Intervention Review

Education of children and adolescents for the prevention of dog bite injuries

  1. Olivier Duperrex1,*,
  2. Karen Blackhall2,
  3. Mafalda Burri1,
  4. Emilien Jeannot1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 15 APR 2009

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 JUL 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004726.pub2


How to Cite

Duperrex O, Blackhall K, Burri M, Jeannot E. Education of children and adolescents for the prevention of dog bite injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004726. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004726.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Université de Genève, Institut de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Geneva, Switzerland

  2. 2

    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Cochrane Injuries Group, London, UK

*Olivier Duperrex, Institut de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Université de Genève, 1, rue Michel-Servet, CH-1211 Genève 4, Geneva, Switzerland. Olivier.Duperrex@unige.ch.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 15 APR 2009

SEARCH

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Dog bites can have dramatic consequences for children and adolescents. Educating young people on how to interact with dogs could contribute to reducing dog bite injuries.

Objectives

To determine the effectiveness of educational interventions that target children and adolescents in reducing dog bite injuries and their consequences.

Search methods

We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Injuries Group’s Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2008), CAB Abstracts, Zetoc, SIGLE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, SPECTR, CINAHL, National Research Register, LILACs, African Healthline, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, CurrentClinicalTrials.Gov, Centrewatch, Controlledtrials.com, Vetgate and the WHO database. We checked the bibliographies of relevant reviews and trials and also contacted experts in the field. The searches were carried out to 18 July 2008.

Selection criteria

We included randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies that evaluated the effectiveness of educational interventions, in populations under 20 years old, for preventing dog bites.

Data collection and analysis

Two review authors selected eligible studies based on information from the title and abstract. Two review authors decided on the inclusion of eligible trials and extracted data from the trial reports. We contacted authors of eligible studies to obtain more information.

Main results

Two studies met the inclusion criteria. No study looked at our main outcome: dog bite rates. The included studies were randomised controlled trials conducted in kindergarten and primary schools. Their methodology was of moderate quality. One study showed that the intervention group showed less 'inappropriate behaviour' when observed in the presence of a dog after a 30-minute educational intervention. Another study showed an increase in knowledge and in caution after an information programme.

Authors' conclusions

There is no direct evidence that educational programmes can reduce dog bite rates in children and adolescents. Educating children who are less than 10 years old in school settings could improve their knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards dogs. Educating children and adolescents in settings other than schools should also be evaluated. There is a need for high quality studies that measure dog bite rates as an outcome. To date, evidence does not suggest that educating children and adolescents is effective as a unique public health strategy to reduce dog bite injuries and their consequences.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

The effect of educating children and adolescents on preventing dog bite injuries

Dog bites can cause significant injuries leading to death or long-lasting disability. The education of children in the school setting could improve their knowledge and attitude towards dogs and encourage safer behaviour around them. The authors of this systematic review examined studies that determined the effectiveness of educational programmes for children and adolescents in preventing dog bite injuries. The educational programmes aimed to change the children and adolescents behaviour towards dogs.

Two studies were included in this review. Both were of moderate methodological quality and evaluated the effectiveness of educating children on preventing dog bite injuries. Both studies involved a 30-minute lesson. One study additionally compared the effect of educating the children's parents through a leaflet. One study videotaped the way children behaved when exposed to an unknown dog, and their behaviour was observed. The main outcome reported in both studies was a change in behaviour.

It is unclear from this review whether educating children can reduce dog bite injuries as dog bite rates were not reported as an outcome in either of the included studies. The effect of educating children and adolescents in settings other than schools has not been evaluated. There is a general lack of evidence about the impact of education to prevent dog bites in children and adolescents, therefore further studies that look at dog bite rates after an intervention are recommended. Education of children and adolescents should not be the only public health strategy to reduce dog bites and their dramatic consequences.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

兒童和青少年的狗咬傷預防教育

狗咬傷會對於兒童和青少年產生嚴重後果。而教育年輕人如何與狗相處互動將有助於減少因狗咬人致受傷的機會。

目標

為了確定關於兒童和青少年減少狗咬傷害和其傷害後果所實施的介入性教育的有效性。

搜尋策略

我們搜尋以下的資料庫: The Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (Cochrane 圖書館 2008 年 第 3 輯), CAB Abstracts, Zetoc, SIGLE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, SPECTR, CINAHL, National Research Register, LILACs, African Healthline, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, CurrentClinicalTrials. Gov, Centrewatch, Controlledtrials.com, Vetgate and the WHO 數據庫. 我們回顧相關的文獻與試驗,以及該領域專家的資料。搜尋日期進行至 2008年7月18號。

選擇標準

我們選取隨機控制試驗和控制前與控制後的研究,並且評估其對於小於20歲的族群實施防止狗咬傷教育介入措施的成效。

資料收集與分析

兩位審查作者基於標題和摘要資料而選取合適的研究。兩個審查作者決定納入合適的試驗並且從試驗報告中截取資料。我們聯繫該合適研究的作者以取得更多資訊。

主要結論

有兩項研究符合納入標準,但是沒有研究針對我們的主要結果:狗咬比率。選取的研究為對於幼稚園和小學所實施的隨機控制試驗。他們所採取的方法學屬於中度品質。一項研究中顯示在30分鐘介入教育之後,觀察到當狗在場時”介入組”表現出較少的”不當行為” 。另一項研究顯示:在資訊計劃之後會增加知識與謹慎。

作者結論

沒有直接證據證明教育計劃可以減少對於兒童和青少年的狗咬比率。針對學校機構中小於十歲的孩童實施教育,將可改善他們面對狗時的知識、態度、與行為。而對於教育學校機構以外的兒童和青少年也應進行評估。我們同時需要一個以測量狗咬比率作為結果的高品質研究;迄今為止,沒有證據顯示:教育兒童和青少年是唯一且有效減少狗咬傷害和其後果的公共衛生策略。

翻譯人

本摘要由高雄榮民總醫院張運德翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。

總結

狗咬事件可以造成重大傷害,導致死亡或長期殘疾。針對學校中的孩童實施教育,將可改善他們面對狗時的知識、態度,並鼓勵在他們周圍採取較安全的行為。本文章的作者們以系統性回顧,檢視並決定對於兒童和青少年在防止狗咬人受傷的教育方案的有效性。這些教育方案是針對面對狗時改變兒童和青少年的行為。本回顧文章包括有兩項研究,在方法學上為中度品質,而且皆評估孩童避免狗咬傷教育的有效性。兩項研究包括有30分鐘的課程,其中一項研究額外比較透過傳單教育孩童父母的效果,另外一項研究以錄像的方式教導兒童當暴露於野狗時的行為表現方式並進行觀察,這兩項研究的主要結果為行為改變。由於在此兩項研究中的結果並沒有報告狗咬比率,目前還不清楚是否從這次文獻回顧孩童教育可以減少狗咬傷害。教育學校以外的孩童和青少年的效果並未被評估。關於對孩童和青少年避免狗咬傷所實施教育的影響目前普遍缺乏證據,因此,建議進一步研究介入措施後的狗咬比率。對於降低狗咬傷及其所造成的嚴重傷害結果所採取的公共衛生策略不應僅使用對於兒童和青少年的教育而已。