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Intervention Review

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Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents

  1. Anthony C James1,2,†,*,
  2. Georgina James3,
  3. Felicity A Cowdrey1,
  4. Angela Soler4,
  5. Aislinn Choke2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group

Published Online: 3 JUN 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 13 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004690.pub3


How to Cite

James AC, James G, Cowdrey FA, Soler A, Choke A. Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD004690. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004690.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    Warneford Hospital, Highfield Family and Adolescent Unit, Oxford, UK

  3. 3

    Durham University, School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Stockton-on-Tees, UK

  4. 4

    Warneford Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Oxford, UK

  1. Highfield Family and Adolescent Unit, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK

*Anthony C James, anthony.james@psych.ox.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 3 JUN 2013

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (18 FEB 2015)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Barrett 1996 {published and unpublished data}
Barrett 1998 {published and unpublished data}
Barrington 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Barrington J, Prior M, Richardson M, Allen K. Effectiveness of CBT versus standard treatment for childhood anxiety disorders in a community clinic setting. Behaviour Change 2005;22(1):29-43.
Chalfant 2007 {published data only}
  • Chalfant AM, Rapee R, Carroll L. Treating anxiety disorders in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: a controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2007;37:1842-57.
Cobham 2012 {published data only}
Dadds 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dadds MR, Spence SH, Holland DE, Barrett PM, Laurens KR. Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders: a controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1997;65:627-35.
Dadds 1999 {published data only}
  • Dadds MR, Hollanda DE, Laurens KR, Mullins M, Barrett PM, Spence SH. Early intervention and prevention of anxiety disorders in children: results at 2-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(1):145-50.
Flannery-Schroeder 2000 {published data only}
  • Flannery-Schroeder EC, Choudhury MS, Kendall PC. Group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatments for youth with anxiety disorders: 1-year follow-up. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2005;29(2):253-9.
  • Flannery-Schroeder EC, Kendall PC. Group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatments for youth with anxiety disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2000;24:251-78.
  • Flannery–Schroeder EC. Group versus individual cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety-disordered children: a randomized clinical trial. Dissertation Abstracts International 1998;58 (10-B):5642.
Galla 2012 {published and unpublished data}
  • Galla BM, Wood JJ, Chiu AW, Langer DA, Jacobs J, Ifekwunigwe M, et al. One year follow-up to modular cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders in an elementary school setting. Child Psychiatry & Human Development 2012;43(2):219-26.
Gil-Bernal 2009 {published data only}
  • Gil-Bernal F, Hernandez- Guzman L. Cognitive behavioural treatment in Mexican children with social phobia [Tratamiento cognitivo-conductual para ninos mexicanos con fobia social]. Anuario de Psicologia 2009;40(1):89-104.
Ginsburg 2002 {published data only}
  • Ginsburg GS, Drake KL. School-based treatment for anxious African American adolescents: a controlled pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2002;41:768-75.
Ginsburg 2012 {published data only}
  • Ginsburg GS, Becker KD, Drazdowski TK, Tein, JY. Treating anxiety disorders in inner city schools: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and usual care. Child Youth Care Forum 2012;41(1):1-19.
Hayward 2000 {published data only}
  • Hayward C, Varady S, Albano AM, Thienemann M, Henderson L, Schatzberg AF. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia in female adolescents: results of a pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2000;39:721-6.
Herbert 2009 {published data only}
  • Herbert JD, Gaudiano BA, Rheingold AA, Moitra E, Myers VH, Dalrymple KL, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2009;23(2):167-77.
Hirshfeld-Becker 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hirshfeld- Becker D, Masek B, Henin A, Blakely LR, Pollock-Wurman RA, McQuade J, et al. Cognitive behavioural therapy for 4- to 7-year old children with anxiety disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2010;78(4):498-510.
Hudson 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hudson JL, Rapee RM, Deveney C, Schniering CA, Lyneham HJ, Bovopoulos N. Cognitive-behavioral treatment versus an active control for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders: a randomized trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;48(5):533-44.
Kendall 1994 {published and unpublished data}
Kendall 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kendall PC, Brady EU, Verduin TL. Comorbidity in childhood anxiety disorders and treatment outcome. Journal of the American Academy Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2001;40:787-94.
  • Kendall PC, Flannery-Schroeder E, Panichelli-Mindel SM, Southam-Gerow M, Henin A, Warman M. Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: a second randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1997;65:366-80.
Kendell 2008 {published data only}
  • Kendall PC, Comer JS, Marker CD, Creed TA, Puliafico AC, Hughes AA. In-session exposure tasks and therapeutic alliance across the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 2009;77(3):517-25.
  • Kendell PC, Hudson JL, Flannery-Schroeder E, Gosch E, Suveg C. Cognitive–behavioral therapy for anxiety disordered youth: a randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. Journal of Counselling and Clinical Psychology 2008;76(2):282-97.
  • Suveg C, Hudson JL, Brewer G, Flannery-Schroeder E, Gosch E, Kendall PC. Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety-disordered youth: secondary outcomes from a randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2009;23(3):341-9.
Lau 2010 {published data only}
  • Lau W-Y, Kwok-Ying Chan C, Ching-Hong J, Kit-Fong Au T. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment for childhood anxiety in community clinics. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2010;48(11):1067-77.
Masia-Warner 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Masia-Warner C, Klein RG, Dent HC, Fisher PH, Alvir J, Albano AM, et al. School-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: results of a controlled study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2005;33(6):707-22.
Masia-Warner 2007 {published data only}
  • Masia-Warner C, Fisher PH, Shrout PE, Rathor S, Klein RG. Treating adolescents with social anxiety disorder in school: an attention control trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2007;48(7):676-86.
Masia-Warner 2011 {published data only}
McNally Keehn 2012 {published data only}
  • McNally Keehn RH, Lincoln AJ, Brown MZ, Chavira DA. The Coping Cat program for children with anxiety and autism spectrum disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
Melfsen 2011 {published data only}
  • Melfsen S, Kühnemund M, Schwieger J, Warnke A, Stadler C, Poustka F, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy of socially phobic children focusing on cognition: a randomised wait-list control study. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2011;5(1):1-12.
Mendlowitz 1999 {published data only}
  • Mendlowitz SL, Manassis K, Bradley S, Scapillato D, Miezitis S, Shaw BF. Cognitive-behavioral group treatments in childhood anxiety disorders: the role of parental involvement. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1999;38:1223-9.
Muris 2002 {published data only}
  • Muris P, Meesters C, van Melick M. Treatment of childhood anxiety disorders: a preliminary comparison between cognitive-behavioral therapy and a psychological placebo intervention. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2002;33:143-58.
Nauta 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Nauta MH, Scholing A, Emmelkamp PM, Mindera RB. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders in a clinical setting: no additional effect of a cognitive parent training. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42:1270-8.
Olivares 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Garcia-Lopez LJ. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment. Anxiety Disorders 2006;20:175-90.
  • Olivares J, Rosa Alcazar AI, Rodriguez PJA. Early detection and treatment of adolescents with generalized social phobia [Deteccion temprana y tratamiento de adolescentes con fobia social generalizada]. Psicothema 2005;17(1):1-8.
Reaven 2012 {published data only}
  • Reaven J, Blakeley-Smith A, Culhane-Shelburne K, Hepburn S. Group cognitive behavior therapy for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and anxiety: a randomized trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2012;53(4):410-9.
Sánchez-García 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Sánchez-García  R, Olivares J. Effectiveness of a program for early detection/intervention in children/adolescents with generalized social phobia. Anales de psicologia 2009;25:241-9.
Schneider 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Schneider S, Blatter-Meunier J, Herren C, Adornetto C, In-Albon T, Lavallee K. Disorder-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy for separation anxiety disorder in young children: a randomized waiting-list-controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom 2011;80(4):206-15.
Shortt 2001 {published data only}
  • Shortt AL, Barrett PM, Fox TL. Evaluating the FRIENDS program: a cognitive-behavioral group treatment for anxious children and their parents. Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology 2001;30(4):525-35.
Silverman 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Silverman WK, Kurtines WM, Ginsburg GS, Weems CF, Lumpkin PW, Carmichael DH. Treating anxiety disorders with group cognitive-behavioral therapy: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(6):995-1003.
Spence 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Spence SH, Donovan C, Brechman-Toussaint M. The treatment of childhood social phobia: the effectiveness of a social skills training-based, cognitive-behavioural Intervention, with and without parental involvement. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2000;41(6):713-26.
Spence 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Holmes JM, Spence SH. Feasibility and outcome of clinic-plus-internet delivery of cognitive behaviour therapy for anxious children and their parents. Proceedings of the 29th Austrlian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy Annual Conference, 2006, Manly.
  • Spence SH, Holmes JM, March S, Lipp OV. The feasibility and outcome of clinic plus Internet delivery of cognitive-behavioural therapy for childhood anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006;74(3):614-21.
Sung 2011 {published data only}
  • Sung M, Ooi YP, Goh TJ, Pathy P, Fung DS, Ang RP, et al. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Child Psychiatry & Human Development 2011;42:634-49.
Walkup 2008 {published data only}
  • Walkup JT, Albano AM, Piacentini J, Birmaher B, Compton SN, Sherrill JT. Cognitive behavioural therapy, sertraline or a combination in childhood anxiety. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;359(26):2753-66.
Waters 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Waters AM, Ford LA, Wharton TA, Cobham VE. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for young children with anxiety disorders: comparison of a child + parent condition versus a parent only condition. Behaviour Research & Therapy 2009;47(8):654-62.
White 2012 {published data only}
  • White SW, Ollendick T, Albano AM, Oswald D, Johnson C, Southam-Gerow MA, et al. Randomized controlled trial: multimodal anxiety and social skill intervention for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2012;1573-3432 (Electronic) [Epub ahead of print].
Wood 2009 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alfano 2009 {published data only}
  • Alfano 2009. Mediators and moderators of outcome in the behavioural treatment of childhood social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;48(9):945-53.
Baer 2005 {published data only}
  • Baer S, Garland EJ. Pilot study of community-based cognitive behavioural group therapy for adolescents with social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;44(3):258-64.
Barrett 2001 {published data only}
Beidel 2000 {published data only}
Beidel 2007 {published data only}
  • Beidel DC, Turner SM, Sallee FR, Ammerman RT, Crosby LA, Pathak S. SET-C versus fluoxetine in the treatment of childhood social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007;46(12):1622-32.
Bernstein 2005 {published data only}
  • Bernstein GA, Layne AE, Egan EA, Tennison DM. School-based interventions for anxious children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;44(11):1118-27.
Blagg 1984 {published data only}
Cartwright-Hatton 2011 {published data only}
  • Cartwright-Hatton S, McNally D, Field AP, Rust S, Laskey B, Dixon B, et al. A new parenting-based group intervention for young anxious children: results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2011;50(3):242-51.
Cornwall 1996 {published data only}
  • Cornwall E, Spence SH, Schotte D. The effectiveness of emotive imagery in the treatment of darkness phobia in children. Behavioural Change 1996;13:223-9.
Forman 2007 {published data only}
  • Forman EM, Herbert JD, Moitra E, Yeomans PD, Geller PA. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive therapy for anxiety and depression. Behaviour Modification 2007;31(6):772-99.
Gallagher 2004 {published data only}
Joorman 2002 {published data only}
  • Joormann J, Unnewehr S. A controlled study of the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy for children and adolescents with social phobia [Eine kontrollierte studie zur wirksamkeit einer kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutischen gruppentherapie bei kindern und jugendlichen mit sozialer phobie]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie 2002;31:284-90.
King 1998 {published data only}
  • King NJ, Tonge BJ, Heyne D, Pritchard M, Rollings S, Young D, et al. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of school-refusing children: a controlled evaluation. Journal of the American Academy Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1998;37:395-403.
Last 1998 {published data only}
Leong 2009 {published data only}
  • Leong J, Cobham VE, de Groot J, McDermott B. Comparing difference modes of delivery: a pilot evaluation of a family-focused, cognitive behavioural intervention for anxiety-disordered children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;18(4):231-9.
Lowry-Webster 2003 {published data only}
  • Lowry-Webster HM, Barrett PM, Lock S. A universal prevention trial of anxiety symptomatology in children: results at 1-year follow up. Behaviour Change 2003;20(1):25-43.
Menzies 1993 {published data only}
Mifsud 2005 {published data only}
  • Mifsud C, Rapee RM. Early intervention for childhood anxiety in a school setting: outcomes for an economically disadvantaged population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;44(10):996-1004.
Olivares 2007 {published data only}
  • Rosa- Alcazar AI, Olivares RJ, Olivares PJ. Social validity of adolescent intervention in social phobia: parents vs teachers [Validez social de la intervencion en adolescentes con fobia social: padres frente a profesores]. Terapia psicológica 2007;25(1):63-72.
Ordeig 2004 {published data only}
  • Ordeig MT, Ramirez M, Figueras I. Evaluation of friends program in a Spanish clinical group of adolescents: preliminary results. Proceedings of the 32nd Congress of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (jointly with the European Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies), 2004, Manchester.
Silverman 1999b {published data only}
  • Silverman WK, Kurtines WM, Ginsburg GS, Weems CF, Lumpkin PW, Carmichael DH. Contingency management, self-control, and education support in the treatment of childhood phobic disorders: a randomised clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999b;67(5):675-87.
Sofronoff 2005 {published data only}
Treadwell 1996 {published data only}
Warren 1984 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Jansen 2012 {published data only}
  • Jansen M, van Doorn MM, Lichtwarck-Aschoff A, Kuijpers RC, Theunissen H, Korte M, et al. Effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) manualized program for clinically anxious children: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 2012;12(1):16.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
James 2005