Intervention Review

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Nutritional interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality in people with HIV

  1. Liesl Grobler1,2,*,
  2. Nandi Siegfried3,4,
  3. Marianne E Visser5,
  4. Sarah SN Mahlungulu6,
  5. Jimmy Volmink1,7

Editorial Group: Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 22 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004536.pub3

How to Cite

Grobler L, Siegfried N, Visser ME, Mahlungulu SSN, Volmink J. Nutritional interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality in people with HIV. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004536. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004536.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    South African Medical Research Council, South African Cochrane Centre, Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa

  2. 2

    Stellenbosch University, Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

  3. 3

    University of Cape Town, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa

  4. 4

    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, California, USA

  5. 5

    Stellenbosch University, Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg, South Africa

  6. 6

    Eastern Cape Department of Health, Lilitha College of Nursing, Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape, South Africa

  7. 7

    Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg, South Africa

*Liesl Grobler,

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Berneis 2000 {published data only}
  • Berneis K, Battegay S, Bassetti S, Nuesch R, Leisibach A, Bilz S, Keller U. Nutritional supplements combined with dietary counselling diminish whole body protein catabolism in HIV-infected patients. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2000;30(1):87-94.
Clark 2000 {published data only}
  • Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, Yasmin T, Singh G, Khan FA, Rathmacher JA. Nutritional treatment for Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus-associated wasting using B-hydroxy B-methylbutyrate, glutamine and arginine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2000;24:133-139.
de Luis 2003 {published data only}
  • de Luis D, Aller R, Bachiller P, Gonzalez-Sagrado M, de Luis J, Izaola O, Terroba MC, Cuellar L. Isolated dietray counselling program versus supplement and dietary counselling in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Med Clin (Barc) 2003;120(15):565-567.
FANTA-KEMRI study 2011 {unpublished data only}
  • Castleman T, Mwadime R, et al. Randomised controlled trial of the impact of supplementary food on malnourished adult ART clients and adult pre-ART clients in Kenya. Final report June 2011.
Karsegard 2004 {published data only}
  • Karsegard VL, Raguso CA, Genton L, Hirschel B, Pichard C. L-Ornithine alpha-Ketoglutarate in HIV infection: Effects on muscle, gastrointestinal and immune functions. Nutrition 2004;20:515-520.
Keithley 2002 {published data only}
  • Keithley JK, Swanson B, Zeller JM, Sha BE, Cohen M, Hershow R, et al. Comparison of standard and immune-enhancing oral formulas in asymptomatic HIV-infected persons: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2002;26(1):6-14.
Moreno 2005 {published data only}
  • Moreno YF, Sgarbieri VC, da Silva MN, Toro AADC, Vilela MMS. Features of whey protein concentrate supplementation in children with rapidly progressive HIV infection. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2005;52(1):34-38.
Rabeneck 1998 {published data only}
  • Rabeneck L, Palmer A, Knowles JB, Seidehamel RJ, Harris CL, Merkel KL, Risser JMH, Akrabawi SS. A randomised controlled trial evaluating nutrition counselling with or without supplementation in malnourished HIV-infected patients. Journal of American Dietary Association 1998;98:434-438.
Rollins 2007 {published data only}
Schwenk 1999 {published data only}
  • Schwenk A, Steuck H, Kremer G. Oral supplements as adjunctive treatment to nutritional counselling in malnourished HIV-infected patients: randomised controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition 1999;18(6):371-374.
Shabert 1999 {published data only}
  • Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomised, double-blind controlled trial. Nutrition 1999;15:860-864.
Simpore 2005 {published data only}
  • Simpore J, Zongo F, Kabore F, Dansou D, Bere A, Nikiema J, Pignatelli S, Biondi D, Ruberto G, Musumeci S. Nutrition rehabilitation of HIV-infected and HIV-negative undernourished children utilizing Spirulina. Annuls of Nutrition and Metabolism 2005;49:373-380.
Sudarsanam 2011 {published data only}
  • Sudarsanam TD, John J, Kang G, Mahendri V, Gerrior J, Franciosa M, et al. Pilot randomized trial of nutritional supplementation in patients with tuberculosis and HIV-tuberculosis coinfection receiving directly observed short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis. Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 2011;16(6):699-706. [PUBMED: 21418447]
Yamani 2010 {published data only}
  • Yamani E, Kaba-Mebri J, Mouala C, Gresenguet G, Rey JL. Use of spirulina supplement for nutritional management of HIV-infected patients: study in Bangui, Central African Republic. Medecine Tropicale 2009;69(1):66-70.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Amadi 2005 {published data only}
  • Amadi B, Mwiya M, Chomba E, Thomson M, Chintu C, Kelly P, et al. Improved nutritional recovery on an elemental diet in Zambian children with persistent diarrhoea and malnutrition. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2005;51(1):5-10.
Bakeine 1997 {published data only}
  • Bakeine J, Mathias PM, Mugyeni PN. The effects of early nutritional supplementation with Nutrifil or Corn Soya Blend on the nutritional and immune status of adults with HIV infection in Uganda. Proceedings of the Nutritional Society. 1997; Vol. 56, issue 3:282A.
Baril 2007 {published data only}
  • Baril JG, Kovacs CM, Trottier S, Roederer G, Martel AY, Ackad N, et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of oral administration of low-dose salmon oil to HIV patients with HAART-associated dyslipidemia. HIV clinical trials 2007;8(6):400-11. [PUBMED: 18042505]
Bell 1999 {published data only}
  • Bell SJ, Chavali S, Bistrian BR, Connolly CA, Utsunomiya T, Forse RA. Dietary fish oil and cytokine and eicosanoid production during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1996;20(1):43-49.
Breuikreuitz 2000 {published data only}
  • Breitkreutz R, Pittack N, Nebe CT, Schuster D, Brust J, Beichert M, Hack V, Daniel V, Edler L, Droge W. Improvement of immune functions in HIV infection by sulfur supplementation: two randomized trials. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2000;78:55-62.
Carter 2006 {published data only}
  • Carter VM, Woolley I, Jolley D, Nyulasi I, Mijch A, Dart A. A randomised controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected males on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sexual Health 2006;3(4):287-90.
Charlin 2002 {published data only}
  • Charlin V, Carrasco F, Sepulveda C, Torres M, Kehr J. Nutritional supplementation according to energy and protein requirements in malnourished HIV-infected patients. Archives Latinoamerican Nutrition 2002;52(3):267-273.
Chlebowski 1993 {published data only}
  • Cheblowski RT, Beall G, Grosvenor M, Lillington L, Weintraub N, Ambler C, Richards EW, Abbruzzese BC, McCamish MA, Cope FO. Long-term effects of early nutritional support with new enterotropic peptide-based formula vs standard enteral formula in HIV-infected patients: a randomised prospective trial. Nutrition 1993;9(6):554-556.
Comi 1996 {published data only}
  • Comi D, Zambelli A, Meraviglia P, Cargnel A, Martini F. Effects of two different diets on AIDS patients' nutritional status. International Conference on AIDS. 1996; Vol. 11:293.
Craig 1997 {published data only}
  • Craig GB, Darnell BE, Weinsier RL, Saag MS, Epps L, Mullins L, et al. Decreased fat and nitrogen losses in patients with AIDS receiving medium-chain-triglyceride-enriched formula vs those receiving long-chain-triglyceride-containing formula. Journal of the American Dietary Association 1997;97(6):605-611.
De Luis 2010 {published data only}
  • De Luis DA, Bachiller P, Palacios T, Izaola O, Eiros Bouza JM, Aller R. Nutritional treatment for ambulatory patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus infection and previous weight loss using a formula enriched with n3 fatty acids: a randomized prospective trial. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 2010;14(5):449-54. [PUBMED: 20556924]
de Luis Roman 2001 {published data only}
  • de Luis Roman DA, Bachiller P, Izaola O, Romero E, Martin J, Arranz M, Eiros Bouza JM. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;55:1048-1052.
De Truchis 2007 {published data only}
  • De Truchis P, Kirstetter M, Perier A, Meunier C, Zucman D, Force G, et al. Reduction in triglyceride level with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in HIV-infected patients taking potent antiretroviral therapy: a randomized prospective study. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2007;44(3):278-85. [PUBMED: 17179770]
Engelson 1998 {published data only}
  • Engelson ES, Kotler DP, Schur I, Matthews DE. Effect of a high protein diet on protein metabolism in HIV-infected men and women. International Conference on AIDS. 1998; Vol. 12:553.
Gerber 2008 {published data only}
  • Gerber JG, Kitch DW, Fichtenbaum CJ, Zackin RA, Charles S, Hogg E, et al. Fish oil and fenofibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy: results of ACTG A5186. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2008;47(4):459-66. [PUBMED: 17971707]
Gibert 1999 {published data only}
  • Gibert CL, Wheeler DA, Collins G, Madans M, Muurahainen N, Raghavan SS, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of caloric supplements in HIV infection. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 1999;22(3):253-9. [PUBMED: 10770345]
Hellerstein 1994 {published data only}
  • Hellerstein M. Effects of enteral nutrition supplements on HIV disease. International Conference on AIDS. 1994.
Hellerstein 1996 {published data only}
  • Hellerstein MK, Wu K, McGrath M, Faix D, George D, Shackleton CH, Horn W, Hoh R, Neese RA. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation in men with weight loss associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Relation to indices of cytokine production.. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1996;11(3):258-270.
Hirschel 1996 {published data only}
  • Hirschel B. Double-blind randomised trial of arginine and omega-3 fatty acids. Oral supplementation in HIV infection. International Conference on AIDS. 1996.
Hoh 1998 {published data only}
  • Hoh R, Pelfini A, Neese RA, Chan M, Cello JP, Cope FO, Abbruzese BC, Richards EW, Courtney K, Hellerstein MK. De novo lipogenesis predicts short-term body-composition response by bioelectrical impedance analysis to oral nutritional supplements in HIV-associated wasting. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;68(1):154-163.
Kotler 1998 {published data only}
  • Kotler DP, Fogleman L, Tierney AR. Comparison of total parenteral nutrition and an oral, semielemental diet on body composition, physical function, and nutrition-related costs in patients with malabsorption due to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1998;22(3):120-126.
Marcel 2011 {published data only}
  • Marcel A-K, Ekali LG, Eugene S, Arnold OE, Sandrine ED, vor der Weid D, et al. The effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean on insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients: A randomized pilot study. Nutr 2011;3:712-24..
Melchior 1996 {published data only}
  • Melchior JC, Chastang C, Gelas P, Carbonnel F, Zazzo JF, Boulier A, Cosnes J, Bouletreau P, Messing B. Efficacy of 2-month total parenteral nutrition in AIDS patients: a controlled randomized prospective trial. The French Multicenter Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Group Study. AIDS 1996;10(4):379-384.
Melchior 1998 {published data only}
  • Melchior JC, Gelas P, Carbonnel F, Zazzo JF, Henzel D, Cosnes J, et al. Improved survival by home total parenteral nutrition in AIDS patients: follow-up of a controlled randomized prospective trial. AIDS 1998;12(3):336-337.
Mendez 1998 {published data only}
  • Mendez D, Glesby M, Muurahainen N, Kotler DP, Tierney AR. Nutritional supplements containing long- or medium-chain triglycerides: effects upon body weight and composition in HIV-infected subjects with less than 100 CD4+ lymphocytes/mm3. International Conference on AIDS. 1998; Vol. 12, issue 42347:843.
Micke 2001 {published data only}
Micke 2002 {published data only}
Ndekha 2005 {published data only}
Ndekha 2009 {published data only}
  • Manary M, Ndekhat M, van Oosterhout JJ. Supplementary feeding in the care of the wasted HIV infected patient. Malawi medical journal : the journal of Medical Association of Malawi 2010;22(2):46-8. [PUBMED: 21614881]
  • Ndekha MJ, van Oosterhout JJ, Zijlstra EE, Manary M, Saloojee H, Manary MJ. Supplementary feeding with either ready-to-use fortified spread or corn-soy blend in wasted adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: randomised, investigator blinded, controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2009;338:b1867. [PUBMED: 19465470]
Pichard 1998 {published data only}
  • Pichard C, Sudre P, Karsegard V, Yerly S, Slosman DO, Delley V, et al. A randomized double-blind controlled study of 6 months of oral nutritional supplementation with arginine and omega-3 fatty acids in HIV-infected patients. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. AIDS (London, England) 1998;12(1):53-63. [PUBMED: 9456255]
PrayGod 2011 {published data only}
  • PrayGod G, Range N, Faurholt-Jepsen D, Jeremiah K, Faurholt-Jepsen M, Aabye M, Jensen L, Jensen A, Grewal HMS, Magnussen P, Changalucha J, Andersen AB, Friis H. Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania. The Journal of Nutrition 2011;141:685-691.
PrayGod 2012 {published data only}
  • Praygod G, Range N, Faurholt-Jepsen D, Jeremiah K, Faurholt-Jepsen M, Aabye MG, Jensen L, Jensen AV, Grewal HM, Magnussen P, Changalucha J, Andersen AB, Friis H. The effect of energy-protein supplementation on weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis HIV-co-infected patients: randomised controlled trial in Mwanza, Tanzania.. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(2):263-271. Epub 2011 Jul 6..
Sandige 2004 {published data only}
  • Sandige H, Ndekha MJ, Briend A, Ashorn P, Manary MJ. Home-based treatment of malnourished Malawian children with locally produced or imported ready-to-use food. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 2004;39(2):141-146.
Sattler 2008 {published data only}
  • Sattler FR, Rajicic N, Mulligan K, Yarasheski KE, Koletar SL, Zolopa A, et al. Evaluation of high-protein supplementation in weight-stable HIV-positive subjects with a history of weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;88(5):1313-21.
Schon 2011 {published data only}
  • Schon T, Idh J, Westman A, Elias D, Abate E, Diro E, et al. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis - A randomised trial. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 2011;91(5):370-7. [PUBMED: 21813328]
Schwenk 1996 {published data only}
  • Schwenk A, Becker K, Breidenbach M, Schrappe M, Diehl V, Kremer G, et al. Enteral nutrition in AIDS cachexia: controlled study on the role of fibre. International Conference on AIDS. 1996; Vol. 11:102.
Suttmann 1996 {published data only}
  • Suttmann U, Ockenga J, Schneider H, Selberg O, Schlesinger A, Gallati H, et al. Weight gain and increased concentrations of receptor proteins for tumor necrosis factor after patients with symptomatic HIV infection received fortified nutrition support. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996;96(6):565-9. [PUBMED: 8655902]
Thusgaard 2009 {published data only}
  • Thusgaard M, Christensen JH, Morn B, Andersen TS, Vige R, Arildsen H, et al. Effect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases 2009;41(10):760-6. [PUBMED: 19685375]
Wanke 1996 {published data only}
  • Wanke CA, Pleskow D, Degirolami PC, Lambl BB, Merkel K, Akrabawi S. A medium chain triglyceride-based diet in patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea reduces diarrhea and malabsorption: a prospective, controlled trial. Nutrition 1996;12:766-771.
Winkler 2004 {published data only}
  • Winkler P, Ellinger S, Boetzer AM, Arendt BM, Berthold HK, Rockstroh JK, et al. Lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in HIV-seropositive and healthy subjects during long-term ingestion of fruit juices or a fruit-vegetable-concentrate rich in polyphenols and antioxidant vitamins. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;58(2):317-325.
Winter 2009 {published data only}
  • Winter HS, Oleske JM, Hughes MD, McKinney RE Jr, Elgie C, Powell C, Purdue L, Puga AM, Jimenez E, Scott GB, Cruz ML, Moye J Jr, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 247 Study Team. Randomized controlled trial of feeding a concentrated formula to infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus.. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49(2):222-232.
Wohl 2005 {published data only}
  • Wohl DA, Tien HC, Busby M, Cunningham C, Macintosh B, Napravnik S, et al. Randomized study of the safety and efficacy of fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid) supplementation with dietary and exercise counseling for the treatment of antiretroviral therapy-associated hypertriglyceridemia. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2005;41(10):1498-504. [PUBMED: 16231263]
Woods 2009 {published data only}
  • Woods MN, Wanke CA, Ling PR, Hendricks KM, Tang AM, Knox TA, et al. Effect of a dietary intervention and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on measures of serum lipid and insulin sensitivity in persons with HIV. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2009;90(6):1566-78. [PUBMED: 19846544]

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Kindra 2011 {published data only}
  • Kindra G, Coutsoudis A, Esposito F. Effect of nutritional supplementation of breastfeeding HIV positive mothers onmaternal and child health: findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:946.
van der Horst 2009 {published data only}
  • van der Horst C, Chasela C, Ahmed Y, Hoffman I, Hosseinipour M, Knight R, et al. Modifications of a large HIV prevention clinical trial to fit changing realities: a case study of the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition (BAN) protocol in Lilongwe, Malawi. Contemporary clinical trials 2009;30(1):24-33. [PUBMED: 18805510]

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Guha 2011 {unpublished data only}
  • A randomised control trial on the effect of nutritional counseling and supplementation on HIV patients initiating Anti Retroviral Therapy. Ongoing study 01-08-2011.
Mourmans 2007 {unpublished data only}
  • A Randomised, Double-blind, Controlled Study on the Effect of One Year Administration of a Nutritional Concept on Immunological Status in HIV-1 Positive Adults not on Antiretroviral Therapy - BITE (Blinded nutritional study for Immunity and Tolerance Evaluation). Ongoing study 23/01/2007.
Range 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • The Role of Nutritional Support and Diabetes During Treatment of Pulmonary TB: Two Randomized Nutritional Supplementation Trials in Tanzania. Ongoing study April 2006.
Spirulina 2010 {unpublished data only}
  • " Arthrospira Platensis" as Nutrition Supplementation for Female Adult Patients Infected by HIV in Yaoundé Cameroon. Ongoing study April 2010.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Ammassari 2001
  • Ammassari A, Murri R, Pezzotti P, Trotta MP, Ravasio L, De Longis P, Lo Caputo S, Narciso P, Pauluzzi S, Carosi G, Nappa S, Piano P, Izzo CM, Lichtner M, Rezza G, Monforte A, Ippolito G, d'Arminio Moroni M, Wu AW, Antinori A, AdICONA Study Group. Self-reported symptoms and medication side effects influence adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in persons with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;28(5):445-449.
Anabwani 2005
Batterham 2001
de Pee 2010
  • de Pee S, Semba RD. Role of nutrition in HIV infection: review of evidence for more effective programming in resource-limited settings. Food Nutr Bull 2010;31(4):S313-44.
Dorland 2007
  • Dorland WAN. Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. Philadelphia: Sanders, 2007.
Hardon 2007
  • Hardon AP, Akurut D, Comoro C, Ekezie C, Irunde HF, Gerrits T, Kglatwane J, Kinsman J, Kwasa R, Maridadi J, Moroka TM, Moyo S, Nakiyemba A, Nsimba S, Ogenyi R, Oyabba T, Temu F, Laing R. Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa. AIDS Care 2007;19(5):658-665.
Higgins 2002
Higgins 2008
  • Higgins, J. P, Altman. D. G. Assessing Risk of Bias in Included Studies. In: J. P. Higgins, S. Green editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions: Cochrane Book Series. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008. doi: 10.1002/9780470712184.ch8.
Hsu 2005
  • Hsu JWC, Pencharz PB, Macallan D, Tomkins A. Macronutrients and HIV/AIDS: a review of current evidence. 2005.
Irlam 2010
Koethe 2009
  • Koethe JR, Chi BH, Megazzini KM, Heimburger DC, Stringer JS. Macronutrient supplementation for malnourished HIV-infected adults: a review of the evidence in resource-adequate and resource-constrained settings. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009;49(5):787-90.
Koethe 2010
Kosmiski 2011
Kotler 1989
Kotler 1999
  • Kotler DP, Rosenbaum K, Wang J, Pierson RN. Studies of body composition and fat distribution in HIV-infected and control subjects. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1999;20(3):228-237.
Liu 2011
  • Liu E, Spiegelman D, Semu H, Hawkins C, Chalamilla G, Aveika A, Nyamsangia S, Mehta S, Mtasiwa D, Fawzi W. Nutritional status and mortality among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(2):282-290.
Macallan 1993
  • Macallan DC, Noble C, Baldwin C, Foskett M, McManus T, Griffin GE. Prospective analysis of patterns of weight change in stage IV human immunodeficiency virus infection. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;58(3):417-424.
Macallan 1995a
  • Macallan DC, Noble C, Baldwin C, Jebb SA, Prentice AM, Coward WA, et al. Energy expenditure and wasting in human immunodeficiency virus infection. New England Journal of Medicine 1995;333(2):83-88.
Macallan 1995b
  • Macallan DC, McNurlan MA, Milne E, Calder AG, Garlick PJ, Griffin GE. Whole-body protein turnover from leucine kinetics and the response to nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995;61(4):818-826.
Macallan 1998
  • Macallan DC. Sir David Cuthbertson Prize Medal Lecture. Metabolic abnormalities and wasting in human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1998;57(3):373-380.
Marazzi 2008
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Marti-Carvajal 2010
  • Marti-Carvajal A. Pharmacological interventions for treating dyslipidemia in patients with HIV infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011.
Schaible 2007
Scrimshaw 1997
Sinclair 2011
  • Sinclair D, Abba K, Grobler L, Sudarsanam TD. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006086.pub3.
Wheeler 1998
  • Wheeler DA, Gibert CL, Launer CA, Muurahainen N, Elion RA, Abrams DI, Bartsch GE. Weight loss as a predictor of survival and disease progression in HIV infection. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18(1):80-85.
WHO 2004
  • World Health Organisation (WHO). Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: treatment guidelines for a public health approach. 2003 revision. Geneva, Switzerland. WHO 2004.
WHO 2007
  • World Health Organization. WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related diseases in adults and children. World Health Organization, Geneva 2007.
World Food Programme