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Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children

  1. Vittorio Demicheli1,*,
  2. Alessandro Rivetti2,
  3. Maria Grazia Debalini1,
  4. Carlo Di Pietrantonj3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 15 FEB 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 MAY 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub3

How to Cite

Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini MG, Di Pietrantonj C. Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004407. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL AL, Servizio Regionale di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia, SSEpi-SeREMI - Cochrane Vaccines Field, Alessandria, Piemonte, Italy

  2. 2

    ASL CN2 Alba Bra, Dipartimento di Prevenzione - S.Pre.S.A.L, Alba, Piemonte, Italy

  3. 3

    Local Health Unit Alessandria- ASL AL, Regional Epidemiology Unit SeREMI, Alessandria, Alessandria, Italy

*Vittorio Demicheli, Servizio Regionale di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia, SSEpi-SeREMI - Cochrane Vaccines Field, Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL AL, Via Venezia 6, Alessandria, Piemonte, 15121, Italy.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions), comment added to review
  2. Published Online: 15 FEB 2012



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ahlgren 2009a {published data only}
Ahlgren 2009b {published data only}
  • Ahlgren C, Toren K, Oden A, Andersen O. A population-based case-control study on viral infections and vaccinations and subsequent multiple sclerosis risk. European Journal of Epidemiology 2009;24(9):541-52.
Beck 1989 {published data only}
  • Beck M, Welsz-Malecek R, Mesko-Prejac M, Radman V, Juzbasic M, Rajninger-Miholic M, et al. Mumps vaccine L-Zagreb, prepared in chick fibroblasts. I. Production and field trials. Journal of Biological Standards 1989;17(1):85-90.
Benjamin 1992 {published data only}
Bertuola 2010 {published data only}
  • Bertuola F, Morando C, Menniti-Ippolito F, Da Cas R, Capuano A, Perilongo G, et al. Association between drug and vaccine use and acute immune thrombocytopenia in childhood: a case-control study in Italy. Drug Safety 2010;33(1):65-72.
Black 1997 {published data only}
  • Black S, Shinefield H, Ray P, Lewis E, Chen R, Glasser J, et al. Risk of hospitalization because of aseptic meningitis after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in one- to two-year-old children: an analysis of the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) Project. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1997;16(5):500-3.
Black 2003 {published data only}
Bloom 1975 {published data only}
Bremner 2005 {published data only}
  • Bremner SA, Carey IM, DeWilde S, Richards N, Maier WC, Hilton SR, et al. Timing of routine immunisations and subsequent hay fever risk. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2005;90(6):567-73.
Bremner 2007 {published data only}
Castilla 2009a {published data only}
  • Castilla J, Garcia Cenoz M, Arriazu M, Fernandez-Alonso M, Martinez-Artola V, Etxeberria J, et al. Effectiveness of Jeryl Lynn-containing vaccine in Spanish children. Vaccine 2009;27(15):2089-93.
Ceyhan 2001 {published data only}
  • Ceyhan M, Kanra G, Erdem G, Kanra B. Immunogenicity and efficacy of one dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine at twelve months of age as compared to monovalent measles vaccination at nine months followed by MMR revaccination at fifteen months of age. Vaccine 2001;19(31):4473-8.
Chamot 1998 {published data only}
  • Chamot E, Toscani L, Egger P, Germann D, Bourquin C. Estimation of the efficacy of three strains of mumps vaccines during an epidemic of mumps in the Geneva canton (Switzerland). Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 1998;46(2):100-7.
da Cunha 2002 {published data only}
  • da Cunha SS, Rodrigues LC, Barreto ML, Dourado I. Outbreak of aseptic meningitis and mumps after mass vaccination with MMR vaccine using the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps strain. Vaccine 2002;20(7-8):1106-12.
Davis 2001 {published data only}
  • Davis RL, Kramarz P, Bohlke K, Benson P, Thompson RS, Mullooly J, et al. Measles-mumps-rubella and other measles-containing vaccines do not increase the risk for inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study from the Vaccine Safety Datalink project. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2001;155(3):354-9.
DeStefano 2002 {published data only}
DeStefano 2004 {published data only}
  • DeStefano F, Bhasin TK, Thompson WW, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Boyle C. Age at first measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children with autism and school-matched control subjects: a population-based study in metropolitan Atlanta. Pediatrics 2004;113(2):259-66.
Dourado 2000 {published data only}
  • Dourado I, Cunha S, Teixeira MG, Farrington CP, Melo A, Lucena R, et al. Outbreak of aseptic meningitis associated with mass vaccination with a Urabe-containing measles-mumps-rubella vaccine: implications for immunization programs. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000;151(5):524-30.
Dunlop 1989 {published data only}
Edees 1991 {published data only}
  • Edees S, Pullan CR, Hull D. A randomised single blind trial of a combined mumps measles rubella vaccine to evaluate serological response and reactions in the UK population. Public Health 1991;105(2):91-7.
Fombonne 2001 {published data only}
Fombonne 2006 {published data only}
  • Fombonne E, Zakarian R, Bennett A, Meng L, McLean-Heywood D. Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: prevalence and links with immunizations. Pediatrics 2006;118(1):e139-50.
France 2008 {published data only}
  • France EK, Glanz J, Xu S, Hambidge S, Yamasaki K, Black SB, et al. Risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella immunization in children. Pediatrics 2008;121(3):e687-92.
Freeman 1993 {published data only}
Giovanetti 2002 {published data only}
  • Giovanetti F, Laudani E, Marinaro L, Dogliani MG, Giachelli V, Giachino G, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of mumps immunization during an outbreak [Valutazione dell'efficacia della vaccinazione contro la parotite durante un'epidemia]. L'igiene Moderna 2002;117(3):201-9.
Goncalves 1998 {published data only}
  • Goncalves G, De Araujo A, Monteiro Cardoso ML. Outbreak of mumps associated with poor vaccine efficacy - Oporto Portugal 1996. Euro surveillance: European Communicable Disease Bulletin 1998;3(12):119-21.
Harling 2005 {published data only}
Honda 2005 {published data only}
Hviid 2004 {published data only}
Hviid 2008 {published data only}
Jonville-Bera 1996 {published data only}
  • Jonville-Bera AP, Autret E, Galy-Eyraud C, Hessel L. Thrombocytopenic purpura after measles, mumps and rubella vaccination: a retrospective survey by the French regional pharmacovigilance centres and Pasteur-Merieux serums et vaccins. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1996;15(1):44-8.
Lerman 1981 {published data only}
  • Lerman SJ, Bollinger M, Brunken JM. Clinical and serologic evaluation of measles, mumps, and rubella (HPV-77:DE-5 and RA 27/3) virus vaccines, singly and in combination. Pediatrics 1981;68(1):18-22.
Lopez Hernandez 2000 {published data only}
  • Lopez Hernandez B, Martin Velez RM, Roman Garcia C, Penalver Sanchez I, Lopez Rosique JA. An epidemic outbreak of mumps. A study of vaccinal efficacy [Brote epidemico de parotiditis. Estudio de la efectividad vacunal]. Atencion primaria/Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria 2000;25(3):148-52.
Ma 2005 {published data only}
Mackenzie 2006 {published data only}
  • Mackenzie DG, Craig G, Hallam NF, Moore J, Stevenson J. Mumps in a boarding school: description of an outbreak and control measures. British Journal of General Practice 2006;56(528):526-9.
Madsen 2002 {published data only}
  • Madsen KM, Hviid A, Vestergaard M, Schendel D, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, et al. A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. New England Journal of Medicine 2002;347(19):1477-82.
Makela 2002 {published data only}
Makino 1990 {published data only}
  • Makino S, Sasaki K, Nakayama T, Oka S, Urano T, Kimura M, et al. A new combined trivalent live measles (AIK-C strain), mumps (Hoshino strain), and rubella (Takahashi strain) vaccine. Findings in clinical and laboratory studies. American Journal of Diseases in Children 1990;144(8):905-10.
Marin 2006 {published data only}
  • Marin M, Nguyen HQ, Langidrik JR, Edwards R, Briand K, Papania MJ, et al. Measles transmission and vaccine effectiveness during a large outbreak on a densely populated island: implications for vaccination policy. Clinical infectious Diseases 2006;42(3):315-9.
Marolla 1998 {published data only}
  • Marolla F, Baviera G, Cacciapuoti, Calia V, Cannavavo R, Clemente A, et al. A field study on vaccine efficacy against mumps of three MMR vaccines [Efficacia verso la parotite di tre diversi vaccini a tripla componente : studio sul campo]. Rivista Italiana Di Pediatria 1998;24(3):466-72.
McKeever 2004 {published data only}
Miller 1989 {published data only}
  • Miller C, Miller E, Rowe K, Bowie C, Judd M, Walker D. Surveillance of symptoms following MMR vaccine in children. Practitioner 1989;233(1461):69-73.
Miller 2005 {published data only}
Miller 2007 {published data only}
  • Miller E, Andrews N, Stowe J, Grant A, Waight P, Taylor B. Risks of convulsion and aseptic meningitis following measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in the United Kingdom. American Journal of Epidemiology 2007;165(6):704-9.
Mrozek-Budzyn 2010 {published data only}
  • Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kieltyka A, Majewska R. Lack of association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism in children: a case-control study. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2010;29(5):397-400.
Ong 2005 {published data only}
Ong 2007 {published data only}
  • Ong G, Rasidah N, Wan S, Cutter J. Outbreak of measles in primary school students with high first dose MMR vaccination coverage. Singapore Medical Journal 2007;48(7):656-61.
Park 2004 {published data only}
Peltola 1986 {published data only}
Ray 2006 {published data only}
  • Ray P, Hayward J, Michelson D, Lewis E, Schwalbe J, Black S, et al. Encephalopathy after whole-cell pertussis or measles vaccination: lack of evidence for a causal association in a retrospective case-control study. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2006;25(9):768-73.
Robertson 1988 {published data only}
Schlegel 1999 {published data only}
Schwarz 1975 {published data only}
  • Schwarz AJ, Jackson JE, Ehrenkranz NJ, Ventura A, Schiff GM, Walters VW. Clinical evaluation of a new measles-mumps-rubella trivalent vaccine. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1975;129(12):1408-12.
Seagroatt 2005 {published data only}
Sharma 2010 {published data only}
Smeeth 2004 {published data only}
Stokes 1971 {published data only}
  • Stokes JJ, Weibel RE, Villarejos VM, Arguedas JA, Buynak EB, Hilleman MR. Trivalent combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Findings in clinical-laboratory studies. JAMA 1971;218(1):57-61.
Stowe 2009 {published data only}
Swartz 1974 {published data only}
Taylor 1999 {published data only}
  • Taylor B, Miller E, Farrington CP, Petropoulos MC, Favot-Mayaud I, Li J, et al. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Lancet 1999;353(9169):2026-9.
Uchiyama 2007 {published data only}
  • Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Inaba Y. MMR-vaccine and regression in autism spectrum disorders: negative results presented from Japan. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2007;37(2):210-7.
Vestergaard 2004 {published data only}
  • Vestergaard M, Hviid A, Madsen KM, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, Schendel D, et al. MMR vaccination and febrile seizures: evaluation of susceptible subgroups and long-term prognosis. JAMA 2004;292(3):351-7.
Ward 2007 {published data only}
  • Ward KN, Bryant NJ, Andrews NJ, Bowley JS, Ohrling A, Verity CM, et al. Risk of serious neurologic disease after immunization of young children in Britain and Ireland. Pediatrics 2007;120(2):314-21.
Weibel 1980 {published data only}
  • Weibel RE, Carlson AJ Jr, Villarejos VM, Buynak EB, McLean AA, Hilleman MR. Clinical and laboratory studies of combined live measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines using the RA 27/3 rubella virus. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1980;165(2):323-6.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Akobeng 1999 {published data only}
  • Akobeng AK, Thomas AG. Inflammatory bowel disease, autism, and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1999;28(3):351-2.
Andre 1984 {published data only}
Anonymous 1982 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Adverse effects of Virivac. Lakartidningen 1982;79(42):3822.
Anonymous 1997 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Vaccination: news on precautions, contraindications, and adverse reactions. Consultant 1997;37(3):756-60.
Anonymous 1999 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Incidence of measles vaccine-associated adverse events is low. Drugs & Therapy Perspectives 1999;14(11):13-6.
Anonymous 2004 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Childhood vaccination does not increase the incidence of type 1 diabetes. Evidence-based Healthcare and Public Health 2004;8(5):286-7.
Aozasa 1982 {published data only}
Asaria 2008 {published data only}
Autret 1996 {published data only}
  • Autret E, Jonville-Bera AP, Galy-Eyraud C, Hessel L. Thrombocytopenic purpura after isolated or combined vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella [Purpura thrombopenique apres vaccination isolee ou associee contre la rougeole, la rubeole et les oreillons]. Therapie 1996;51(6):677-80.
Bakker 2001 {published data only}
  • Bakker W, Mathias R. Mumps caused by an inadequately attenuated measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;12(3):144-8.
Balraj 1995 {published data only}
Beck 1991 {published data only}
Bedford 2010 {published data only}
Beeler 1996 {published data only}
  • Beeler J, Varricchio F, Wise R. Thrombocytopenia after immunization with measles vaccines: review of the vaccine adverse events reporting system (1990 to 1994). Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1996;15(1):88-90.
Benjamin 1991 {published data only}
Berger 1988a {published data only}
  • Berger R, Just M, Gluck R. Interference between strains in live virus vaccines. I: combined vaccination with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Journal of Biological Standardization 1988;16(4):269-73.
Berger 1988b {published data only}
  • Berger R, Just M. Interference between strains in live virus vaccines. II: Combined vaccination with varicella and measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Journal of Biological Standardization 1988;16(4):275-9.
Berlin 1983 {published data only}
Bernsen 2008 {published data only}
Bhargava 1995 {published data only}
  • Bhargava I, Chhaparwal BC, Phadke MA, Irani SF, Chhaparwal D, Dhorje S, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of indigenously produced MMR vaccine. Indian PediatrIcs 1995;32(9):983-8.
Bonanni 2005 {published data only}
  • Bonanni P, Bechini A, Pesavento G, Boccalini S, Tiscione E, Graziani G, et al. Implementation of the plan for elimination of measles and congenital rubella infection in Tuscany: evidence of progress towards phase II of measles control. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene 2005;46(3):111-7.
Borchardt 2007 {published data only}
Borgono 1973 {published data only}
  • Borgono JM, Greiber R, Solari G, Concha F, Carrillo B, Hilleman MR. A field trial of combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Satisfactory immunization with 188 children in Chile. Clinical Pediatrics 1973;12(3):170-2.
Boxall 2008 {published data only}
  • Boxall N, Kubinyiova M, Prikazsky V, Benes C, Castkova J. An increase in the number of mumps cases in the Czech Republic, 2005-2006. Euro surveillance: European Communicable Disease Bulletin 2008;13(16):18842 [pii].
Brockhoff 2010 {published data only}
  • Brockhoff HJ, Mollema L, Sonder GJ, Postema CA, van Binnendijk RS, Kohl RH, et al. Mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated student population, The Netherlands, 2004. Vaccine 2010;28(17):2932-6.
Bruno 1997 {published data only}
Buntain 1976 {published data only}
  • Buntain WL, Missall SR. Letter: Local subcutaneous atrophy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1976;130(3):335.
Buynak 1969 {published data only}
Cardenosa 2006 {published data only}
  • Cardenosa N, Dominguez A, Camps N, Martinez A, Torner N, Navas E, et al. Non-preventable mumps outbreaks in schoolchildren in Catalonia. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006;38(8):671-4.
Castilla 2009b {published data only}
  • Castilla J, Fernandez Alonso M, Garcia Cenoz M, Martinez Artola V, Inigo Pestana M, Rodrigo I, et al. Resurgence of mumps in the vaccine era. Factors involved in an outbreak in Navarre, Spain, 2006-2007 [Rebrote de parotiditis en la era vacunal. Factores implicados en un brote en Navarra, 2006-2007]. Medicina Clínica 2009;133(20):777-82.
Chang 1982 {published data only}
  • Chang HH. Immunisation problems in measles, rubella and mumps. Journal of the Korean Medical Association 1982;25(9):801-6.
Chen 1991 {published data only}
Chen 2000 {published data only}
  • Chen RT, Mootrey G, DeStefano F. Safety of routine childhood vaccinations. An epidemiological review. Paediatric Drugs 2000;2(4):273-90.
Cherian 2010 {published data only}
  • Cherian MP, Al-Kanani KA, Al Qahtani SS, Yesurathinam H, Mathew AA, Thomas VS, et al. The rising incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and the role of environmental factors - three decade experience in a primary care health center in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2010;23(7):685-95.
Chiodo 1992 {published data only}
  • Chiodo F. Effectiveness and security of the trivalent vaccine against measles, parotitis and rubella (MPR). Igiene Moderna 1992;97(Suppl 1):77-86.
Cinquetti 1994 {published data only}
  • Cinquetti S, Tonetto L, Portello A, Chermaz E, Sernagiotto F, De Noni R, et al. Adverse reactions following vaccination with two different types of measles mumps-rubella vaccine [Reazioni indesiderate a due diverse preparazioni di vaccine 'triplo' antimorbillo-parotite-rosolia]. Igiene Moderna 1994;101(6):793-800.
Contardi 1989 {published data only}
  • Contardi I. Clinical and immunologic valuation of a new triple measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Giornale di Malattie Infettive e Parassitarie 1989;41(11):1106-7.
Contardi 1992 {published data only}
  • Contardi I, Lusardi C, Cattaneo GG. A comparative study of 3 different types of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica 1992;14(4):421-4.
Coplan 2000 {published data only}
Coronado 2006 {published data only}
  • Coronado F, Musa N, El Tayeb el SA, Haithami S, Dabbagh A, Mahoney F, et al. Retrospective measles outbreak investigation: Sudan, 2004. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2006;52(5):329-34.
Cox 2009 {published data only}
  • Cox AR, McDowell S. A response to the article on the association between paracetamol/acetaminophen: use and autism by Stephen T. Schultz. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice 2009;13(1):123-4; author reply 124-5.
Curtale 2010 {published data only}
  • Curtale F, Perrelli F, Mantovani J, Atti MC, Filia A, Nicoletti L, et al. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007). Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection. BMC Infectious Diseases 2010;10:62.
Czajka 2009 {published data only}
  • Czajka H, Schuster V, Zepp F, Esposito S, Douha M, Willems P. A combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine (Priorix-Tetra): immunogenicity and safety profile. Vaccine 2009;27(47):6504-11.
D'Argenio 1998 {published data only}
  • D'Argenio P, Citarella A, Manfredi Selvaggi MT, Arigliani R, Casani A, et al. Field evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of vaccines against pertussis, measles, rubella and mumps. The Benevento and Compobasso Pediatrician's Network for the Control of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Vaccine 1998;16(8):818-22.
D'Souza 2000 {published data only}
  • D'Souza RM, Campbell-Lloyd S, Isaacs D, Gold M, Burgess M, Turnbull F, et al. Adverse events following immunisation associated with the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign. Communicable Diseases Intelligence 2000;24(2):27-33.
Dales 2001 {published data only}
Dallaire 2009 {published data only}
  • Dallaire F, De Serres G, Tremblay FW, Markowski F, Tipples G. Long-lasting measles outbreak affecting several unrelated networks of unvaccinated persons. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009;200(10):1602-5.
Dankova 1995 {published data only}
  • Dankova E, Domorazkova E, Skovrankova J, Vodickova M, Honzonova S, Stehlikova J, et al. Immune reactivity and risk of an undesirable response after vaccination. Ceskoslovenská Pediatrie 1995;50(9):515-9.
Dashefsky 1990 {published data only}
  • Dashefsky B, Wald E, Guerra N, Byers C. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of concurrent administration of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (meningococcal protein conjugate) with either measles-mumps-rubella vaccine or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and oral poliovirus vaccines in 14- to 23-month-old infants. Pediatrics 1990;85(4 Pt 2):682-9.
Davis 1997 {published data only}
  • Davis RL, Marcuse E, Black S, Shinefield H, Givens B, Schwalbe J, et al. MMR2 immunization at 4 to 5 years and 10 to 12 years of age: a comparison of adverse clinical events after immunization in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project. The Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Pediatrics 1997;100(5):767-71.
Dayan 2008a {published data only}
Deforest 1986 {published data only}
  • Deforest A, Long SS, Lischner HW. Safety and efficacy of simultaneous administration of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) with booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (TP) and trivalent oral poliovirus (OPV) vaccines. Developments in Biological Standardization 1986;65:111.
Deforest 1988 {published data only}
  • Deforest A, Long SS, Lischner HW, Girone JA, Clark JL, Srinivasan R, et al. Simultaneous administration of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine with booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and poliovirus vaccines. Pediatrics 1988;81(2):237-46.
De Laval 2010 {published data only}
DeStefano 2000 {published data only}
  • DeStefano F, Chen RT. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Journal of Pediatrics 2000;136(1):125-6.
Diaz-Ortega 2010 {published data only}
  • Diaz-Ortega JL, Bennett JV, Castaneda D, Vieyra JR, Valdespino-Gomez JL, de Castro JF. Successful seroresponses to measles and rubella following aerosolized Triviraten vaccine, but poor response to aerosolized mumps (Rubini) component: comparisons with injected MMR. Vaccine 2010;28(3):692-8.
Dobrosavljevic 1999 {published data only}
Dominguez 2008 {published data only}
  • Dominguez A, Torner N, Barrabeig I, Rovira A, Rius C, Cayla J, et al. Large outbreak of measles in a community with high vaccination coverage: implications for the vaccination schedule. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008;47(9):1143-9.
Doshi 2009 {published data only}
  • Doshi S, Khetsuriani N, Zakhashvili K, Baidoshvili L, Imnadze P, Uzicanin A. Ongoing measles and rubella transmission in Georgia, 2004-05: implications for the national and regional elimination efforts. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009;38(1):182-91.
Dos Santos 2002 {published data only}
  • Dos Santos BA, Ranieri TS, Bercini M, Schermann MT, Famer S, Mohrdieck R, et al. An evaluation of the adverse reaction potential of three measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccines. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 2002;12(4):240-6.
Dyer 2010a {published data only}
Dyer 2010b {published data only}
Ehrenkranz 1975 {published data only}
  • Ehrenkranz NJ, Ventura AK, Medler EM, Jackson JE, Kenny MT. Clinical evaluation of a new measles-mumps-rubella combined live virus vaccine in the Dominican Republic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1975;52(1):81-5.
Elphinstone 2000 {published data only}
Englund 1989 {published data only}
  • Englund JA, Suarez CS, Kelly J, Tate DY, Balfour HH Jr. Placebo-controlled trial of varicella vaccine given with or after measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Journal of Pediatrics 1989;114(1):37-44.
Farrington 1996 {published data only}
Farrington 2001 {published data only}
Fitzpatrick 2007 {published data only}
Fletcher 2001 {published data only}
  • Fletcher AP. MMR safety studies. Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews 2001;20(1):57-60.
Garrido L 1992 {published data only}
  • Garrido Lestache A, Martin Hernandez D. Triple virus vaccination: study of its efficacy and safety. Pediatrika 1992;12:42-7.
Geier 2004 {published data only}
  • Geier DA, Geier MR. A comparative evaluation of the effects of MMR immunization and mercury doses from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines on the population prevalence of autism. Medical Science Monitor 2004;10(3):PI33-9.
Gerber 2009 {published data only}
Goodson 2010 {published data only}
Griffin 1991 {published data only}
Grilli 1992 {published data only}
  • Grilli G, Cimini D, Vacca F. Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella: incidence of side effects using different vaccine strains. Giornale di Malattie Infettive e Parassitarie 1992;44(1):38-42.
Hilton 2009 {published data only}
Hindiyeh 2009 {published data only}
  • Hindiyeh MY, Aboudy Y, Wohoush M, Shulman LM, Ram D, Levin T, et al. Characterization of large mumps outbreak among vaccinated Palestinian refugees. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009;47(3):560-5.
Hornig 2008 {published data only}
  • Hornig M, Briese T, Buie T, Bauman ML, Lauwers G, Siemetzki U, et al. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study. PLoS ONE 2008;3(9):e3140.
Hu 2007 {published data only}
  • Hu JY, Tao LN, Shen J, Wang YC. Study on the epidemiological characteristics of rubella from 1990-2006 in Shanghai. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2007;28(7):645-8.
Hua 2009 {published data only}
  • Hua W, Izurieta HS, Slade B, Belay ED, Haber P, Tiernan R, et al. Kawasaki disease after vaccination: reports to the vaccine adverse event reporting system 1990-2007. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2009;28(11):943-7.
Huang 1990 {published data only}
  • Huang LM, Lee CY, Hsu CY, Huang SS, Kao CL, Wu FF. Effect of monovalent measles and trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccines at various ages and concurrent administration with hepatitis B vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1990;9(7):461-5.
Ipp 2003 {published data only}
  • Ipp M, Cohen E, Goldbach M, McArthur C. Pain response to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination at 12 months of age: a randomised clinical trial. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2003;39(6):A3.
Jiang 2009 {published data only}
  • Jiang Y, Pang H. Surveillance of adverse events following immunization of MMR in Changning District of Shanghai. Zhongguo Ji Hua Mian Yi 2009;15(6):496-7, 526.
Jones 1991 {published data only}
  • Jones AG, White JM, Begg NT. The impact of MMR vaccine on mumps infection in England and Wales. CDR (London, England: review) 1991;1(9):R93-6.
Just 1985 {published data only}
  • Just M, Berger R, Gluck R, Wegmann A. Field trial with a new human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) against measles, mumps and rubella [Feldversuch mit einer neuartigen Humandiploidzellvakzine (HDCV) gegen Masern, Mumps und Roteln]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1985;115(48):1727-30.
Just 1986 {published data only}
  • Just M, Berger R, Just V. Evaluation of a combined measles-mumps-rubella-chickenpox vaccine. Developments in Biological Standardization 1986;65:85-8.
Just 1987a {published data only}
  • Just M, Berger R. Immunogenicity of vaccines. A comparative study of a mumps-measles-rubella vaccine given with or without oral polio vaccine [Immunantwort auf Impstoffe. Vergleichende Studie mit Mumps- , Masern- , und Roeteln-Impfstoff allein oder zusammen mit Polio-Impfstoff appliziert]. Muenchner Medizinische Wochenschrift 1987;129(11):188-90.
Just 1987b {published data only}
  • Just M BR. Trivalent vaccines. A comparative study of the immunogenicity of two trivalent mumps-measles-rubella vaccines given with or without diphtheria-tetanus vaccine [Trivalente Impfstoffe. Vergleichende Studie zweier Mumps-Masern-Roeteln-Vakzinen in Kombination mit Diphtherie-Tetanus-Impfstoff]. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1987;129(23):446-7.
Kaaber 1990 {published data only}
  • Kaaber K, Samuelsson IS, Larsen SO. Reactions after MMR vaccination [Reaktioner efter MFR-vaccination]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1990;152(23):1672-6.
Karim 2002 {published data only}
Kaye 2001 {published data only}
Kazarian 1978 {published data only}
Khalil 2005 {published data only}
  • Khalil MK, Al-Mazrou YY, AlHowasi MN, Al-Jeffri M. Measles in Saudi Arabia: from control to elimination. Annals of Saudi Medicine 2005;25(4):324-8.
Kiepiela 1991 {published data only}
  • Kiepiela P, Coovadia HM, Loening WE, Coward P, Botha G, Hugo J, et al. Lack of efficacy of the standard potency Edmonston-Zagreb live, attenuated measles vaccine in African infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1991;69(2):221-7.
Kulkarni 2005 {published data only}
  • Kulkarni PS, Phadke MA, Jadhav SS, Kapre SV. No definitive evidence for L-Zagreb mumps strain associated aseptic meningitis: a review with special reference to the da Cunha study. Vaccine 2005;23(46-7):5286-8.
Kurtzke 1997 {published data only}
Lee 1998 {published data only}
Lee 2007 {published data only}
Lucena 2002 {published data only}
  • Lucena R, Gomes I, Nunes L, Cunha S, Dourado I, Teixeira Mda G, et al. Clinical and laboratory features of aseptic meningitis associated with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine [Caracteristicas clinicas e laboratoriais da meningite asseptica associada a vacina triplice viral]. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 2002;12(4):258-61.
Maekawa 1991 {published data only}
  • Maekawa K, Nozaki H, Fukushima K, Sugishita T, Kuriya N. Clinical analysis of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine meningitis - comparative study of mumps, mumps meningitis and MMR meningitis. Jikeikai Medical Journal 1991;38(4):361-8.
Maguire 1991 {published data only}
  • Maguire HC, Begg NT, Handford SG. Meningoencephalitis associated with MMR vaccine. CDR (London, England: review) 1991;1(6):R60-1.
Mantadakis 2010 {published data only}
  • Mantadakis E, Farmaki E, Buchanan GR. Thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: a systematic review of the literature and guidance for management. Journal of Pediatrics 2010;156(4):623-8.
Matter 1995 {published data only}
  • Matter L, Bally F, Germann D, Schopfer K. The incidence of rubella virus infections in Switzerland after the introduction of the MMR mass vaccination programme. European Journal of Epidemiology 1995;11(3):305-10.
Matter 1997 {published data only}
  • Matter L, Germann D, Bally F, Schopfer K. Age-stratified seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) virus infections in Switzerland after the introduction of MMR mass vaccination. European Journal of Epidemiology 1997;13(1):61-6.
Meissner 2004 {published data only}
Menniti-Ippolito 2007 {published data only}
  • Menniti-Ippolito F, Da Cas R, Bolli M, Capuano A, Saglioca L, Traversa G, et al. A multicenter study on drug safety in children [Studo multicentrico sulla sicurezza dei faraci in pediatria]. Quaderni ACP 2007;14(3):98-102.
Miller 1983 {published data only}
Miller 1993 {published data only}
Miller 2001 {published data only}
Miller 2002 {published data only}
Min 1991 {published data only}
  • Min C-H, Lee J-H, Cho M-K. A study of immunogenicity of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine prepared from human diploid cell. Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology 1991;26(5):487-91.
Minekawa 1974 {published data only}
  • Minekawa Y, Ueda S, Yamanishi K, Ogino T, Takahashi M. Studies on live rubella vaccine. V. Quantitative aspects of interference between rubella, measles and mumps viruses in their trivalent vaccine. Biken Journal 1974;17(4):161-7.
Mommers 2004 {published data only}
Mupere 2006 {published data only}
  • Mupere E, Karamagi C, Zirembuzi G, Grabowsky M, de Swart RL, Nanyunja M, et al. Measles vaccination effectiveness among children under 5 years of age in Kampala, Uganda. Vaccine 2006;24(19):4111-5.
Nalin 1999 {published data only}
  • Nalin D. Comparative study of reactogenicity and immunogenicity of new and established measles, mumps and rubella vaccines in healthy children (Infection 26). Infection 1999;27(2):134-5.
Nicoll 1998 {published data only}
Noble 2003 {published data only}
  • Noble KK, Miyasaka K. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(10):951-4; author reply 951-4.
O'Brien 1998 {published data only}
Ong 2006 {published data only}
  • Ong G, Hoon HB, Ong A, Chua LT, Kai CS, Tai GK. A 24-year review on the epidemiology and control of measles in Singapore, 1981-2004. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2006;37(1):96-101.
Patja 2000 {published data only}
  • Patja A, Davidkin I, Kurki T, Kallio MJ, Valle M, Peltola H. Serious adverse events after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during a fourteen-year prospective follow-up. Pediatic Infectious Disease Journal 2000;19(12):1127-34.
Patja 2001 {published data only}
Pekmezovic 2004 {published data only}
Peltola 1998 {published data only}
  • Peltola H, Patja A, Leinikki P, Valle M, Davidkin I, Paunio M. No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study. Lancet 1998;351(9112):1327-8.
Peltola 2007 {published data only}
  • Peltola H, Kulkarni PS, Kapre SV, Paunio M, Jadhav SS, Dhere RM. Mumps outbreaks in Canada and the United States: time for new thinking on mumps vaccines. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007;45(4):459-66.
Puvvada 1993 {published data only}
Rajantie 2007 {published data only}
Ramos-Alvarez 1976 {published data only}
  • Ramos-Alvarez M, Bessudo L, Kenny MT, Jackson JE, Schwarz AJ. Simultaneous administration at different dosages of attenuated live virus vaccines against measles, mumps and rubella [Administracion simultanea en diferentes dosificaciones de las vacunas de virus vivos atenuados contra el sarampion, parotiditis y rubeola]. Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México 1976;33(4):875-86.
Roost 2004 {published data only}
Sabra 1998 {published data only}
Saraswathy 2009 {published data only}
  • Saraswathy TS, Zahrin HN, Norhashmimi H, Az-Ulhusna A, Zainah S, Rohani J. Impact of a measles elimination strategy on measles incidence in Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2009;40(4):742-7.
Scarpa 1990 {published data only}
  • Scarpa B, Masia G, Contu P, Origa P, Sanna CM, Pintor C, et al. Trivalent vaccine against measles, rubella and parotitis: clinic and serological evaluation [Vaccino trivalente contro morbillo, rosolia e parotite : valutazione clinica e sierologica]. Giornale di Malattie Infettive e Parassitarie 1990;42(6):344-7.
Schaffzin 2007 {published data only}
Schettini 1989 {published data only}
  • Schettini F, Manzionna MM, De Mattia D, Amendola F, Di Bitonto G. Clinico-immunologic evaluation of a trivalent vaccine against measles, rubella and mumps [Valutazione clinico-immunologica di un vaccino trivalente contro morbillo, rosolia e parotite]. Minerva Pediatrica 1989;41(3):117-22.
Schettini 1990 {published data only}
  • Schettini F, Manzionna MM, De Mattia D, Amendola F, Di Bitonto G. The clinico-immunological evaluation of a bivalent vaccine against measles and rubella [Valutazione clinico-immunologica di un vaccino bivalente contro morbillo e rosolia]. Minerva Pediatrica 1990;42(12):531-6.
Schmid 2008 {published data only}
  • Schmid D, Holzmann H, Alfery C, Wallenko H, Popow-Kraupp TH, Allerberger F. Mumps outbreak in young adults following a festival in Austria, 2006. Euro Surveillance: European Communicable Disease Bulletin 2008;13(7):8042 [pii].
Schwarz 2010 {published data only}
  • Schwarz NG, Bernard H, Melnic A, Bucov V, Caterinciuc N, an der Heiden M, et al. Mumps outbreak in the Republic of Moldova, 2007-2008. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2010;29(8):703-6.
Schwarzer 1998 {published data only}
  • Schwarzer S, Reibel S, Lang AB, Struck MM, Finkel B, Gerike E, et al. Safety and characterization of the immune response engendered by two combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccines. Vaccine 1998;16(2-3):298-304.
Seagroatt 2003 {published data only}
Sharma 2004 {published data only}
  • Sharma MK, Bhatia V, Swami HM. Outbreak of measles amongst vaccinated children in a slum of Chandigarh. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 2004;58(2):47-53.
Shinefield 2002 {published data only}
  • Shinefield HR, Black SB, Staehle BO, Matthews H, Adelman T, Ensor K, et al. Vaccination with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and varicella vaccine: safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, persistence of antibody and duration of protection against varicella in healthy children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2002;21(6):555-61.
Spitzer 2001 {published data only}
  • Spitzer WO. A sixty day war of words: is MMR linked to autism?. Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews 2001;20(1):47-55.
Stetler 1985 {published data only}
  • Stetler HC, Mullen JR, Brennan JP, Orenstein WA, Bart KJ, Hinman AR. Adverse events following immunization with DTP vaccine. Developments in Biological Standardization 1985;61:411-21.
Stokes 1967 {published data only}
  • Stokes JJ. Studies on active immunization in measles, mumps and rubella. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 1967;121(5):314-28.
Stratton 1994 {published data only}
  • Stratton KR, Howe CJ, Johnston RB Jr. Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine. JAMA 1994;271(20):1602-5.
Sugiura 1982 {published data only}
  • Sugiura A, Ohtawara M, Hayami M, Hisiyama M, Shishido A, Kawana R, et al. Field trial of trivalent measles-rubella-mumps vaccine in Japan. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1982;146(5):709.
Ueda 1995 {published data only}
Vesikari 1979 {published data only}
  • Vesikari T, Elo O. Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella--together or separately? [Tuhkarokon, sikotaudin ja vihurirokon torjunta--yhdessa vai erikseen?]. Duodecim 1979;95(9):527-9.
Vesikari 1984 {published data only}
  • Vesikari T, Ala-Laurila EL, Heikkinen A, Terho A, D'Hondt E, Andre FE. Clinical trial of a new trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in young children. American Journal of Diseases in Children 1984;138(9):843-7.
Wakefield 1998 {published data only}
  • Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, Linnell J, Casson DM, Malik M, et al. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 1998;351(9103):637-41.
Wakefield 1999a {published data only}
Wakefield 1999b {published data only}
Wakefield 2000 {published data only}
  • Wakefield AJ, Montgomery SM. Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine: through a glass, darkly. Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews 2000;19(4):265-83; discussion 284-92.
Walters 1975 {published data only}
Wilson 2003 {published data only}
  • Wilson K, Mills E, Ross C, McGowan J, Jadad A. Association of autistic spectrum disorder and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2003;157(7):628-34.
Woyciechowska 1985 {published data only}
Yamashiro 1998 {published data only}
  • Yamashiro Y, Walker-Smith JA, Shimizu T, Oguchi S, Ohtsuka Y. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease in Japanese children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1998;26(2):238.
Yu 2007 {published data only}
  • Yu X, Wang S, Guan J, Mahemuti, Purhati, Gou A, et al. Analysis of the cause of increased measles incidence in Xinjiang, China in 2004. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2007;26(6):513-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Arenz 2005 {published data only}
  • Arenz S, Schmitt HJ, Tischer A, von Kries R. Effectiveness of measles vaccination after household exposure during a measles outbreak: a household contact study in Coburg, Bavaria. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2005;24(8):697-9.
Barlow 2001 {published data only}
  • Barlow WE, Davis RL, Glasser JW, Rhodes PH, Thompson RS, Mullooly JP, et al. The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;345(9):656-61.
Barrabeig 2011 {published data only}
  • Barrabeig I, Rovira A, Rius C, Munoz P, Soldevila N, Batalla J, et al. Effectiveness of measles vaccination for control of exposed children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2011;30(1):78-80.
Benke 2004 {published data only}
Cohen 2007 {published data only}
da Silveira 2002 {published data only}
  • da Silveira CM, Kmetzsch CI, Mohrdieck R, Sperb AF, Prevots DR. The risk of aseptic meningitis associated with the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain following mass vaccination with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31(5):978-82.
Dominguez 2010 {published data only}
Huang 2009 {published data only}
  • Huang AS, Cortese MM, Curns AT, Bitsko RH, Jordan HT, Soud F, et al. Risk factors for mumps at a university with a large mumps outbreak. Public Health Reports 2009;124(3):419-26.
Jick 2010 {published data only}
Mallol-Mesnard 2007 {published data only}
  • Mallol-Mesnard N, Menegaux F, Auvrignon A, Auclerc M-F, Bertrand Y, Nelken B, et al. Vaccination and the risk of childhood acute leukaemia: the ESCALE study (SFCE). International Journal of Epidemiology 2007;36(1):110-6.
Marin 2008 {published data only}
  • Marin M, Quinlisk P, Shimabukuro T, Sawhney C, Brown C, Lebaron CW. Mumps vaccination coverage and vaccine effectiveness in a large outbreak among college students - Iowa, 2006. Vaccine 2008;26(29-30):3601-7.
Schultz 2008 {published data only}
  • Schultz ST, Klonoff-Cohen HS, Wingard DL, Akshoomoff NA, Macera CA, Ji M. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey. Autism 2008;12(3):293-307.
Sheppeard 2009 {published data only}
  • Sheppeard V, Forssman B, Ferson MJ, Moreira C, Campbell-Lloyd S, Dwyer DE, et al. Vaccine failures and vaccine effectiveness in children during measles outbreaks in New South Wales, March-May 2006. Communicable Diseases Intelligence 2009;33(1):21-6.
So 2008 {published data only}
  • So JS, Go UY, Lee DH, Park KS, Lee JK. Epidemiological investigation of a measles outbreak in a preschool in Incheon, Korea, 2006. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2008;41(3):153-8.
Svanstrom 2010 {published data only}
Wichmann 2007 {published data only}
  • Wichmann O, Hellenbrand W, Sagebiel D, Santibanez S, Ahlemeyer G, Vogt G, et al. Large measles outbreak at a German public school, 2006. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2007;26(9):782-6.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
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  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Briss 1994
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CDC 1997
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Cortese 2008
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Dayan 2008b
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Farrington 2004
Flaherty 2011
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Hersh 1991
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Offit 2003
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Peltola 2000
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Plotkin 1973
Plotkin 1999a
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Redd 1999
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Smith 2008
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Steffenburg 1989
Strebel 2004
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The Editors of The Lancet 2010
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Vandermeulen 2004
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Watson 1998
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Demicheli 2005