doyle ME, MacAller H, Crowley GM, Kuchibhatla M, et al. From supervised to unsupervised exercise: factors associated with exercise adherence. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 2003;11(3):351-68.
Motl 2004 {published data only}
  • Motl RW, Konopack JF, McAuley E, Elavasky S, Jerome GJ, Marquez DX. Depressive symptoms among older adults: long-term reduction after a physical activity intervention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2005;28(4):384-94.
Mudge 2008 {published data only}
  • Mudge A. The impact of a disease management programme including a supervised exercise programme versus disease management alone on death, readmissions, depression and functional status on patients with a recent hospitalisation for heart failure. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 2008.
Munro 1997 {published data only}
Mutrie 2007 {published data only}
  • Mutrie N, Campbell AM, Whyte F, McConnachie A, Emslie C, Lee L, et al. Benefits of supervised group exercise programme for women being treated for early stage breast cancer: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007;334(7592):517.
NCT00416221 {published data only}
  • NCT00416221. Development and a pilot study of the PACEPRO exercise and mood management program in depressed patients on escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro). (accessed 2008). [: NCT 00416221]
NCT00546221 {published data only}
  • NCT00546221. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a preferred intensity exercise programme to improve physiological and associated psychological, social, and wellbeing outcomes of women living with depression. ( 2007. [: NCT00546221]
NCT00964054 {published data only}
  • NCT00964054. Adapting exercise treatment for depression to adolescents: a pilot study [NCT00964054]. (accessed 1 March 2013). [: NCT00964054]
NCT01152086 {published data only}
  • NCT01152086. The effects of regular mountain hiking on hopelessness in chronically suicidal patients. ( (accessed 1st March 2013). [: NCT01152086]
Neidig 1998 {published data only}
  • Neidig JL. Aerobic Exercise Training: Effects on Depressive Symptoms in HIV Infected Adults (Immune Deficiency, Exercise Training) [dissertation]. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, 1998.
  • Neidig JL, Smith BA, Brashers DE. Aerobic exercise training for depressive symptom management in adults living with HIV infection. Journal of Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2003;14(2):30-40.
  • Smith BA, Neidig JL, Nickel JT, Mitchell GL, Para MF, Fass RJ. Aerobic exercise: effects on parameters related to fatigue, dyspnea, weight and body composition in HIV-infected adults. AIDS 2001;15(6):693-701.
Netz 1994 {published data only}
  • Netz Y, Yaretzki A, Salganik I, Jacob T, Finkeltov B, Argov E. The effect of supervised physical activity on cognitive and affective state of geriatric and psychogeriatric in-patients. Clinical Gerontologist 1994;15(1):47-56.
Neuberger 2007 {published data only}
  • Neuberger GB, Aaronson LS, Gajewski B, Embretson SE, Cagle PE, Loudon JK, et al. Predictors of exercise and effects of exercise on symptoms, function, aerobic fitness, and disease outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2007;57(6):943-52.
Nguyen 2001 {published data only}
  • Nguyen HQ, Carrieri-Kohlman V, Demir-Deviren S, Stulbarg MS. Are the improvements in fatigue, vigor and depression sustained with a home walking programme?. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2001 International Conference; May 18-23; San Francisco, California. 2001.
O'Neil 2011 {published data only}
  • O'Neil A, Hawkes AL, Chan B, Sanderson K, Forbes A, Hollingsworth B, et al. A randomised, feasibility trial of a tele-health intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with depression ('Moodcare') : Study protocol. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2011 25th Feb [Epub ahead of print]; Vol. 11, issue 8. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-11-8]
Oeland 2010 {published data only}
  • Oeland AM, Laessoe U, Olesen AV, Munk-Jorgensen P. Impact of exercise on patients with depression and anxiety. Nordic Journal of Pyschiatry 2010;64(3):210-7.
Oretzky 2006 {published data only}
  • Oretzky S. The Effects of Yoga on Elevated Depressive and Somatic Symptoms in Young Adults [dissertation]. California School of Professional Psychology, Alliant International University 2006.
Ouzouni 2009 {published data only}
  • Ouzouni S, Kouidi E, Grekas D, Deligiannis A. Effect of intradialytic exercise training on health-related quality of life indices in haemodialysis patient. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009;23:53-63.
Pakkala 2008 {published data only}
  • Pakkala I, Read S, Leinonen R, Hirvensalo M, Lintunen T, Rantanen T. The effects of physical activity counseling on mood among 75- to 81-year-old people: a randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine 2008;46:412-8.
Palmer 2005 {published data only}
Passmore 2006 {published data only}
  • Passmore T, Lane S. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a therapeutic recreation intervention. American Journal of Recreation Therapy 2006;5(3):31-41.
Peacock 2006 {published data only}
  • Peacock J. A feasibility study to analyse the psychosocial benefits of green exercise (GE) in comparison with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with patients with mild to moderate depression. 2007.
Pelham 1993 {published data only}
  • Pelham TW, Compagna PD, Ritvo PG, Birnnie WA. The effects of exercise therapy on clients in a psychiatric rehabilitation program. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1993;16(4):75-83.
Penninx 2002 {published data only}
  • Ettinger WH Jr, Burns R, Messier SP, Applegate W, Rejeski WJ, Morgan T, et al. A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. The Fitness Arthritis and Seniors Trial (FAST). JAMA 1997;277(1):25-31.
  • Penninx BWJH, Rejeski WJ, Pandya J, Miller ME, Bari MD, Applegate WB, et al. Exercise and depressive symptoms: a comparison on aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2002;57(2):124-32.
Penttinen 2011 {published data only}
Perna 2010 {published data only}
  • Perna FM, Craft L, Freund KM, Skrinar G, Stone M, Kachnic L, et al. The effect of a cognitive behavioral exercise intervention on clinical depression in a multiethnic sample of women with breast cancer: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 2010;8(1):36-47.
Perri 1984 {published data only}
  • Perri S 2nd, Temper DL. The effects of an aerobic exercise programme on psychological variables in older adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 1984;20(3):1984-5.
Piette 2011 {published data only}
  • Piette JD, Valenstein M, Himle J, Duffy S, Torres T, Vogel M, et al. Clinical complexity and the effectiveness of an intervention for depressed diabetes patients. Chronic Illness 2011;7(4):267-78.
Raglin 1990 {published data only}
Rhodes 1980 {published data only}
  • Rhodes DL. Mens Sana Corpore Sano: A Study of the Effect of Jogging on Depression Anxiety and Self Concept [dissertation]. Durham, NC: Duke University, 1980.
Robledo Colonia 2012 {published data only}
  • Robledo Colonia AF, Sandoval Restrepo N, Mosquera Valderrama YF, Escobar Hurtado C, Ramirez Velez R. Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nulliparous women: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 2012;58(1):9-15.
Rofey 2008 {published data only}
  • Rofey DL, Szigethy EM, Noll RB, Dahl RE, Lobst E, Arslanian SA. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for physical and emotional disturbances in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2009;34(2):156-63.
Roshan 2011 {published data only}
  • Roshan VD, Pourasghar M, Mohammadian Z. The efficacy of intermittent walking in water on the rate of MHPG sulfate and the severity of depression. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2011;5(2):26-31.
Roth 1987 {published data only}
  • Roth DL, Holmes DS. Influence of aerobic exercise training and relaxation training on physical and psychologic health following stressful life events. Psychosomatic Medicine 1987;49(4):355-65.
Ruunsunen 2012 {published data only}
Salminen 2005 {published data only}
Salmon 2001 {published data only}
Sarsan 2006 {published data only}
Schwarz 2012 {published data only}
  • Schwarz MJ, Hennings A, Riemer S, Stapf T, Selberdinger V, Gil FP, et al. Effect of physical exercise on psychoneuruoimmunological parameters in patients with depression and patients with somatoform disorder. Neurology Psychiatry and Brain Research [abstracts of the 11th Psychoimmunology Expert Meeting]. 2012.
Sexton 1989 {published data only}
Silveira 2010 {published data only}
  • Silveira H, Deslandes AC, De Moraes H, Mouta R, Ribeiro P, Piedade R, et al. Effects of exercise on electrocencephalographic mean frequency in depressed elderly subjects. Neuropsychobiology 2010;61(3):141-7.
Sims 2006 {published data only}
  • Sims J, Hill K, Davidson S, Gunn J, Huang N. Exploring the feasibility of a community-based strength training program for older people with depressive symptoms and its impact on depressive symptoms. BMC Geriatrics 2006;6:18.
Skrinar 2005 {published data only}
  • Skrinar GS, Huxley NA, Hutchinson DS, Menninger E, Glew P. The role of a fitness intervention on people with serious psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2005;29(2):122-7.
Smith 2008 {published data only}
Sneider 2008 {published data only}
  • Sneider KL, Bodenlos JS, Ma Y, Olendzki B, Oleski J, Merriam P, et al. Design and methods for a randomised clinical trial treating comorbid obesity and major depressive disorder. BMC Pyschiatry 2008;8:77.
Songoygard 2012 {published data only}
Stein 1992 {published data only}
Stern 1983 {published data only}
Strömbeck 2007 {published data only}
Sung 2009 {published data only}
  • Sung K. The effects of 16-week group exercise program on physical function and mental health of elderly Korean women in long-term assisted living facility. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2009;24(5):344-51.
Tapps 2009 {published data only}
  • Tapps T. An Investigation into the Effects of Resistance Exercise Participation on the Perceived Depression Levels of Older Adults Residing in a Long-Term Care Facility Over Time [dissertation]. Oklahoma State University, 2009.
Taylor 1986 {published data only}
  • Taylor CB, Houston Miller N, Ahn DK, Haskell W, DeBusk RF. The effects of exercise training programmes on psychosocial improvement in uncomplicated postmyocardial infarction patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1986;30(5):581-7.
Tenorio 1986 {published data only}
  • Tenorio LM. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Symptoms of Depression in Women [dissertation]. Denton, TX: Texas Woman's University, 1986.
Thomson 2010 {published data only}
  • Thomson RL, Buckley JD, Lim SS, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Norman RJ, et al. Lifestyle management improves quality of life and depression in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertility and Sterility 2010;94(5):1812-6.
Tomas-Carus 2008 {published data only}
  • Tomas-Carus P, Gusi N, Häkkinen A, Häkkinen K, Leal A, Ortega-Alonso A. Eight months of physical training in warm water improves physical and mental health in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2008;40:248-52.
TREAD 2003 {published data only}
  • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Treatment With Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD). ( 2003. [: NCT00076258]
  • Trivedi MH, Greer TL, Grannemann BD, Church TS, Galper DI, Sunderajan P, et al. TREAD: TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression: study rationale and design. Clinical Trials 2006;3(3):291-305.
Trivedi 2011 {published data only}
  • Trivedi MH, Greer TL, Church TS, Carmody TJ, Grannemann BD, Galper DI, et al. Exercise as an augmentation treatment for nonremitted major depressive disorder: a randomized, parallel dose comparison. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2011;72(5):677-84.
Tsang 2003 {published data only}
Tsang 2006 {published data only}
Underwood 2013 {published data only}
  • Ellard DR,  Taylor SJ,  Parsons S,  Thorogood M. The OPERA trial: a protocol for the process evaluation of a randomised trial of an exercise intervention for older people in residential and nursing accommodation. Trials 2011;12:28.
  • Underwood M, Lamb SE, Eldridge S, Sheehan B, Slowther A, Spencer A, et al. Exercise for depression in care home residents: a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analysis (OPERA). Health Technology Assessment May 2013;17(18):1-281.
  • Underwood M, Lamb SE, Eldridge S, Sheehan B, Slowther A-M, Spencer A, et al. Exercise for depression in elderly residents of care homes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2013;382(9886):41-9.
  • Underwood M,  Eldridge S,  Lamb S,  Potter R,  Sheehan B,  Slowther AM,  et al. The OPERA trial: protocol for a randomised trial of an exercise intervention for older people in residential and nursing accommodation. Trials 2011;12:27.
Van der Merwe 2004 {published data only}
  • Van der Merwe I, Naude S. Exercise and depression: a treatment manual. Health SA Gesondheid 2004;9(4):28-41.
Van de Vliet 2003 {published data only}
  • Van de Vliet P, Onghena P, Knapen J, Fox KR, Probst M, Van Coppenolle H, et al. Assessing the additional impact of fitness training in depressed psychiatric patients receiving multifaceted treatment: a replicated single-subject design. Disability and Rehabilitation 2003;25(24):1344-53.
Vickers 2009 {published data only}
  • Vickers KS, Patten CA, Lewis BA, Clark MM, Ussher M, Ebbert JO, et al. Feasibility of an exercise counseling intervention for depressed women smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009;11(8):985-95.
Weinstein 2007 {published data only}
  • Weinstein AA, Deuster PA, Kop WJ. Heart rate variability as a predictor of negative mood symptoms induced by exercise withdrawal. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2007;39(4):735-41.
Weiss 1989 {published data only}
  • Weiss CR, Jamieson NB. Women, subjective depression, and water exercise. Health Care for Women International 1989;10(1):75-88.
White 2007 {published data only}
  • White PD, Sharpe MC, Chalder T, DeCesare JC, Walwyn R, PACE trial group. Protocol for the PACE trial: a randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy. BMC Neurology 2007;7:6.
Whitham 2011 {published data only}
  • Whitham EA, Thommi SB, Holtzman NS, Ostacher MM, El-Mallakh RS, Baldassano CF, et al. Rapid cycling and antidepressants: Data from a STEP-BD randomized clinical trial. Bipolar Disorders [abstracts from the 9th International Conference on Bipolar Disorder]. 2011; Vol. 13:s1.
Wieman 1980 {published data only}
  • Wieman JB. Running as a Treatment for Depression: A Theoretical Basis [dissertation]. Fresno, CA: California School of Professional Psychology, 1980.
Wilbur 2009 {published data only}
  • Wilbur J, Zenk S, Wang E, Oh A, McDevitt J, Block D, et al. Neighborhood characteristics, adherence to walking, and depressive symptoms in midlife African American women. Journal of Women's Health 2009;18(8):1201-10.
Williams 1992 {published data only}
  • Williams VL. Acute Mood and EEG Effects of Aerobic Exercise in Depressed and Non-Depressed Adults [dissertation]. Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama, 1992.
Wipfli 2008 {published data only}
  • Wipfli BM. Serotonin and Psychological Variables in the Relationship Between Exercise and Mental Health [dissertation]. Arizona State University, 2008.
Wipfli 2011 {published data only}

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aghakhani 2011 {published data only}
  • Aghakhani N, Sharif F, Khademvatan K, Rahbar N, Eghtedar S, Shojaei Motlagh V. The reduction in anxiety and depression by education of patients with myocardial infarction. International Cardiovascular Research Journal 2011;5(2):66-8.
DEMO II 2012 {published data only}
  • Krogh J, Videbech P, Thomsen C, Gluud C, Nordentoft M. DEMO-II Trial. Aerobic exercise versus stretching exercise in patients with major depression - a randomised clinical trial. PLoS ONE 2012;7(10):e48316.
Gotta 2012 {published data only}
  • Gotta G. Sex differences and the effects of exercise on depression and executive dysfunctioning in older adults (thesis). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2012;72(10-B):6385.
Martiny 2012 {published data only}
  • Martiny K, Refsgaard E, Lund V, Lunde M, Sorensen L, Thougaard B, et al. A 9-week randomised trial comparing a chronotherapeutic intervention (wake and light therapy) to exercise in major depressive disorder patients treated with duloxetine. Journal of Clinical Pyschiatry 2012;73(9):1234-42.
Murphy 2012 {published data only}
  • Murphy SM, Edwards RT, Williams N, Raisanen L, Moore G, Linck P, et al. An evaluation of the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales, UK: a randomised controlled trial of a public health policy initiative. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2012;66(8):745-53.
Pinniger 2012 {published data only}
  • Pinniger R, Brown RF, Thorsteinssona EB, McKinley P. Argentine tango dance compared to mindfulness meditation and a waiting-list control: a randomised trial for treating depression. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2012;20(6):377-84.
Sturm 2012 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
ACTRN12605000475640 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12605000475640. Does a home-based physical activity programme improve function and depressive symptomatology in older primary care patients: a randomised controlled trial. [Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry] (accessed 1 March 2013).
ACTRN12609000150246 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12609000150246. Promoting physical activity to improve the outcome of depression in later life (ACTIVEDEP). ) (accessed 1 March 2013.
ACTRN12612000094875 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12612000094875. A randomised controlled trial to improve depression in family carers through a physical activity intervention: IMPACCT Study. (accessed 1 March 2013).
CTR/2012/09/002985 {published data only}
  • CTR/2012/09/002985. Effect of sprint interval training on depression: a randomized controlled trial [Clinical Trials Registry - India]. (accessed 1 March 2013).
EFFORT D {published data only}
  • Kruisdijk FR, Hendriksen IJM, Tak ECPM, Beekman ATF, Hopman-Rock M. Effect of running therapy on depression (EFFORT-D). Design of a randomised controlled trial in adult patients. BMC Public Health 2012;12:50. [: NTR1894]
IRCT201205159763 {published data only}
  • IRCT201205159763N1. The effect of regular exercise on the depression of hemodialysis patients. (accessed 1 March 2013). [: IRCT201205159763N1]
IRCT2012061910003N1 {published data only}
  • IRCT2012061910003N1. A comparative study of the efficiency of group cognitive- behavioral therapy with aerobic exercise in treating of major depression. www/ (accessed 1 March 2013).
ISRCTN05673017 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN05673017. Psycho-education physical exercise effects: does treating subsyndromal depression improve depression- and diabetes-related outcomes? [PEPEE]. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT00103415 {published data only}
  • NCT00103415. Trial investigating the effect of different exercise forms on depression. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT00643695 {published data only}
  • NCT00643695. Efficacy of an Exercise Intervention to Decrease Depressive Symptoms in Veterans With Hepatitis C. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT00931814 {published data only}
  • NCT00931814. Effects of exercise on depression symptoms, physical function, and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01024790 {published data only}
  • NCT01024790. Exercise study to help patients who have type 2 diabetes and depression. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01383811 {published data only}
  • NCT01383811. Clinical and neuroendocrine/metabolic benefits of exercise in treatment resistant depression (TRD): a feasibility study. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01401569 {published data only}
  • NCT01401569. Efficacy of exercise and counseling intervention on relapse in smokers with depressive disorders STOB-ACTIV [NXR 01401569].
NCT01464463 {published data only}
  • NCT01464463. The impact of psychological interventions (with and without wxercise) on psychometric and immunological measures in patients With major depression. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01573130 {published data only}
  • NCT01573130. An internet-administered, therapist-supported physical exercise program for the treatment of depression. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01573728 {published data only}
  • NCT01573728. Role of exercise in depression in middle aged and older adults. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01619930 {published data only}
  • NCT01619930. The effects of behavioural activation and physical exercise on depression. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01696201 {published data only}
  • NCT01696201. Effect of a supervised exercise program during whole pregnancy on outcomes and level of depression. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01763983 {published data only}
  • NCT01763983. Effects of cognitive behaviour therapy and exercise on depression and cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01787201 {published data only}
  • NCT01787201. The effects of exercise on depression symptoms using levels of neurotransmitters and EEG as markers. (accessed 1 March 2013).
NCT01805479 {published data only}
  • NCT01805479. Exercise therapy in depressed traumatic brain injury survivors. (accessed 1 March 2013).
UMIN000001488 {published data only}
  • UMIN000001488. A randomised controlled trial of exercise class for older persons with mild depression. (accessed 1 March 2013).

Additional references

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  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Mead 2009
Rimer 2012