Intervention Review

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Home visits during pregnancy and after birth for women with an alcohol or drug problem

  1. Catherine Turnbull2,
  2. David A Osborn3,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 18 JAN 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 NOV 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004456.pub3


How to Cite

Turnbull C, Osborn DA. Home visits during pregnancy and after birth for women with an alcohol or drug problem. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004456. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004456.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 2

    Department of Health, South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  2. 3

    University of Sydney, Discipline of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Neonatology, Central Clinical School, Sydney, NSW, Australia

*David A Osborn, RPA Newborn Care, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia. david.osborn@email.cs.nsw.gov.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 18 JAN 2012

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Bartu 2006 {published data only}
  • Bartu A, Ludlow J, Doherty D, Sharp J. Listening to drug and alcohol families. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 8th Annual Congress; 2004 March 14-15; Sydney, Australia. 2004:PL9.
  • Bartu A, Sharp J, Ludlow J, Doherty DA. Postnatal home visiting for illicit drug-using mothers and their infants: a randomised controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2006;46:419-26.
Black 1994 {published data only}
  • Black MM, Nair P, Kight C, Wachtel R, Roby P, Schuler M. Parenting and early development among children of drug-abusing women: effects of home intervention. Pediatrics 1994;94:440-8.
Butz 1998 {published data only}
Dakof 2003 {published data only}
  • Dakof GA, Quille TJ, Tejeda MJ, Alberga LR, Bandstra E, Szapocznik J. Enrolling and retaining mothers of substance-exposed infants in drug abuse treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71:764-72.
Grant 1996 {published data only}
  • Ernst CC, Grant TM, Streissguth AP, Sampson P. Intervention with high-risk alcohol and drug abusing mothers. II. Three-year findings from the Seattle model of paraprofessional advocacy. Journal of Community Psychology 1999;27:19-38.
  • Grant TM, Ernst CC, Streissguth A, Stark K. Preventing alcohol and drug exposed births in Washington state: intervention findings from three parent-child assistance program site. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse 2005;31:471-90.
  • Grant TM, Ernst CC, Streissguth AP. An intervention with high-risk mothers who abuse alcohol and drugs: the Seattle Advocacy Model. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86:1816-7.
  • Grant TM, Ernst CC, Streissguth AP, Phipps P, Gendler B. When case management isn't enough: a model of paraprofessional advocacy for drug- and alcohol-abusing mothers. Journal of Case Management 1996;5:3-11.
  • Kartin D, Grant TM, Streissguth AP, Sampson PD, Ernst CC. Three-year developmental outcomes in children with prenatal alcohol and drug exposure. Pediatric Physical Therapy 2002;14:145-53.
Quinlivan 2000 {published data only}
  • Quinlivan JA, Box H, Cooke S, Evans SF. What happens to adolescent mothers (WHAM) - a randomised controlled trial of a home visiting intervention. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 4th Annual Congress; 2000 March 12-15; Brisbane, Australia. 2000:14.
  • Quinlivan JA, Box H, Evans SF. Postnatal home visits in teenage mothers: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:893-900.
Schuler 2000 {published data only}
  • Ackerman JP, Llorente AM, Black MM, Ackerman CS, Mayes LA, Nair P. The effect of prenatal drug exposure and caregiving context on children's performance on a task of sustained visual attention. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 2008;29:467-74.
  • Kettinger LA, Nair P, Schuler ME. Exposure to environmental risk factors and parenting attitudes among substance-abusing women. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2000;26:1-11.
  • Nair P, Black MM, Ackerman JP, Schuler ME, Keane VA. Children's cognitive-behavioral functioning at age 6 and 7: prenatal drug exposure and caregiving environment. Ambulatory Pediatrics 2008;8:154-62.
  • Nair P, Schuler ME, Black MM, Kettinger L, Harrington D. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development. Child Abuse & Neglect 2003;29:997-1017.
  • Nair P, Schuler ME, Kettinger L, Harrington D. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: parenting stress, child abuse potential, and development. Pediatric Research 2002;51:186A.
  • Schuler ME, Nair P, Black MM. Ongoing maternal drug use, parenting attitudes, and a home intervention: effects on mother-child interaction at 18 months. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2002;23:87-94.
  • Schuler ME, Nair P, Black MM, Kettinger L. Mother-infant interaction: effects of a home intervention and ongoing maternal drug use. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 2000;29:424-31.
  • Schuler ME, Nair P, Keane V. Developmental outcomes of drug-exposed children: effects of a home intervention and ongoing maternal drug use at 3 years. Pediatric Research 2002;51:190A.
  • Schuler ME, Nair P, Kettinger L. Drug-exposed infants and developmental outcome: effects of a home intervention and ongoing maternal drug use. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2003;157:133-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Ammerman 2004 {published data only}
  • Ammerman TR, Morrow AL, Putnam FW, Stevens J, Holleb LJ, Hulsmann JE, et al. Breastfeeding in first time mothers in home visitation. Pediatric Research 2004;55:196A.
Armstrong 1999 {published data only}
Barnes-Boyd 1995 {published data only}
Barnes-Boyd 1996 {published data only}
Belizan 1995 {published data only}
  • Belizan JM, Barros F, Langer A, Farnot U, Victora C, Villar J. Impact of health education during pregnancy on behavior and utilization of health resources. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;173:894-9.
Black 1995 {published data only}
  • Black MM, Dubowitz H, Hutcheson J, Berenson-Howard J, Starr RH Jr. A randomized clinical trial of home intervention for children with failure to thrive. Pediatrics 1995;95:807-14.
  • Hutcheson JJ, Black MM, Talley M, Dubowitz H, Howard JB, Starr RH Jr, et al. Risk status and home intervention among children with failure-to-thrive: follow-up at age 4. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1997;22:651-68.
Black 1997 {published data only}
Black 2001 {published data only}
Brayden 1993 {published data only}
  • Brayden RM, Altemeier WA, Dietrich MS, Tucker DD, Christensen MJ, McLaughlin FJ, et al. A prospective study of secondary prevention of child maltreatment. Journal of Pediatrics 1993;122:511-6.
Brooten 2001 {published data only}
  • Brooten D, Youngblut JM, Brown L, Finkler SA, Neff DF, Madigan E. A randomized trial of nurse specialist home care for women with high-risk pregnancies: outcomes and costs. American Journal of Managed Care 2001;7:793-803.
Brumfield 1996 {published data only}
  • Brumfield CG, Nelson KG, Stotser D, Yarbaugh D, Patterson P, Sprayberry NK. 24-hour mother-infant discharge with a follow-up home health visit: results in a selected medicaid population. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1996;88:544-8.
Burry 1999 {published data only}
Carroll 1995 {published data only}
  • Carroll KM, Chang G, Behr H, Clinton B, Kosten TR. Improving treatment outcome in pregnant, methadone-maintained women. Results from a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Addictions 1995;4:56-9.
Chang 1992 {published data only}
Chang 1999 {published data only}
Chang 2006 {published data only}
  • Chang G, McNamara TK, Orav EJ, Koby D, Lavigne A, Ludman B, et al. A brief intervention for prenatal alcohol use: results from a randomized trial of 304 couples. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of American Academy of Addiction Research. 2004:26.
  • Chang G, McNamara TK, Orav EJ, Koby D, Lavigne A, Ludman B, et al. Brief intervention for prenatal alcohol use: a randomized trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2005;105:991-8.
  • Chang G, McNamara TK, Orav EJ, Wilkins-Haug L. Brief intervention for prenatal alcohol use: the role of drinking goal selection. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2006;31:419-24.
Duggan 2000 {published data only}
  • Burrell L, Fuddy L, Sia C, McFarlane E, Duggan A. RCT of home visiting to prevent child abuse. Pediatric Research 2002;51:185A.
  • Duggan A, Fuddy L, Burrell L, Higman SM, McFarlane E, Windham A, et al. Randomized trial of a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse: impact in reducing parental risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect 2004;28:623-43.
  • Duggan A, Higman S, Fuddy L, McFarlane E, Sia C. RCT of home visiting: Impact in promoting a medical home for environmentally at-risk children. Pediatric Research 2002;51:184A.
  • Duggan A, McFarlane E, Fuddy L, Burrell L, Higman SM, Windham A, et al. Randomized trial of a statewide home visiting program: impact in preventing child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect 2004;28:597-622.
  • Duggan A, Windham A, McFarlane E, Fuddy L, Rohde C, Buchbinder S, et al. Hawaii's healthy start program of home visiting for at-risk families: evaluation of family identification, family engagement, and service delivery. Pediatrics 2000;105:250-9.
  • El-Kamary SS, Higman SM, Fuddy L, McFarlane E, Sia C, Duggan AK. Hawaii's healthy start home visiting program: determinants and impact of rapid repeat birth. Pediatrics 2004;114(3):e317-26.
  • Stone KE, Duggan AK, Sia C, Burell L. Can home visitation in early childhood reduce injuries?. Pediatric Research 2004;55:348A.
Fleming 2008 {published data only}
French 1998 {published data only}
  • French ED, Pituch M, Brandt J, Pohorecki S. Improving interactions between substance abusing mothers and their substance-exposed newborns. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 1998;27:262-9.
Giles 1989 {published data only}
Graham 1992 {published data only}
  • Graham AV, Frank SH, Zyzanski SJ, Kitson GC, Reeb KG. A clinical trial to reduce the rate of low birth weight in an inner-city black population. Family Medicine 1992;24:439-46.
Hankin 2003 {published data only}
  • Hankin J, Sokol R. Brief postpartum intervention protects previously born children from alcohol-related developmental delay [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2003;189(6):S148.
Johnson 1993 {published data only}
  • Fitzpatrick P, Molloy B, Johnson Z. Community mothers' programme: extension to the travelling community in Ireland. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1997;51:299-303.
  • Johnson Z, Howell F, Molloy B. Community mothers' programme: randomised controlled trial of non-professional intervention in parenting. BMJ 1993;306:1449-52.
  • Johnson Z, Molloy B, Scallan E, Fitzpatrick P, Rooney B, Keegan T, et al. Community mothers programme--seven year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of non-professional intervention in parenting. Journal of Public Health Medicine 2000;22:337-42.
King 2001 {published data only}
Kitzman 1997 {published data only}
  • Eckenrode J, Campa M, Luckey DW, Henderson CR Jr, Cole R, Kitzman H, et al. Long-term effects of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on the life course of youths: 19-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2010;164:9-15.
  • Holland ML, Kitzman H, Veazie P. The effects of stress on birth weight in low-income, unmarried black women. Womens Health Issues 2009;19:390-7.
  • Kitzman H, Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Hanks C, Cole R, Tatelbaum R, et al. Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1997;278:644-52.
  • Kitzman H, Olds DL, Sidora K, Henderson CR Jr, Hanks C, Cole R, et al. Enduring effects of nurse home visitation on maternal life course: a 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA 2000;283:1983-9.
  • Kitzman HJ, Olds DL, Cole RE, Hanks CA, Anson EA, Arcoleo KJ, et al. Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on children: follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2010;164:412-8.
  • Olds DL, Kitzman H, Hanks C, Cole R, Anson E, Sidora-Arcoleo K, et al. Effects of nurse home visiting on maternal and child functioning: age-9 follow-up of a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2007;120:e832-e845.
  • Olds DL, Kitzman HJ, Cole RE, Hanks CA, Arcoleo KJ, Anson EA, et al. Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on maternal life course and government spending: follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2010;164:419-24.
  • Sidora-Arcoleo K, Anson E, Lorber M, Cole R, Olds D, Kitzman H. Differential effects of a nurse home-visiting intervention on physically aggressive behavior in children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2010;25:35-45.
Koniak-Griffin 2000 {published data only}
  • Koniak-Griffin D, Anderson NL, Brecht ML, Verzemnieks I, Lesser J, Kim S. Public health nursing care for adolescent mothers: impact on infant health and selected maternal outcomes at 1 year postbirth. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 2002;30:44-54.
  • Koniak-Griffin D, Anderson NL, Verzemnieks I, Brecht ML. A public health nursing early intervention program for adolescent mothers: outcomes from pregnancy through 6 weeks postpartum. Nursing Research 2000;49:130-8.
  • Koniak-Griffin D, Verzemnieks IL, Anderson NL, Brecht ML, Lesser J, Kim S, et al. Nurse visitation for adolescent mothers: two-year infant health and maternal outcomes. Nursing Research 2003;52:127-36.
Marcenko 1994 {published data only}
Morrell 2000 {published data only}
  • Morrell CJ, Spiby H, Stewart P, Walters S, Morgan A. Costs and benefits of community postnatal support workers: a randomised controlled trial. Health Technology Assessment 2000;4:1-100.
  • Morrell CJ, Spiby H, Stewart P, Walters S, Morgan A. Costs and effectiveness of community postnatal support workers: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2000;9:593-8.
Mullins 2004 {published data only}
  • Mullins SM, Suarez M, Ondersma SJ, Page MC. The impact of motivational interviewing on substance abuse treatment retention: a randomized control trial of women involved with child welfare. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2004;27:51-8.
Oettgen 2004 {published data only}
  • Oettgen B, Holtrop T, Vincent JM, Milberger S, Mueller MC. Home visitation combined with a mobile pediatric clinic - improving pediatric care for low income children. Pediatric Research 2004;55:259A.
Olds 1986 {published data only}
  • Eckenrode J, Ganzel B, Henderson CR Jr, Smith E, Olds DL, Powers J, et al. Preventing child abuse and neglect with a program of nurse home visitation: the limiting effects of domestic violence. JAMA 2000;284:1385-91.
  • Eckenrode J, Zielinski D, Smith E, Marcynyszyn LA, Henderson CR Jr, Kitzman H, et al. Child maltreatment and the early onset of problem behaviors: can a program of nurse home visitation break the link?. Development and Psychopathology 2001;13:873-90.
  • Olds D, Henderson CR Jr, Cole R, Eckenrode J, Kitzman H, Luckey D, et al. Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children's criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280:1238-44.
  • Olds D, Henderson CR Jr, Kitzman H, Cole R. Effects of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on surveillance of child maltreatment. Pediatrics 1995;95:365-72.
  • Olds DL. Home visitation for pregnant women and parents of young children. American Journal of Public Health 1992;146:704-8.
  • Olds DL, Eckenrode J, Henderson CR Jr, Kitzman H, Powers J, Cole R, et al. Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect. Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA 1997;278:637-43.
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Chamberlin R, Tatelbaum R. Preventing child abuse and neglect: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics 1986;78:65-78.
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Kitzman H. Does prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation have enduring effects on qualities of parental caregiving and child health at 25 to 50 months of life?. Pediatrics 1994;93:89-98.
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Phelps C, Kitzman H, Hanks C. Effect of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on government spending. Medical Care 1993;31:155-74.
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Tatelbaum R. Intellectual impairment in children of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy. Pediatrics 1994;93:221-7.
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Tatelbaum R. Prevention of intellectual impairment in children of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy. Pediatrics 1994;93:228-33.
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Tatelbaum R, Chamberlin R. Improving the delivery of prenatal care and outcomes of pregnancy: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics 1986;77:16-28.
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Tatelbaum R, Chamberlin R. Improving the life-course development of socially disadvantaged mothers: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation. American Journal of Public Health 1988;78:1436-45.
Olds 2002 {published data only}
  • Korfmacher J, O'Brien R, Hiatt S, Olds D. Differences in program implementation between nurses and paraprofessionals providing home visits during pregnancy and infancy: a randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89:1847-51.
  • Olds DL, Robinson J, O'Brien R, Luckey DW, Pettitt LM, Henderson CR Jr, et al. Home visiting by paraprofessionals and by nurses: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2002;110:486-96.
Olds 2004a {published data only}
  • Olds DL, Kitzman H, Cole R, Robinson J, Sidora K, Luckey DW, et al. Effects of nurse home-visiting on maternal life course and child development: age 6 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2004;114(6):1550-9.
Olds 2004b {published data only}
  • Olds DL, Robinson J, Pettitt L, Luckey DW, Holmberg J, Ng RK, et al. Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2004;114(6):1560-8.
Roman 2007 {published data only}
Schuster 1998 {published data only}
  • Schuster MA, Wood DL, Duan N, Mazel RM, Sherbourne CD, Halfon N. Utilization of well-child care services for African-American infants in a low-income community: results of a randomized, controlled case management/home visitation intervention. Pediatrics 1998;101:999-1005.
Seitz 2004 {published data only}
  • Seitz V, Leventhal JM, Apfel NH, Johnson L, Bonilla A, Walls TA, et al. Post-treatment effects of a volunteer mentoring program on the parenting practices of young, inner-city mothers: a randomized trial. Pediatric Research 2004;55:71A.
Strantz 1995 {published data only}
Sundfaer 2001 {published data only}
  • Sundfaer A. 31 women with drug problems got children--what happened after that?. [Norwegian]. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 2001;121:73-5.
Super 1990 {published data only}
  • Super CM, Herrera MG, Mora JO. Long-term effects of food supplementation and psychosocial intervention on the physical growth of Colombian infants at risk of malnutrition. Child Development 1990;61:29-49.
Sweeney 2000 {published data only}
  • Sweeney PJ, Schwartz RM, Mattis NG, Vohr B. The effect of integrating substance abuse treatment with prenatal care on birth outcome. Journal of Perinatology 2000;4:219-24.
Taylor 1997 {published data only}
  • Taylor JA, Davis RL, Kemper KJ. A randomized controlled trial of group versus individual well child care for high-risk children: maternal-child interaction and developmental outcomes.. Pediatrics 1997;99:e9.
Teague 1995 {published data only}
  • Clark RE, Teague GB, Ricketts SK, Bush PW, Xie H, McGuire TG, et al. Cost-effectiveness of assertive community treatment versus standard case management for persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders. Health Services Research 1998;33:1285-308.
  • Drake RE, McHugo GJ, Clark RE, Teague GB, Xie H, Miles K, et al. Assertive community treatment for patients with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: a clinical trial. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1998;68:201-15.
  • McHugo GJ, Drake RE, Teague GB, Xie H. Fidelity to assertive community treatment and client outcomes in the New Hampshire dual disorders study. Psychiatric Services 1999;50:618-24.
  • Teague GB, Drake RE, Ackerson TH. Evaluating use of continuous treatment teams for persons with mental illness and substance abuse. Psychiatric Services 1995;46:689-95.
van Amerongen 1996 {published data only}
  • Van Amerongen D. Trying to reach the pregnant substance-abuser: learning from failure. HMO Practice 1996;10:80-2.
Walkup 2009 {published data only}
  • Walkup JT, Barlow A, Mullany BC, Pan W, Goklish N, Hasting R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional-delivered in-home intervention for young reservation-based American Indian mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;48:591-601.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
AAP 2000
  • Anonymous. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on substance abuse and committee on children with disabilities. Fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatrics 2000;106:358-61.
Belcher 1999
  • Belcher HM, Shapiro BK, Leppert M, Butz AM, Sellers S, Arch E, et al. Sequential neuromotor examination in children with intrauterine cocaine/polydrug exposure. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1999;41:240-6.
Besinger 1999
  • Besinger BA, Garland AF, Litrownik AJ, Landsverk JA. Caregiver substance abuse among maltreated children placed in out-of-home care. Child Welfare 1999;78:221-39.
Bradley 1977
  • Bradley RH, Caldwell BM. Home observation for measurement of the environment: a validation study of screening efficiency. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 1977;81:417-20.
Eckenrode 2000
  • Eckenrode J, Ganzel B, Henderson CR Jr, Smith E, Olds DL, Powers J, et al. Preventing child abuse and neglect with a program of nurse home visitation: the limiting effects of domestic violence. JAMA 2000;284:1385-91.
Egger 1997
Eriksson 2000
  • Eriksson M, Jonsson B, Steneroth G, Zetterstrom R. Amphetamine abuse during pregnancy: environmental factors and outcome after 14-15 years. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2000;28:154-7.
Faden 2000
Fares 1997
  • Fares I, McCulloch KM, Raju TN. Intrauterine cocaine exposure and the risk for sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis. Journal of Perinatology 1997;17:179-82.
Frank 2001
Gomby 2000
Harbord 2006
Higgins 2000
  • Higgins K, Cooper-Stanbury M, Williams P. Statistics on drug use in Australia 1998. AIHW cat. no. PHE 16. Canberra: AIHW (Drug Statistics Series) 2000.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hulse 1997a
Hulse 1997b
Hulse 1997c
Hulse 1998a
Hulse 1998b
Jacobson 2002
  • Jacobson SW, Chiodo LM, Sokol RJ, Jacobson JL. Validity of maternal report of prenatal alcohol, cocaine, and smoking in relation to neurobehavioral outcome. Pediatrics 2002;109:815-25.
Jaudes 1997
Kandall 1993
Kearney 2000
Kendrick 2000
  • Kendrick D, Elkan R, Hewitt M, Dewey M, Blair M, Robinson J, et al. Does home visiting improve parenting and the quality of the home environment? A systematic review and meta analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2000;82:443-51.
Lutiger 1991
MacDonald 2008
McNaughton 2004
Nair 1997
  • Nair P, Black MM, Schuler M, Keane V, Snow L, Rigney BA, et al. Risk factors for disruption in primary caregiving among infants of substance abusing women. Child Abuse and Neglect 1997;21:1039-51.
NHSDA 2000
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. Summary of findings from the 2000 national household survey on drug abuse. SAMHSA, 2001.
Olds 2007
  • Olds DL, Kitzman H, Hanks C, Cole R, Anson E, Sidora-Arcoleo K, et al. Effects of nurse home visiting on maternal and child functioning: age-9 follow-up of a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2007;120(4):e832-45.
Osborn 2005a
  • Osborn DA, Cole MJ, Jeffery HE. Opiate treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002059.pub2]
Osborn 2005b
  • Osborn DA, Jeffery HE, Cole MJ. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002053.pub2]
Persily 2003
  • Persily CA. Lay home visiting may improve pregnancy outcomes. Holistic Nursing Practice 2003;17:231-8.
RCOG 1999
  • Taylor DJ. Clinical green top guidelines. Alcohol consumption in pregnancy. http://www.rcog.org.uk/guidelines.asp?PageID=106&GuidelineID=1 (accessed 1999).
RevMan 2011
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Roberts 1996
Singer 2002
Spencer 1997
  • Spencer JD, Latt N, Beeby PJ, Collins E, Saunders JB, McCaughan GW, et al. Transmission of hepatitis C virus to infants of human immunodeficiency virus-negative intravenous drug-using mothers: rate of infection and assessment of risk factors for transmission. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 1997;4:395-409.