Intervention Review

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Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults

  1. Gracia LT Fellmeth1,*,
  2. Catherine Heffernan2,
  3. Joanna Nurse3,
  4. Shakiba Habibula4,
  5. Dinesh Sethi3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 19 JUN 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 7 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004534.pub3

How to Cite

Fellmeth GLT, Heffernan C, Nurse J, Habibula S, Sethi D. Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD004534. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004534.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Oxford University, Department of Public Health, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    NHS Hounslow, Hounslow, UK

  3. 3

    WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark

  4. 4

    Buckinghamshire County Council, Public Health, Aylesbury, UK

*Gracia LT Fellmeth, Department of Public Health, Oxford University, Rosemary Rue Building, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 19 JUN 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Andersen 1992 {published data only}
  • Andersen SJ. The Effects of Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programming on Male Athletes' Sexual and Dating Attitudes [Master's thesis]. La Crosse, WI: University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 1992.
Anderson 1998 {published data only}
  • Anderson LMP, Stoelb MP, Duggan P, Hieger B, Kling KH, Payne JP. The effectiveness of two types of rape prevention programs in changing the rape-supportive attitudes of college students. Journal of College Student Development 1998;39(2):131-42.
Avery-Leaf 1997 {published data only}
Boulter 1997 {published data only}
  • Boulter C. Effects of an Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program on Male College Students' Endorsements of Rape Myth Beliefs and Sexually Coercive Behaviors [PhD thesis]. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, 1998.
Bradley 2009 {published data only}
Breitenbecher 1998 {published data only}
  • Breitenbecher KH, Gidycz CA. AEmpirical evaluation of a program designed to reduce the risk of multiple sexual victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 1998;13(4):472-88.
Davis 1997 {published data only}
  • Davis TL. Effectiveness of a Sex Role Socialization-Focused Date Rape Prevention Program in Reducing Rape-Supportive Attitudes in College Fraternity Men [PhD thesis]. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, 1997.
  • Davis TL, Liddell DL. Getting inside the house: the effectiveness of a rape prevention program for college fraternity men. Journal of College Student Development 2002;43(1):35-50.
Fay 2006 {published data only}
  • Fay KE, Medway FJ. An acquaintance rape education program for students transitioning to high school. Sex Education 2006;6(3):223-36.
Florsheim 2011 {published data only}
  • Florsheim P, McArthur L, Hudak C, Heavin S, Burrow-Sanchez J. The Young Parenthood Program: preventing intimate partner violence between adolescent mothers and young fathers. Journal of Couple and Relationship Therapy 2011;10(2):117-34.
Forst 1993 {published data only}
  • Forst LS. The Effects of Two Acquaintance Rape Prevention Education Programs on Rape-Supportive Beliefs among College Students. Florida Atlantic University, 1993.
Foshee 1998 {published data only}
  • Foshee VA, Bauman KE, Arriaga XB, Helms RW, Koch GG, Linder GF. An evaluation of Safe Dates, an adolescent dating violence prevention program. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(1):45-50.
  • Foshee VA, Bauman KE, Ennett ST, Linder GF, Benefield T, Suchindran C. Assessing the long-term effects of the Safe Dates program and a booster in preventing and reducing adolescent dating violence victimization and perpetration. American Journal of Public Health 2004;94(4):619-24.
  • Foshee VA, Bauman KE, Ennett ST, Suchindran C, Benefield T, Linder GF. Assessing the effects of the dating violence prevention program "Safe Dates" using random coefficient regression modeling. Prevention Science 2005;6(3):245-58.
  • Foshee VA, Bauman KE, Greene WF, Koch GG, Linder GF, MacDougall JE. The Safe Dates program: 1-year follow-up results. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90(10):1619-22.
Foubert 1997 {published data only}
  • Foubert JD, Marriott KA. Effects of a sexual assault peer education program on men's belief in rape myths. Sex Roles 1997;36(3/4):257-66.
Foubert 1998 {published data only}
  • Foubert JD, McEwen MK. An all-male rape prevention peer education program: decreasing fraternity men's behavioral intent to rape. Journal of College Student Development 1998;39(6):548-56.
Foubert 2000 {published data only}
Gidycz 2001 {published data only}
  • Gidycz CA, Lynn SJ, Rich CL, Marioni NL, Loh C, Blackwell LM, et al. The evaluation of a sexual assault risk reduction program: a multisite investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001;69(6):1073-8.
Gidycz 2006 {published data only}
Gidycz 2011 {published data only}
  • Gidycz CA, Orchowski LM, Berkowitz AD. Preventing sexual aggression among college men: an evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program. Violence Against Women 2011;17(6):720-42.
Holcomb 2002 {published data only}
  • Holcomb DR, Savage MP, Seehafer R, Waalkes DM. A mixed-gender date rape prevention intervention targeting freshmen college athletes. College Student Journal 2002;36(2):165-79.
Jaycox 2006 {published data only}
  • Jaycox L, McCaffrey D, Eiseman B, Aronoff J, Shelley G, Collins R, et al. Impact of a school-based dating violence prevention program among Latino teens: randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;39(5):694-704.
  • Jaycox LH, McCaffrey DF. Curbing Teen Dating Violence: Evidence from a School Prevention Program. Vol. RB-9194-CDC, Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006.
Kuffel 2002 {published data only}
  • Kuffel SW, Katz J. Preventing physical, psychological, and sexual aggression in college dating relationships. Journal of Primary Prevention 2002;22(4):361-73.
Lanier 1998 {published data only}
Macgowan 1997 {published data only}
  • MacGowan M. An evaluation of a dating violence prevention program for middle school students. Violence and Victims 1997;12(3):223-35.
Miller 1999 {published data only}
  • Miller JR. A Social Learning Perspective Toward the Prevention of Dating Violence: an Evaluation of a Group Counseling Model [PhD thesis]. Miami, FL: Miami Institute of Psychology Studies, 1999.
Miller 2012 {published data only}
  • Miller E, McCauley H, Virata MC, Decker M, Tancredi D, Moideen F, et al. Coaching boys into men: preliminary success of a sexual violence prevention program. Journal of Adolescent Health 2011; Vol. 48, issue 2 Suppl:S85-6.
  • Miller E, Tancredi DJ, McCauley HL, Decker MR, Virata MCD, Anderson HA, et al. "Coaching boys into men": a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a dating violence prevention program. Journal of Adolescent Health 2012;51(5):431-8.
Orchowski 2008 {published data only}
Pacifici 2001 {published data only}
  • Pacifici C, Stoolmiller M, Nelson C. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001;69(3):552-9.
Pinzone 1998 {published data only}
Saberi 1999 {published data only}
  • Saberi D. Acquaintance Rape Prevention: Changing Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students [PhD thesis]. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, 1999.
Salazar 2006 {published data only}
  • Salazar LF, Cook SL. Preliminary findings from an outcome evaluation of an interpersonal violence prevention program for adjudicated, African American adolescent males. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 2006;4(4):368-85.
Schewe 1996 {published data only}
Senn 2011 {published data only}
  • Senn CY, Gee SS, Thake J. Emancipatory sexuality education and sexual assault resistance: does the former enhance the latter?. Psychology of Women Quarterly 2011;35(1):72-91.
Shultz 2000 {published data only}
  • Shultz SK, Scherman A, Marshall LJ. Evaluation of a university-based date rape prevention program: effect on attitudes and behavior related to rape. Journal of College Student Development 2000;41(2):193-201.
Stephens 2009 {published data only}
Wolfe 2003 {published data only}
  • Wolfe DA, Wekerle C, Scott K, Straatman AL, Grasley C, Reitzel-Jaffe D. Dating violence prevention with at-risk youth: a controlled outcome evaluation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71(2):279-91.
Wolfe 2009 {published data only}
  • Wolfe DA, Crooks C, Jaffe P, Chiodo D, Hughes R, Ellis W, et al. A school-based program to prevent adolescent dating violence. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine 2009;63(8):692-9.
Wolford 1993 {published data only}
  • Wolford MJ. The Attitudes of Educational Programs about Rape on the Attitudes of First Year Urban University Students [PhD thesis]. Norfolk, VA: Old Dominion University, 1993.
Woodin 2010 {published data only}
Yom 2005 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Baumann 2004 {published data only}
  • Baumann BD. Alcohol Use and Dating Violence: A High-School Prevention Model [PhD thesis]. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas, 2004.
Callahan 2003 {published data only}
  • Callahan MR, Tolman RM, Saunders DG. Adolescent dating violence victimization and psychological well-being. Journal of Adolescent Research 2003;18(6):664-81.
Carpentier 2006 {published data only}
  • Carpentier MY, Silovsky JF, Chaffin M. Randomized trial of treatment for children with sexual behavior problems: ten-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006;74(3):482-8.
De Gannes 2009 {published data only}
  • De Gannes AB. Evaluation of a Sexual Assault and Dating Violence Prevention Program for Middle School Students [PhD thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Libraries, 2009.
Echols 1998 {published data only}
  • Echols KL. Dating Relationships and Sexual Victimization: An Intervention Program with College Freshman Males [PhD thesis]. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama, 1998.
Edwards 2000 {published data only}
  • Edwards CP, Omaji P, Froyland I. Working with adolescents to prevent domestic violence: The Northam Project. Reducing Criminality: Partnerships and Best Practices. 2000:1-7.
Foshee 2000 {published data only}
  • Foshee VA, Bauman KE, Greene WF, Koch GG, Linder GF, MacDougall JE. The Safe Dates program: 1-year follow-up results. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90:1619–22.
Foshee 2007 {published data only}
  • Foshee CA, Matthew RA. Adolescent dating abuse perpetration: a review of findings, methodological limitations and suggestions for future research. In: Flannery DJ, Vazsonyi AT, Waldman ID editor(s). The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007:431-49.
Foshee 2009 {published data only}
Foshee 2011 {published data only}
  • Foshee VA, Reyes HLM, Ennett ST, Suchindran C, Mathias JP, Karriker-Jaffe KJ, et al. Risk and protective factors distinguishing profiles of adolescent peer and dating violence perpetration. Journal of Adolescent Health 2011;48(4):344-50.
Foshee 2012 {published data only}
Foubert 2010 {published data only}
Frazier 1994 {published data only}
Gidycz 1995 {published data only}
Gidycz 2007 {published data only}
  • Gidycz CA, Loh C, Lobo T, Rich C, Lynn SJ, Pashdag J. Reciprocal relationships among alcohol use, risk perception, and sexual victimization. Journal of American College Health 2007;56(1):5-14.
Gidycz 2008a {published data only}
  • Gidycz CA, Orchowski LM, King CR, Rich CL. Sexual victimization and health-risk behaviors: a prospective analysis of college women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2008;23(6):744-63.
Gidycz 2008b {published data only}
  • Gidycz CA, Van Wynsberghe A, Edwards KM. Prediction of women's utilization of resistance strategies in a sexual assault situation: a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2008;23(5):571-88.
Gray 1990 {published data only}
  • Gray MD, Lesser D, Quinn E, Bounds C. The effectiveness of personalizing acquaintance rape prevention: programs on perception of vulnerability and on reducing risk-taking behavior. Journal of College Student Development 1990;31(3):216-20.
Hanson 1993 {published data only}
Hendy 2003 {published data only}
  • Hendy HM, Weiner K, Bakerofskie J, Eggen D, Gustitus C, McLeod KC. Comparison of six models for violent romantic relationships in college men and women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2003;18(6):645-65.
Holcomb 1993a {published data only}
  • Holcomb DR, Sondag KA, Hatton Holcomb LC. Healthy dating: a mixed-gender date rape workshop. Journal of American College Health 1993;41(4):155-7.
Indermaur 1998 {published data only}
  • Indermaur D, Atkinson L, Blagg H. Working with Adolescents to Prevent Domestic Violence: Rural Town Model. Canberra: National Anti-Crime Strategy, 1998.
Jaycox 2006b {published data only}
  • Jaycox LH, McCaffrey DF, Ocampo BW, Shelley GA, Blake SM, Peterson DJ, et al. Challenges in the evaluation and implementation of school-based prevention and intervention programs on sensitive topics. American Journal of Evaluation 2006;27(3):320-36.
Jensen 1993a {published data only}
  • Jensen LA. College Students' Attitudes Toward Acquaintance Rape: The Effects of a Prevention Intervention Using Cognitive Dissonance Theory [PhD thesis]. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama, 1993.
Jouriles 2009 {published data only}
  • Jouriles EN, Platt C, McDonald R. Violence in adolescent dating relationships. The Prevention Researcher 2009;16(1):3-7.
Kilian 1996 {published data only}
  • Killian DR. A Study of the Effectiveness of a Date-Rape Prevention Program [PhD thesis]. San Francisco, CA: University of San Francisco, 1996.
Krajewski 1996 {published data only}
  • Krajewski S, Rybarik M, Dosch M, Gilmore G. Results of a curriculum intervention with seventh graders regarding violence in relationships. Journal of Family Violence 1996;11(2):93-104.
Lavoie 1995 {published data only}
  • Lavoie F, Vezina L, Piche C, Boivin M. Evaluation of a prevention program for violence in teen dating relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 1995;10(4):516-24.
Lonsway 2000 {published data only}
Melendez 2003 {published data only}
  • Melendez RM, Hoffman S, Exner T, Leu CS, Ehrhardt AA. Intimate partner violence and safer sex negotiation: effects of a gender-specific intervention. Archives of Sexual Behavior 2003;32(5):499-511.
Michener 1997 {published data only}
  • Michener SO. An Analysis of Rape Aggression Defense as a Method of Self-Empowerment for Women [PhD thesis]. Minneapolis, MN: Walden University, 1996.
Pittman 2000 {published data only}
  • Pittman AL, Wolfe DA, Wekerle C. Strategies for evaluating dating violence prevention programs. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 2000;4(1):217-38.
Proto-Campise 1998 {published data only}
  • Proto-Campise L, Belknap J, Wooldredge J. High school students' adherence to rape myths and the effectiveness of high school rape awareness programs. Violence Against Women 1998;4(3):308-28.
Rothman 2006 {published data only}
  • Rothman EF, Decker MR, Silverman JG. Evaluation of a teen dating violence social marketing campaign: lessons learned when the null hypothesis was accepted. New Directions for Evaluation 2006;2006(110):33-44.
Sanchez-Cesareo 2002 {published data only}
  • Sanchez-Cesareo M. Outcome Evaluation of the Youth: A School-Based Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program [PhD thesis]. Chicago, IL: De Paul University, 2002.
Taylor 2010 {published data only}
  • Taylor B, Stein N, Burden F. The effects of a gender violence/harassment prevention programming in middle schools: results from a randomized experimental evaluation. Violence and Victims 2010;25(2):202-23.
  • Taylor BG, Stein N, Burden F. Exploring gender differences in dating violence/harassment prevention programming in middle schools: results from a randomized experiment. Journal of Experimental Criminology 2010;6(4):416-45.
  • Taylor BG, Stein N, Mack AR, Horwood TJ, Burden F. Experimental evaluation of gender violence/harassment prevention programs in middle schools. Document 221892. ICF International 2008:1-252.
Testa 2010 {published data only}
  • Testa M, Hoffman JH, Livingston JA, Turrisi R. Preventing college women's sexual victimization through parent-based intervention: a randomized controlled trial. Preventive Science 2010;11(3):308-18.
Weisz 2001 {published data only}
Wolf 2004 {published data only}
  • Wolf SC. Patterns of juvenile male sexual aggression: an operant approach to understanding and intervening effectively. In: Briggs HE, Rzepnicki TL editor(s). Using Evidence in Social Work Practice: Behavioral Perspectives. Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books, 2004:128-43.
Wolfe 2012 {published data only}
  • Wolfe DA, Crooks CV, Chiodo D, Hughes R, Ellis W. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based health relationship program: a post-intervention comparison. Preventive Science 2012;13(2):196-205.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abrams 1992 {published data only}
  • Abrams JM. Effects of a Date Rape Intervention on Rape Proclivity and Acceptance of Rape-Supportive Attitudes among Male College Students: a Social Learning Approach [PhD thesis]. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, 1992.
Avina 2005 {published data only}
  • Avina C. An Evaluation of a Web-Based Sexual Assault Prevention Program for Women [PhD thesis]. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, 2005.
Bernardo 1994 {published data only}
  • Bernardo C. The Effects of an Educational Program about Acquaintance Rape to Increase Awareness among College Students [PhD thesis]. North Miami, FL: Johnson & Wales University, 1994.
Bond 1995 {published data only}
  • Bond BJ. Evaluation of a Dating Violence Prevention Curriculum [PhD thesis]. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, 1995.
Brown 2002 {published data only}
  • Brown K. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a dating violence curriculum on adolescents' perceptions. American Journal of Health Promotion 2002;16(6):361.
Chrappa 1991 {published data only}
  • Chrappa RC. Great Expectations: a Workshop on Responsible Dating [PhD thesis]. Kingston, RI: University of Rhode Island, 1991.
Deiter 1994 {published data only}
  • Deiter PJ. Sexual Assertiveness Training for College Women: An Intervention Study [PhD thesis]. Kingston, RI: University of Rhode Island, 1994.
Halvorson 2007 {published data only}
  • Halvorson A. The Effectiveness of a Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program among Native American Girls [PhD thesis]. Mankato, MN: Minnesota State University, 2007.
Heimerdinger 2006 {published data only}
  • Heimerdinger SR. A Primary Dating Violence Prevention Program for College Students: Combining Normative Influence and Behavioral Skills Training [PhD thesis]. Ames, IA: Iowa State University, 2006.
Hill 1995 {published data only}
  • Hill RC. Date Rape: a Prevention Program for New College Students. Forest Grove, OR: Pacific University, 1995.
Holcomb 1993 {published data only}
  • Holcomb D, Sarvela P, Sondag A, Holcomb L. An evaluation of a mixed-gender date rape prevention workshop. Journal of American College Health 1993;41(1):159-64.
Lawson 2006 {published data only}
  • Lawson KC, Burkhart BR. Evaluation of Rape Prevention Programming for Female College Students [PhD thesis]. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, 2006.
Layman-Guadalupe 1996 {published data only}
  • Layman-Guadalupe MJ. Evaluation of an Acquaintance Rape Awareness Program: Differential Impact on Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Rape Victims [PhD thesis]. Athens, OH: Ohio University, 1996.
Murphy 1997 {published data only}
  • Murphy DK. Date Rape Prevention Programs: Effects on College Students' Attitudes [PhD thesis]. Muncie, IN: Ball State University, 1997.
Northam 1997 {published data only}
  • Northam E. Evaluation of a University-Based Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program [PhD thesis]. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma, 1997.
Sanchez 2011 {published data only}
  • Sanchez AA, Alvarez PC, de la Fuente Aparicio D, Maeso Fernandez E, Salamanca Castro AB, Sanchez Castro B. Effectiveness of an educative intervention developed on pupils of compulsory secondary education's first course in Madrid about social gender stereotype. Nure Investigacion 2011;54:1-17.
Walther 1986 {published data only}
  • Walther DJ. Wife abuse prevention: effects of information on attitudes of high school boys. Journal of Primary Prevention 1986;7(2):84-90.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Adi 2007
  • Adi Y, McMillan AS, Kiloran A, Stewart-Brown S. Systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to promote wellbeing in primary schools. Report 3: universal approaches with focus on prevention of violence and bullying. (accessed 10 May 2013).
Archer 2000
Bergman 1992
Burt 1980
Campbell 2002
Chiodo 2012
  • Chiodo D, Crooks CV, Wolfe DA, McIssac C, Hughes R, Jaffe PG. Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimisation. Prevention Science 2012;13(4):350-9.
CPPRG 1999
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Egger 1997
Exner-Cortens 2013
Foshee 1996
  • Foshee VA, Linder GF, Bauman KE, Langwick SA, Arriaga XB, Heath JL, et al. The Safe Dates Project: theoretical basis, evaluation design, and selected baseline findings. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1996;12 Suppl 5:39-47.
Henton 1983
Higgins 2011
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Home Office 1999
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Koss 1982
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Loh 2006
  • Loh C, Gidycz CA. A prospective analysis of the relationship between male child sexual victimization and perpetration of dating violence and sexual assault in adulthood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2006;21(6):732-49.
Luthra 2006
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Scargle 2000
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Straus 1996
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Tyler 2012
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Watts 2002
Whitaker 2006
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WHO 2005
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Wolfe 1999
Wolitzky-Taylor 2008
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