Any form of screening aims to reduce disease specific and overall mortality and improve a person's future quality of life. Screening for prostate cancer has generated considerable debate within the medical and broader community, as demonstrated by the varying recommendations made by medical organizations and governed by national policies. Much of this debate is due to the limited availability of high quality research and the influence of false-positive or false-negative results generated by use of the screening techniques such as the digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. Our 2006 Cochrane review identified insufficient evidence to either support, or refute, the use of routine mass, selective or opportunistic screening for prostate cancer. This article is an update of that review.