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Intervention Review

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Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults

  1. Malgorzata M Bala1,*,
  2. Lukasz Strzeszynski2,
  3. Kate Cahill3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 23 JAN 2008

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 NOV 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004704.pub2

How to Cite

Bala MM, Strzeszynski L, Cahill K. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004704. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004704.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Jagiellonian University Medical College, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Krakow, Poland

  2. 2

    Medycyna Praktyczna, Krakow, Poland

  3. 3

    University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford, UK

*Malgorzata M Bala, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 8 Skawinska St, Krakow, 31-066, Poland. gosiabala@mp.pl.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 23 JAN 2008

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
California TCP 2003 {published data only}
  • Bal DG. Designing effective statewide tobacco control programme - California. Cancer 1998;83(Suppl 12):2717-21.
  • Breslow L, Johnson M. California's Proposition 99 on tobacco, and its impact. Annual Review of Public Health 1993;14:585-604.
  • Elder JP, Edwards CC, Conway TL, Kenney E, Johnson CA, Bennett ED. Independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Education Program. Public Health Reports 1996;111(4):353-8.
  • Gilpin EA, Emery SL, Farkas AJ, Distefan JM, White MM, Pierce JP. The California Tobacco Control Program: A decade of progress: Results from the California Tobacco Surveys, 1990-1998. La Jolla, CA: University of California, San Diego, 2001.
  • Gilpin EA, Messer K, White MM, Pierce JP. What contributed to the major decline in per capita cigarette consumption during California's tobacco control programme?. Tobacco Control 2006;15:308-16.
  • Gilpin EA, White MM, White VM, Distefan JM, Trinidad DR, James L, et al. Tobacco control successes in California: a focus on young people: results from the California Tobacco Surveys, 1990-2002. La Jolla, CA: University of California, San Diego, 2003.
  • Glantz SA. Changes in cigarette consumption, prices, and tobacco industry revenues associated with California's Propostion 99. Tobacco Control 1993;2(4):311-4.
  • Goldman LK, Glantz SA. Evaluation of antismoking advertising campaigns. JAMA 1998;279(10):772-7.
  • Hu T, Keeler TE, Sung H, Barnett PG. The impact of California anti-smoking legislation on cigarette sales, consumption, and prices. Tobacco Control 1995;4(Suppl):S34-8.
  • Hu T, Sung H-Y, Keeler TE. Reducing cigarette consumption in California: tobacco taxes vs an anti-smoking media campaign. American Journal of Public Health 1995;85(9):1218-22.
  • Independent Evaluation Consortium [The Gallup Organization]. Final Report. Independent Evaluation of the California Tobacco Control Prevention and Education Program: Waves 1, 2, and 3 (1996-2000) Tobacco Control Prevention and Education Program: Waves 1, 2, and 3 (1996-2000). Rockville: Maryland: The Gallup Organization, 2002. http://www.dhs.ca.gov/cdic/tcs/documents/pubs/WavesComplete.pdf (accessed 8/12/2006) 2002.
  • Independent Evaluation Consortium [The Gallup Organization]. Final Report of the Independent Evaluation of the California Tobacco Control Prevention and Education Program: Wave I Data, 1996-1997. http://www.dhs.ca.gov/tobacco/documents/eval/TCSFinal798Gallup.pdf (accessed 12/11/2007) 1998.
  • Independent Evaluation Consortium [The Gallup Organization]. Interim report. Independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Control Prevention and Education Program: Wave 2 data, 1998; Wave 1 and Wave 2 data comparisons, 1996-1998. http://www.dhs.ca.gov/tobacco/documents/eval/Wave2IEreport.pdf (accessed 12/11/2007) 1998.
  • Norman GJ, Ribisl KM, Howard-Pitney B, Howard KA, Unger JB. The relationship between home smoking bans and exposure to state tobacco control efforts and smoking behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion 2000;15(2):81-8.
  • Novotny TE, Siegel MB. California's tobacco control saga. Health Affairs 1996;15:58-72.
  • Pierce JP, Burns DM, Berry C, Rosbrook B, Goodman J, Gilpin E, et al. Reducing tobacco consumption in California: Proposition 99 seems to work [letter]. JAMA 1991;265:1257-8.
  • Pierce JP, Emery S, Gilpin E. The California Tobacco Control Program: a long term health communication project. In: Hornik RC editor(s). Public health communication. Evidence for behavior change. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
  • Pierce JP, Evans N, Farkas AJ, Cavin SW, Berry C, Kramer M, et al. Tobacco use in California. An evaluation of the Tobacco Control Program, 1989-1993. La Jolla, CA: University of California, San Diego, 1994.
  • Pierce JP, Farkas AJ, Evans N, Berry C, Choi W, Rosbrook B, et al. Tobacco Use in California 1992. A focus on preventing uptake in adolescents. Sacramento: California: California Department of Health Services, 1993.
  • Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Emery SL, Farkas AJ, Zhu SH, Choi WS, et al. Tobacco Control in California: Who's Winning the War? An Evaluation of The Tobacco Control Program, 1989-1996. La Jolla, CA: University of California, San Diego, 2001.
  • Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Emery SL, White MM, Rosbrook B, Berry CC. Has the California Tobacco Control Program reduced smoking?. JAMA 1998;280(10):893-9.
  • Popham WJ, Potter LD, Bal DG, Johnson MD, Duerr JM, Quinn V. Do anti-smoking media campaigns help smokers quit?. Public Health Reports 1993;108(4):510-3.
  • Popham WJ, Potter LD, Hetrick MA, Muthen LK, Duerr JM, Johnson MD. Effectiveness of the California 1990-1991 tobacco education media campaign. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1994;10(6):319-26.
  • Rohrbach LA, Howard-Pitney B, Unger JB, Dent CW, Howard KA, Cruz TB, et al. Independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Control Program: relationships between program exposure and outcomes, 1996-1998. American Journal of Public Health June 2002;92(6 [Tobacco and the media]):975-83.
  • Russell CM. Evaluation: methods and strategy for evaluation - California. Cancer 1998;83(12 Suppl):2755-9.
  • Siegel M, Pechacek TP, Strauss WJ, Schooley MW, Merritt RK, Novotny TE, et al. Trends in adult cigarette smoking in California compared with the rest of the United States, 1978-1994. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90:372-9.
  • Stevens C. Designing an effective counteradvertising campaign - California. Cancer 1998;83(12 Suppl):2736-41.
CORIS 1997 {published data only}
  • Rossouw JE, Jooste PL, Chalton DO, Jordaan ER, Langenhoven ML, Jordaan PC, et al. Community-based intervention: the Coronary Risk Factor Study (CORIS). International Journal of Epidemiology 1993;22(3):428-38.
  • Steenkamp HJ, Jooste PL, Jordaan PCJ, Swanepoel AS, Roussouw JE. Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular disease intervention programme. South African Medical Journal 1991;79:250-3.
  • Steyn K, Steyn M, Swanepoel ASP, Jordaan PCT, Jooste PL, Fourie JM, et al. Twelve-year results of the Coronary Risk Factor Study (CORIS). International Journal of Epidemiology 1997;26(5):964-71.
Jenkins 1997 {published data only}
  • Jenkins CN, McPhee SJ, Le A, Pham GQ, Ha NT, Stewart S. The effectiveness of a media-led intervention to reduce smoking among Vietnamese-American men. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87(6):1031-4.
Massachusetts 2003 {published data only}
  • Biener L. Adult and youth response to the Massachusetts anti-tobacco television campaign. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2000;6(3):40-4.
  • Biener L, Harris JE, Hamilton W. Impact of the Massachusetts tobacco control programme: population based trend analysis. BMJ 2000;321(7257):351-4.
  • Biener L, McCallum-Keeler G, Nyman AL. Adults' response to Massachusetts anti-tobacco television advertisements: impact of viewer and advertisement characteristics. Tobacco Control 2000;9(4):401-7.
  • Celebucki C, Biener L, Koh HK. Evaluation: methods and strategy for evaluation - Massachusetts. Cancer 1998;83(12 Suppl):2760-5.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking before and after an excise tax increase and an antismoking campaign - Massachusetts, 1990-1996. MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 1996;45:966-70.
  • Connolly G, Robbins H. Designing an effective statewide tobacco control program - Massachusetts. Cancer 1998;83(supl 12):2722-7.
  • DeJong W, Hoffman KD. A content analysis of television advertising for the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program media campaign 1993-1996. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2000;6(3):27-39.
  • Goldman LK, Glantz SA. Evaluation of antismoking advertising campaigns.. JAMA 1998;279(10):772-7.
  • Hamilton W, diStefano Norton G, Weintraub J. Independent evaluation of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program, 7th annual report - January 1994 to June 2000. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates Inc, 2002.
  • Hamilton WL, Rodger CN, Chen X, Njobe TK, Kling R, Norton G. Independent Evaluation of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program. Eighth Annual Report: January 1994-June 2001. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates Inc, 2003.
  • Miller A. Designing an effective counteradvertising campaign - Massachusetts. Cancer 1998;83(12 Suppl):2742-5.
  • Robbins H, Krakow M, Warner D. Adult smoking intervention programmes in Massachusetts: a comprehensive approach with promising results. Tobacco Control 2002;11(Suppl II):ii4-ii7.
  • Weintraub JM, Hamilton WL. Trends in prevalence of current smoking, Massachusetts and states without tobacco control programmes, 1990 to 1999. Tobacco Control 2002;11(Supplement II):ii8-ii13.
McAlister 2004 {published data only}
  • McAlister A, Morrison TC, Hu SH, Meshack AF, Ramirez A, Gallion K, et al. Media and community campaign effects on adult tobacco use in Texas. Journal of Health Communication 2004;9(2):95-109.
McPhee 1995 {published data only}
  • McPhee SJ, Jenkins CNH, Wong C, Fordham D, Lai KQ, Bird JA, et al. Smoking cessation intervention among Vietnamese Americans: a controlled trial. Tobacco Control 1995;4(Suppl 1):S16-24.
McVey 2000 {published data only}
  • McVey D, Stapleton J. Can anti-smoking television advertising affect smoking behaviour? Controlled trial of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking TV campaign. Tobacco Control 2000;9(3):273-82.
Mogielnicki 1986 {published data only}
North Coast QFL 1983 {published data only}
  • Egger G, Fitzgerald W, Frape G, Monaem A, Rubinstein P, Tyler C, et al. Results of a large scale anti-smoking campaign in Australia: North Coast 'Quit for Life'. BMJ 1983;287:1125-8.
  • Egger G, Frape G, Mackay B. Applied problems of media use in health promotion - the North Coast experience. New Doctor 1981;January:25-9.
Stanford 3 City 1977 {published data only}
  • Farquhar JW, Maccoby N, Wood PD, Alexander JK, Breitrose H, Brown BW Jr, et al. Community education for cardiovascular health. Lancet 1977;4(8023):1192-5.
  • Kasl SV. Cardiovascular risk reduction in a community setting: some comments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1980;48(2):143-9.
  • Leventhal H, Safer MA, Cleary PD, Gutmann M. Cardiovascular risk modification by community-based programs for life-style change: comments on the Stanford study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1980;48(2):150-8.
  • Maccoby N, Farquhar JW, Wood PD, Alexander J. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease: effects of a community-based campaign on knowledge and behavior. Journal of Community Health 1977;3(2):100-14.
  • Meyer AJ. Skills training in a cardiovascular health education campaign. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1980;48(2):129-42.
  • Meyer AJ, Maccoby N, Farquhar JW. Reply to Kasl and Leventhal et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1980;48(2):159-63.
Sydney QFL 1986 {published data only}
  • Dwyer T, Pierce JP, Hannam CD, Burke N. Evaluation of the Sydney "Quit for Life" anti-smoking campaign. Part 2. Changes in smoking prevalence. Medical Journal of Australia 1986;144:344-7.
  • Pierce JP, Dwyer T, Frape G, Chapman S, Chamberlain A, Burke N. Evaluation of the Sydney "Quit For Life" anti-smoking campaign. Part 1. Achievement of intermediate goals. Medical Journal of Australia 1986;144:341-4.
  • Pierce JP, Macaskill P, Hill D. Long-term effectiveness of mass media led antismoking campaigns in Australia. American Journal of Public Health 1990;80(5):565.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Arizona 1998 {published data only}
ASSIST 2003 {published data only}
  • Manley M, Lynn W, Payne Epps R, Grande D, Glynn T, Shopland D. The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for cancer prevention: an overview. Tobacco Control 1997;6(Suppl 2):S5-S11.
  • Manley MW, Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Rosbrook B, Berry C, Wun LM. Impact of the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study on cigarette consumption. Tobacco Control 1997;6(Suppl 2):S12-S16.
  • Stillman F, Hartman A, Graubard B, Gilpin E, Chavis D, Garcia J, et al. The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study. Conceptual framework and evaluation design. Evaluation Review 1999;23(3):259-80.
  • Stillman FA, Cronin KA, Evans WD, Ulasevich A. Can media advocacy influence newspaper coverage of tobacco: measuring the effectiveness of the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study's (ASSIST) media advocacy strategies. Tobacco Control 2001;10(2):137-44.
  • Stillman FA, Hartman AM, Graubard BI, Gilpin EA, Murray DM, Gibson JT. Evaluation of the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST): a report of outcomes. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2003;95(22):1681-91.
A Su Salud 1990 {published data only}
  • Amezcua C, McAlister A, Ramirez A, Espinoza R. A Su salud. Health promotion in a Mexican-American border community. In: Bracht N editor(s). Health promotion at the community level. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990.
  • McAlister AL, Ramirez AG, Amezcua C, Pulley LV, Stern MP, Mercado S. Smoking cessation in Texas-Mexico border communities: a quasi-experimental panel study. American Journal of Health Promotion 1992;6(4):274-9.
  • Ramirez AG, McAlister AL. Mass media campaign--A Su Salud. Preventive Medicine 1988;17(5):608-21.
Barber 1990 {published data only}
Boyd 1998 {published data only}
  • Boyd NR, Sutton C, Orleans CT, McClatchey MW, Bingler R, Fleisher L, et al. Quit Today! A targeted communications campaign to increase use of the cancer information service by African American smokers. Preventive Medicine 1998;27(5 Pt 2):S50-60.
Brownson 1996 {published data only}
  • Brownson RC, Smith CA, Pratt M, Mack N, Jackson-Thompson J, Dean CG, et al. Preventing cardiovascular disease through community-based risk reduction: The Bootheel Heart Health Project. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(2):206-13.
Chicago I 1989 {published data only}
Chicago II 1992 {published data only}
  • Flay BR, McFall S, Burton D, Cook TD, Warnecke RB. Health behavior changes through television: the roles of de facto and motivated selection processes. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1993;34(4):322-35.
  • Warnecke RB, Flay BR, Kviz FJ, Gruder CL, Langenberg P, Crittenden KS, et al. Characteristics of participants in a televised smoking cessation intervention. Preventive Medicine 1991;20(3):389-403.
  • Warnecke RB, Langenberg P, Wong SC, Flay BR, Cook TD. The second Chicago televised smoking cessation program: a 24-month follow-up. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82(6):835-40.
Coeur en sante 1999 {published data only}
  • O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Kishchuk N, Gray-Donald K, Renaud L, Fines P, et al. Coeur en sante St-Henri - a heart health promotion program in Montreal, Canada: design and methods for evaluation. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1995;49:495-502.
  • O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Meshefedijan G. Evalution of two strategies for heart health promotion by direct mail in a low-income urban community. Preventive Medicine 1997;26:745-53.
  • O'Loughlin JL, Paradis G, Gray-Donald K, Renaud L. The impact of a community-based heart disease prevention program in a low-income, inner-city neighborhood. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89:1819-26.
  • Paradis G, O'Loughlin J, Elliot M. Coeur en sante St-Henri - a heart health promotion program in a low income, low education neighborhood in Montreal, Canada: theoretical model and early field experience. Jounral of Epidemiology and Community Health 1995;49:503-12.
COMMIT 1995 {published data only}
  • Hyland A, Wakefield M, Higbee C, Szczypka G, Cummings KM. Anti-tobacco television advertising and indicators of smoking cessation in adults: a cohort study. Health Education Research 2006;21(2):296-302.
  • Sciandra RC, Wallack L, Johnson CL, Sadlik J, Thompson J. Activities to involve the smoking public in tobacco control in COMMIT. NIH Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No 6, Chapter 6. National Institute for Health, 1995.
  • The COMMIT Research Group. Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort Results from a Four-Year Community Intervention. American Journal of Public Health 1995;85(2):183-92.
  • The COMMIT Research Group. Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): II. Changes in adult cigarette smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health 1995;85(2):193-200.
  • Wallack L, Sciandra R. Media advocacy and public education in the Community Intervention Trial to Reduce Heavy Smoking (COMMIT). International Quarterly of Community Health Education 1990-1991;11(3):205-22.
Cummings 1987 {published data only}
Cummings 1993 {published data only}
  • Cummings KM, Sciandra R, Davis S, Rimer BK. Results of an antismoking media campaign utilizing the Cancer Information Service. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monograph 1993;14:113-8.
  • Davis SW, Cummings KM, Rimer BK, Sciandra R, Stone JC. Response to anti-smoking campaign aimed at mothers with young children. Health Education and Research 1989;4:429-37.
Danaher 1984 {published data only}
Davidson 1990 {published data only}
  • Davidson M. Wake up. Quit! The use of mass media and community participation to reduce smoking prevalence among young adults. Drug Education Journal of Australia 1990;4(2):151-7.
Donovan 1984 {published data only}
  • Donovan RJ, Fisher DA, Armstrong BK. "Give it away for a day": an evaluation of Western Australia's first smoke free day. Community Health Studies 1984;8:301-6.
Doxiadis 1985 {published data only}
  • Doxiadis SA, Trihopoulos DV, Phylactou HD. Impact of a nationwide anti-smoking campaign. Lancet 1985;2(8457):712-3.
Dubren 1977 {published data only}
Dyer 1983 {published data only}
  • Dyer N. Evaluation of the BBC TV series "So you want to stop smoking". Conference on Smoking and Health, Fifth World Congress, Winnipeg Canada. 1983.
  • Dyer N. Smokers' Luck: Can a "shocking" programme change attitudes to smoking?. Addictive Behaviors 1983;8(1):43-6.
Eiser 1978 {published data only}
  • Eiser JR, Rutton SR, Wober M. Can television influence smoking? Further evidence. British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs 1978;73(3):291-8.
  • Eiser JR, Sutton SR, Wober M. Can television influence smoking?. British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs 1978;73(2):215-9.
Frith 1997 {published data only}
  • Frith C, Roberts C, Kingdon A, Tudor-Smith C. An evaluation of the 1996 No Smoking Day in Wales. Health Education Journal 1997;56:287-95.
GASO 2002 {published data only}
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Impact of promotion of the Great American Smokeout and availability of over-the-counter nicotine medications, 1996. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 1997;46(37):867-71.
  • Freels SA, Warnecke RB, Johnson TP, Flay BR. Evaluation of the effects of a smoking cessation intervention using the multilevel thresholds of change model. Evaluation Review 2002;26(1):40-58.
  • Gritz ER, Carr CR, Marcus AC. Unaided smoking cessation: Great American Smokeout and new year's day quitters. Special Issue: Clinical research issues in psychosocial oncology. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology 1988;6:217-34.
  • Hantula DA, Stillman FA, Waranch HR. Can a mass-media campaign modify tobacco smoking in a large organization? Evaluation of the Great American Smokeout in an urban hospital. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 1992;13(1):33-47.
Gredler 1981 {published data only}
  • Gredler B, Kunze M. Impact of a national campaign on smoking attitudes and patterns in Austria. International Journal of Health Education 1981;24:271-9.
  • Gredler B, Kunze M. You can do without smoking - a mass media campaign in Austria. Conference: Smoking and Health, Fifth World Congress, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 10-15 Jul. 1983. [: World Meeting Number 833 0083]
Heartbeat Wales 1998 {published data only}
  • Nutbeam D, Catford J. The Welsh Heart Programme evaluation strategy: progress, plans and possibilities. Health Promotion 1987;2(1):5-18.
  • Nutbeam D, Smith C, Murphy S, Catford J. Maintaining evaluation designs in long term community based health promotion programmes: Heartbeat Wales case study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1993;47:127-33.
  • Tudor Smith C, Nutbeam D, Moore L, Catford J. Effects of the Heartbeat Wales programme over five years on behavioural risks for cardiovascular disease: quasi-experimental comparison of results from Wales and a matched reference area. BMJ 1998;316(7134):818-22.
HEBS 1997 {published data only}
  • Donnan PT, Watson J, Platt S, Tannahill A, Raymond M. Predictors of successful quitting: findings from a six-month evaluation of Smokeline campaign. Journal of Smoking Related Disorders 1994;5(suppl 1):271-6.
  • Platt S, Tannahill A, Watson J, Fraser E. Effectiveness of antismoking telephone helpline: follow up survey. BMJ 1997;314(7091):1371-5.
  • Ratcliffe J, Cairns J, Platt S. Cost effectiveness of a mass media-led anti-smoking campaign in Scotland. Tobacco Control 1997;6(2):104-10.
Hill 2003 {published data only}
  • Borland R, Balmford J. Understanding how mass media campaigns impact on smokers. Tobacco Control 2003;12(Suppl II):ii45-ii52.
  • Carroll T, Rock B. Generating Quitline calls during Australia's National Tobacco Campaign: effect of television advertisement execution and programme placement. Tobacco Control 2003;12(Suppl II):ii40-ii44.
  • Donovan RJ, Boulter J, Borland R, Jalleh G, Carter O. Continuous tracking of the Australian National Tobacco Campaign: advertising effects on recall, recognition, cognitions, and behaviour. Tobacco Control 2003;12(Suppl II):ii30-ii39.
  • Hill D, Carroll T. Australia's National Tobacco Campaign. Tobacco Control 2003;12(Suppl II):ii9-ii14.
  • Miller CL, Wakefield M, Roberts L. Uptake and effectiveness of the Australian telephone Quitline service in the context of a mass media campaign. Tobacco Control 2003;12(Suppl II):ii53-ii58.
  • Wakefield M, Freeman J, Donovan R. Recall and response of smokers and recent quitters to the Australian National Tobacco Campaign. Tobacco Control 2003;12(Suppl II):ii15-ii22.
Hunkeler 1990 {published data only}
  • Hunkeler EF, Davis EM, McNeil B, Powell JW, et al. Richmond quits smoking: a minority community fights for health. In: Bracht N editor(s). Health promotion at the community level. Newbury Park (CA): Sage Publications, 1990.
Jason 1988 {published data only}
  • Jason LA, Tait E, Goodman D, Buckenberger L, Gruder CL. Effects of a televised smoking cessation intervention among low-income and minority smokers. American Journal of Communit Psychology 1988;16(6):863-76.
Laugesen 2000 {published data only}
Ledwith 1984 {published data only}
  • Ledwith, F. Effectiveness of the leaflet and individualized postal advice in aiding smoking cessation with large numbers of smokers. Conference: Smoking and Health, Fifth World Congress, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 10-15 Jul. 1983. [: World Meeting Number 833 0083]
  • Ledwith F. Immediate and delayed effects of postal advice on stopping smoking. Health Bulletin 1984;42(6):332-44.
Le Net 1977 {published data only}
  • Le Net M. [Evaluation of a national campaign against smoking (France)] [Evaluation d'une campagne nationale contrel'abus du tabac (France)]. Sozial und Praventivmedizin 1977;22(5):263-75.
Leroux 1983 {published data only}
  • Leroux RS, Miller ME. Electronic media-based smoking cessation clinic, in the USA. Hygie 1983;2(1):23-37.
McAlister 2006 {published data only}
  • McAlister AL, Huang P, Ramirez AG. Settlement-funded tobacco control in Texas: 2000-2004 pilot project effects on cigarette smoking. Public Health Reports 2006;121:235-8.
MHHP 1995 {published data only}
  • Dean AG, Shultz JM, Gust SW, Harty KC, Moen ME. Minnesota plan for nonsmoking and health: multidisciplinary approach to risk factor control. Public Health Reports 1986;101(3):270-7.
  • Glasgow RE, Klesges RC, Mizes JS, Pechacek TF. Quitting smoking: strategies used and variables associated with success in a stop-smoking contest. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1985;53(6):905-12.
  • Harty KC. Animals and butts: Minnesota's media campaign against tobacco. Tobacco Control 1993;2:271-4.
  • Jacobs DR Jr, Luepker RV, Mittelmark MB, Folsom AR, Pirie PL, Mascioli SR, et al. Community-wide prevention strategies: Evaluation design of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1986;39(10):775-88.
  • Lando HA, Pechacek TF, Fruetel J. The Minnesota Heart Health Program Community Quit and Win Contests. American Journal of Health Promotion 1994;9(2):85-7,124.
  • Lando HA, Pechacek TF, Pirie PL, Murray DM, Mittelmark MB, Lichtenstein E, et al. Changes in adult cigarette smoking in Minnesota Heart Health Program. American Journal of Public Health 1995;85(2):201-8.
  • Luepker RV. An update and review of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Annals of Epidemiology 1993;3(Suppl 5):S8-S12.
  • Luepker RV, Murray DM, Jacobs DR Jr, Mittelmark MB, Bracht N, Carlaw R, et al. Community education for cardiovascular disease prevention: risk factor changes in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. American Journal of Public Health 1994;84(9):1383-93.
  • Mittelmark MB, Luepker RV, Jacobs DR, Bracht NF, Carlaw RW, Crow RS, et al. Community-wide prevention of cardiovascular disease: education strategies of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Preventive Medicine 1986;15(1):1-17.
  • Pavlik J, Finnegan JR, Strickland D, Salmon CT, Viswanath K, Wackman DB. Increasing public understanding of heart disease: an analysis of data from the MHHP. Health Communication 1993;5:1-20.
Millar 1987 {published data only}
  • Millar WJ, Naegele BE. Time to quit: community involvement in smoking cessation. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1987;78(2):109-14.
Mudde 1995 {published data only}
Mudde 1999 {published data only}
Multicity 1997 {published data only}
  • Cernada GP, Darity WA, Chen TTL, Winder AE, Benn S, Jackson R, et al. Mass media usage among black smokers: a first look. Interantional Quarterly of Community Health Education 1989;10(4):347-64.
  • Darity WA, Tuthill RW, Winder AE, Cernada GP, Chen TTL, Buchanan DR, et al. A multi-city community based smoking research intervention project in the African-American population. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 1997;17(2):117-30.
North Karelia 1998 {published data only}
  • Korhonen T, Uutela A, Korhonen HJ, Puska P. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996. Journal of Health Communication 1998;3(2):105-18.
  • Puska P, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT, Koskela K, McAlister A, et al. The community-based strategy to prevent coronary heart disease: conclusions from the ten years of the North Karelia project. Annual Review of Public Health 1985;6:147-93.
  • Vartiainen E, Puska P, Jousilahti P, Korhonen HJ, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A. Twenty-year trends in coronary risk factors in north Karelia and in other areas of Finland. Interantional Journal of Epidemiology 1994;23:495-504.
Oregon 1999 {published data only}
Osler 1993 {published data only}
  • Osler M, Jespersen NB. The effect of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention project in a Danish municipality. Danish Medical Bulletin 1993;40(4):485-9.
Pallonen 1994 {published data only}
  • Pallonen UE, Leskinen L, Prochaska JO, Willey CJ, Kaariainen R, Salonen JT. A 2-year self-help smoking cessation manual intervention among middle-aged Finnish men: an application of the transtheoretical model. Preventive Medicine 1994;23(4):507-14.
Perkins 1986 {published data only}
  • Perkins KA, Scott RR. A low-cost environmental intervention for reducing smoking among cardiac patients. International Journal of the Addictions 1986;21(11):1173-82.
Programa Latino 1994 {published data only}
  • Marin BV, Perez-Stable EJ, Marin G, Hauck WW. Effects of a community intervention to change smoking behavior among Hispanics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1994;10(6):340-7.
  • Marin G, Marin BV, Perez-Stable EJ, Sabogal F, Otero-Sabogal R. Changes in information as a function of a culturally appropriate smoking cessation community intervention for Hispanics. American Journal of Community Psychology 1990;18:847-64.
  • Perez-Stable EJ, Marin BV, Marin G. A comprehensive smoking cessation program for the San Francisco Bay area Latino community: Programa Latino para dejar de fumar. American Journal of Health Promotion 1993;7(6):430-42.
Sansores 2002 {published data only}
  • Sansores RH, Giraldo-Buitrago F, Valdelamar-Vazquez F, Ramirez-Venegas A, Sandoval RA. The impact of mass media on an anti-tobacco campaign. Salud Publica Mexico 2002;44(Suppl 1):S101-S108.
Secker-Walker 2000 {published data only}
  • Secker-Walker RH, Flynn BS, Solomon LJ, Skelly JM, Dorwaldt AL, Ashikaga T. Helping Women Quit Smoking: Results of a Community Intervention Program. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90(6):940-6.
Sogaard 1992 {published data only}
Stanford 5 City 2000 {published data only}
  • Farquhar JW, Fortmann SP, Flora JA, Taylor CB, Haskells WI, Williams PT, et al. Effects of communitywide education on cardiovascular disease risk factors.The Stanford Five-City Project. JAMA 1990;264(3):359-65.
  • Farquhar JW, Fortmann SP, Maccoby N, Haskells WL, Williams PT, Flora JA, et al. The Stanford Five-City Project: design and methods. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;122:323-34.
  • Fortmann SP, Taylor CB, Flora JA, Jatulis DE. Changes in adult cigarette smoking prevalence after 5 years of community health education: the Stanford Five-City Project. American Journal of Epidemiology 1993;137(1):82-96.
  • Fortmann SP, Varady AN. Effects of a community-wide health education program on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: The Stanford Five-City Project. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000;152(4):316-23.
  • Jackson C, WInkleby MA, Flora JA. Use of educational resources for cardiovascular risk reduction in the Stanford Five Cit Project. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1991;7:82-8.
  • Rimal RN, Flora JA, Schooler C. Achieving improvements in overall health orientation: Effects of campaign exposure, information seeking and health media use. Communication Research 1999;26(3):322-48.
  • Sallis JF, Flora JA, Fortmann SP, Taylor CB, Maccoby N. Mediated smoking cessation programs in the Stanford Five-City Project. Addictive Behaviors 1985;10(4):441-3.
  • Schooler C, Flora JA, Farquar JW. Moving Project toward synergy: media supplementation in the Stanford Five City. Communication Research 1993;20(4):587-610.
  • Winkleby MA, Flora JA, Kraemer HC. A community based heart disease intervention: predictors of change. American Journal of Public Health 1994;84(5):767-72.
  • Winkleby MA, Taylor CB, Jatulis D. The long-term effects of a cardiovascular disease prevention trial: the Stanford Five City Project. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(12):1773-9.
Stevens 2002 {published data only}
  • Stevens W, Thorogood M, Kayikki S. Cost-effectiveness of a community anti-smoking campaign targeted at a high risk group in London. Health Promotion International 2002;17(1):43-50.
Sussman 1994 {published data only}
Sutton 1987 {published data only}
  • Hallett R, Sutton SR. Factors influencing the decision to attempt to stop smoking in a media-based smoking intervention programme. Health Education Research 1986;1(3):163-73.
  • Sutton SR, Hallett R. Experimental evaluation of the BBC TV series "So You Want To Stop Smoking?". Addictive Behaviors 1987;12(4):363-6.
TV Finland 1992 {published data only}
  • Korhonen HJ, Niemensivu H, Piha T, Koskela K, Wiio J, Johnson CA, et al. National TV smoking cessation program and contest in Finland. Preventive Medicine 1992;21(1):74-87.
  • Korhonen H J, Puska P, Lipand A, Kasmel A. Combining mass media and contest in smoking cessation. An experience from a series of national activities in Finland. Hygie 1993;12(1):15.
  • Koskela K, Puska P, Smolander A. Use of TV in national smoking reduction in Finland. Conference: Smoking and Health, Fifth World Congress, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 10-15 Jul. 1983. [: World Meeting Number 833 0083]
  • McAlister A, Puska P, Koskela K, Pallonen U, Maccoby N. Mass communication and community organization for public health education. The American Psychologist 1980;35(4):375-9.
  • Puska P, Koskela K, McAlister A, Pallonen U, Vartiainen H, Homan K. A comprehensive television smoking cessation program in Finland. International Journal of Health Education 1979;22(Suppl):1-29.
  • Puska P, Wiio J, McAlister A, Koskela K, Smolander A, Pekkola J, et al. Planned use of mass media in national health promotion: the "Keys to Health" TV program in 1982 in Finland. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1985;76(5):336-42.
Valois 1996 {published data only}
  • Valois RF, Adams KG, Kammermann SK. One-year evaluation results from CableQuit: a community cable television smoking cessation pilot program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1996;19(5):479-99.
van Assema 1994 {published data only}
Wewers 1991 {published data only}
Wheeler 1988 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
IHHP 2003 {published data only}
  • Sarraf-Zadegan N, Sadri G, Malek Afzali H, Baghaei M, Mohammadi Fard N, Shahrokhi S, et al. Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme: A comprehensive integrated community-based programme for cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Design, methods and initial experience. Acta Cardiologica 2003;58(4):309-20.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
ASH 2007
  • Action on Smoking and Health. Fact Sheet No. 1 Who smokes and how much ?. www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/pdfs/fact01.pdf 2007.
Bandura 1977
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Biener 2006
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Brinn 2010
Cahill 2008
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Cahill 2011
Chapman 2007
EPOC 2006
Fichtenberg 2000
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Fiore 2000
Flay 1987a
Flay 1987b
  • Flay BR. Selling the smokeless society: Fifty-six evaluated mass media programs and campaigns worldwide. Washington DC: APHA Public Health Practice Series, 1987.
Friend 2002
Hastings 2002
HMSO 1998
Hopkins 2001
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Levy 2000
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Logan 1999
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Lumley 2009
MacKay 1994
Murray 1998
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NCI 1991
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NCI 2000
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NICE 2007
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Pechmann 2000
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Reid 1995
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Siegel 2002a
Siegel 2002b
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Surgeon General 1964
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Tyas 1997
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USDHHS 1991
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Wakefield 2000
Wakefield 2003
Warner 1977
Wellings 2000
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WHO 2001
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World Bank 1999
  • Jha P, Chaloupka FJ. Curbing the epidemic: Governments and the economics of tobacco control. http://www1.worldbank.org/tobacco (accessed 20/11/2006) 1999.
Yankelovich 1991
  • Yankelovich D. Coming to public judgement: making democracy work in a complex world. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1991.