Intervention Review

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Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections

  1. Geoffrey KP Spurling1,*,
  2. Chris B Del Mar2,
  3. Liz Dooley3,
  4. Ruth Foxlee4,
  5. Rebecca Farley1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 28 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004417.pub4


How to Cite

Spurling GKP, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R, Farley R. Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004417. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004417.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Queensland, Discipline of General Practice, Herston, Queensland, Australia

  2. 2

    Bond University, Centre for Research in Evidence-Based Practice (CREBP), Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

  3. 3

    Bond University, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

  4. 4

    University of York, Department of Health Sciences, York, UK

*Geoffrey KP Spurling, Discipline of General Practice, University of Queensland, Level 8, Health Sciences Building 16/910, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, 4029, Australia. g.spurling@uq.edu.au. geoffspurling@optusnet.com.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Arroll 2002a {published and unpublished data}
  • Arroll B, Kenealy T, Kerse N. Do delayed prescriptions reduce the use of antibiotics for the common cold? A single-blind controlled trial. Journal of Family Practice 2002;51(4):324-8.
Chao 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Chao J, Kunkov S, Reyes L, Lichten S, Crain E. Comparison of two approaches to observation therapy for acute otitis media in the emergency department. Pediatrics 2008;121(5):1352-6.
Dowell 2001 {published data only}
  • Dowell J, Pitkethy M, Bain J, Martin S. A randomised controlled trial of delayed antibiotic prescribing as a strategy for managing uncomplicated respiratory tract infection in primary care. British Journal of General Practice 2001;51(464):200-5.
El-Daher 1991 {published data only}
  • El-Daher N, Rawashedeh N, Al-Khalil I, Abu-ektaish F. Immediate versus delayed treatment of group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin V. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1991;10(2):126-30.
Gerber 1990 {published data only}
Little 1997 {published data only}
Little 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Little P, Gould C, Williamson I, Moore M, Warner G, Dunleavey J. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of two prescribing strategies for childhood acute otitis media. BMJ 2001;322(7282):336-42.
  • Little P, Moore M, Warner G, Dunleavy J, Williamson I. Longer term outcomes from a randomised trial of prescribing strategies in otitis media. British Journal of General Practice 2006;56(524):176-82.
Little 2005a {published data only}
  • Little P, Rumsby K, Kelly J, Watson L, Moore M, Warner G, et al. Information leaflet and antibiotic prescribing strategies for acute lower respiratory infection. JAMA 2005;293(24):3029-35.
  • Moore M, Little P, Rumsby K, Kelly J, Watson L, Warner G, et al. Effect of antibiotic prescribing strategies and an information leaflet on longer-term reconsultation for acute lower respiratory tract infection. British Journal of General Practice 2009;59(567):728-34.
Pichichero 1987 {published data only}
  • Pichichero M, Disney F, Talpey W, Green J, Francis A, Roghmann K, et al. Adverse and beneficial effects of immediate treatment of group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1987;6(7):635-43.
Spiro 2006 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Cates 1999 {published data only}
Fischer 2009 {published data only}
Newson 2009 {published data only}
  • Newson L. Delayed prescribing. Practice Nurse 2009;37(2):21.
Siegel 2003 {published data only}
  • Siegel R, Kiely M, Bien JP, Joseph EC, Davis JB, Mendel SG, et al. Treatment of otitis media with observation and a safety-net antibiotic prescription. Pediatrics 2003;112(3):527-31.
Vouloumanou 2009 {published data only}
  • Vouloumanou E, Karageorgopoulos D, Kazanti M, Kapaskelis A, Falagas M. Antibiotics versus placebo or watchful waiting for acute otitis media: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2009;64(1):16-24.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Arason 1996
  • Arason A, Kristinsson KG, Sigurdson JA, Stefansdottir G, Molstad S, Gudmundsson S. Do antimicrobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumoccci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study. BMJ 1996;313:387-91.
Arroll 2002b
  • Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Thomas D, Kerse N. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions: what are the experiences and attitudes of physicians and patients?. Journal of Family Practice 2002;51(11):954-9.
Arroll 2003a
  • Arroll B, Kenealy T, Kerse N. Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections? A systematic review. British Journal of General Practice 2003;53:871-7.
Arroll 2003b
Arroll 2010
  • Arroll B, Kenealy T. Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000247.pub2]
Berman 1997
  • Berman S, Byrns PJ, Bondy J, Smith PJ, Lezotte D. Otitis media-related antibiotic prescribing patterns, outcomes, and expenditures in a pediatric medicaid population. Pediatrics 1997;100(4):585-92.
Brook 1998
Butler 2001
Datta 2008
  • Datta M. Review: delayed or immediate prescriptions of antibiotics have similar clinical outcomes in respiratory infections. Evidence Based Medicine 2008;13(2):42.
Dickersin 1994
Everitt 2006
French 1950
  • French JRP. Field experiments: changing group productivity. In: Miller JG editor(s). Experiments in Social Process: A Symposium on Social Psychology. McGraw-Hill, 1950:82.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration [updated March 2011]. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
Johnson 2007
Kumar 2003
Legare 2007
  • Legare F, Labrecque M, Leblanc A, Thivierge R, Godin G, Laurier C, et al. Does training family physicians in shared decision making promote optimal use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections? Study protocol of a pilot clustered randomised controlled trial. BMC Family Practice 2007;8:65.
Levitt 2011
  • Levitt SD, List JA. Was there really a Hawthorne Effect at the Hawthorne Plant? An analysis of the original illumination experiments. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2011;3(1):224-38.
Little 2005b
Little 2006
  • Little P, Moore M, Warner G, Dunleavy J, Williamson I. Longer term outcomes from a randomised trial of prescribing strategies in otitis media. British Journal of General Practice 2006;56(524):176-82.
Macfarlane 1997
  • Macfarlane J, Holmes W, Macfarlane R, Britten N. Influence of patient's expectations on antibiotic management of acute lower respiratory tract illness in general practice: questionnaire study. BMJ 1997;315:1211-4.
Moore 2009
  • Moore M, Little P, Rumsby K, Kelly J, Watson L, Warner G, et al. Effect of antibiotic prescribing strategies and an information leaflet on longer-term reconsultation for acute lower respiratory tract infection. British Journal of General Practice 2009;59(567):728-34.
Niemela 1999
OMTG 2004
RevMan 5.2 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
Sharland 2005
  • Sharland M, Kendall H, Yeates D, Randall A, Hughes G, Glasziou P, et al. Antibiotic prescribing in general practice and hospital admissions for peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis and rheumatic fever in children: time trend analysis. BMJ 2005;331(7512):328-9.
Smith 2011
  • Smith SM, Fahey T, Smucny J, Becker LA. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000245.pub2]
Spinks 2011
  • Spinks A, Glasziou PP, Del Mar C. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 9. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000023.pub3]
Sung 2006
  • Sung L, Arroll J, Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Kerse N, Norris P. Antibiotic use for upper respiratory tract infections before and after a education campaign as reported by general practitioners in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal 2006;119(1233):U1956.
Tan 2008
Van Zuijlen 2001
  • Van Zuijlen DA, Schilder AG, Van Balen FA, Hoes AQ. National differences in incidences of acute mastoiditis: relationship to prescribing patterns for acute otitis media. Pediatric Infectious Disease 2001;20:140-4.
Venekamp 2013
  • Venekamp RP, Sanders S, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000219.pub3]
Verkatesum 1995
Worrall 2010
  • Worrall G, Kettle A, Graham W, Hutchinson J. Postdated versus usual delayed antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Canadian Family Physician 2010;56:1032-6.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Spurling 2007
Spurling 2010
  • Spurling GKP, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R. Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004417.pub2]