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Intervention Review

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Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy

  1. Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas1,*,
  2. Fernando E Viteri2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 7 OCT 2009

Assessed as up-to-date: 24 JUN 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004736.pub3


How to Cite

Peña-Rosas JP, Viteri FE. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004736. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004736.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    World Health Organization, Reduction of Micronutrient Malnutrition Unit, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, Geneva 27, Switzerland

  2. 2

    Children's Hospital and Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA

*Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Reduction of Micronutrient Malnutrition Unit, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, Geneva 27, 1211, Switzerland. penarosasj@who.int.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 7 OCT 2009

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (12 DEC 2012)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Barton 1994 {published data only}
  • Barton DPJ, Joy MT, Lappin TRJ, Afrasiabi M, Morel JG, O'Riordan J, et al. Maternal erythropoietin in singleton pregnancies: a randomized trial on the effect of oral hematinic supplementation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;170:896-901.
  • Murphy JF. Randomised double blind control trial of iron/placebo administration to pregnant women with high booking Hb concentrations (Hb>149/dl). Personal communication 1990.
Batu 1976 {published data only}
  • Batu AT, Toe T, Pe H, Nyunt KK. A prophylactic trial of iron and folic acid supplements in pregnant Burmese women. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 1976;12:1410-7.
Butler 1968 {published data only}
  • Butler EB. The effect of iron and folic acid on red cell and plasma volume in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1968;75:497-510.
Buytaert 1983 {published data only}
Cantlie 1971 {published data only}
  • Cantlie GSD, De Leeuw NKM, Lowenstein L. Iron and folate nutrition in a group of private obstetrical patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1971;24:637-41.
Chanarin 1971 {published data only}
  • Chanarin I, Rothman D. Further observations on the relation between iron and folate status in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1971;2:81-4.
Charoenlarp 1988 {published data only}
  • Charoenlarp P, Dhanamitta S, Kaewvichit R, Silprasert A, Suwanaradd C, Na-Nakorn S, et al. A WHO collaborative study on iron supplementation in Burma and in Thailand. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;47(2):280-97.
Chew 1996a {published and unpublished data}
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Comparison of weekly and daily iron supplementation to pregnant women in Guatemala (supervised and unsupervised). FASEB Journal 1996;10:A4221.
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Individual patient data (as supplied 15 January 2004). Data on file.
  • Chew F, Torún B, Viteri FE. Comparison of daily and weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women with and without direct supervision [Comparación de la suplementación diaria o semanal de hierro en mujeres embarazadas con y sin supervisión directa]. XI Congreso Latino Americano de Nutrición, Libro de Resumenes. Guatemala: SLAN, 1997:94.
Chew 1996b {published and unpublished data}
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Comparison of weekly and daily iron supplementation to pregnant women in Guatemala (supervised and unsupervised). FASEB Journal 1996;10:A4221.
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Individual patient data (as supplied 15 January 2004). Data on file.
  • Chew F, Torún B, Viteri FE. Comparison of daily and weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women with and without direct supervision [Comparación de la suplementación diaria o semanal de hierro en mujeres embarazadas con y sin supervisión directa]. XI Congreso Latino Americano de Nutrición, Libro de Resumenes. Guatemala: SLAN, 1997:94.
Chisholm 1966 {published data only}
  • Chisholm M. A controlled clinical trial of prophylactic folic acid and iron in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1966;73:191-6.
Christian 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Christian P. Personal communication 2007 September 28.
  • Christian P, Darmstadt GL, Wu L, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Katz J, et al. The effect of maternal micronutrient supplementation on early neonatal morbidity in rural Nepal: a randomised, controlled, community trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2008;93(8):660-4.
  • Christian P, Jiang T, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, West Jr KP. Antenatal supplementation with micronutrients and biochemical indicators of status and subclinical infection in rural Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:788-74.
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, Katz J, Pradhan EK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ 2003;326(7389):571.
  • Christian P, Shrestha J, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK, Jiang T, Wagner T, et al. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2003;133(11):3492-8.
  • Christian P, West KP, Khatry SK, Leclerq SC, Pradhan EK, Katz J, et al. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant mortality: a cluster-randomized trial in Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78(6):1194-202.
  • Christian PS, Darmstadt GL, Wu L, Khatry SK, Leclerq SC, Katz J, et al. The impact of maternal micronutrient supplementation on early neonatal morbidity in rural Nepal: a randomized, controlled, community trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2007; Vol. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Katz J, Christian P, Dominici F, Zeger SL. Treatment effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation vary by percentiles of the birth weight distribution in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(5):1389-94.
  • Stewart CP, Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, West KP Jr, et al. Preterm delivery but not intrauterine growth retardation is associated with young maternal age among primiparae in rural Nepal. Maternal & Child Nutrition 2007;3(3):174-85.
Cogswell 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Ickes L, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Individual patient data (as supplied 4 February 2004). Data on file.
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Ickes L, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78(4):773-81.
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Iron supplementation during pregnancy for initially non-anemic, iron replete women - decreased prevalence of low birth weight infants. Report of the 2001 INACG Symposium. Why iron is important and what to do about it: a new perspective. Washington D.C.: ILSI Human Nutrition Institute, 2002; Vol. 1:42, Abstract no: 7.
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Low iron during pregnancy increases the risk of delivering preterm or small infants. Report of the 2001 INACG Symposium. Why iron is important and what to do about it: a new perspective. Washington DC: ILSI Human Nutrition Institute, 2002; Vol. 1:42, Abstract no: 8.
De Benaze 1989 {published data only}
  • De Benaze C, Galan P, Wainer R, Hercberg S. Prevention of iron deficient anemia during pregnancy by early iron supplementation: a controlled trial. Revue d Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 1989;37:109-18.
Ekstrom 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ekstrom EC. Personal communication 2004 April 12.
  • Ekstrom EC, Hyder SM, Chowdhury AM, Chowdhury SA, Lonnerdal B, Habicht JP, et al. Efficacy and trial effectiveness of weekly and daily iron supplementation among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: disentangling the issues. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76(6):1392-400.
  • Hyder SM, Persson LA, Chowdhury AM, Ekstrom EC. Do side-effects reduce compliance to iron supplementation? A study of daily- and weekly-dose regimens in pregnancy. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2002;2:175-9.
  • Hyder SM, Persson LA, Chowdhury R, Lonnerdal B, Ekstrom EC. Impact of daily and weekly iron supplementation to women in pregnancy and puerperium on haemoglobin and iron status six weeks postpartum: results from a community-based study in Bangladesh. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition 2003;47(1):19-25.
Eskeland 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Eskeland B. Database provided by authors (as supplied 22 February 2004). Data on file.
  • Eskeland B, Malterud K, Ulvik RJ, Hunskaar S. Iron supplementation in pregnancy: is less enough? A randomized, placebo controlled trial of low dose iron supplementation with and without heme iron. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1997;76(9):822-8.
Hankin 1963 {published data only}
  • Hankin ME. The value of iron supplementation during pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1963;3:111-8.
  • Hankin ME, Symonds EM. Body weight, diet and pre-eclamptic toxaemia in pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1962;4:156-60.
Harvey 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fairweather-Tait S. Personal communication. 2007 September 5.
  • Harvey LJ, Dainty JR, Hollands WJ, Bull VJ, Hoogewerff JA, Foxall RJ, et al. Effect of high-dose iron supplements on fractional zinc absorption and status in pregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85:131-6.
Hemminki 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hemminki E, Merilainen J. Long-term effects of iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1994;46:3.
  • Hemminki E, Merilainen J. Long-term follow-up of mothers and their infants in a randomized trial on iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;173:205-9.
  • Hemminki E, Rimpela U. A randomized comparison of routine vs selective iron supplementation during pregnancy. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1991;10:3-10.
  • Hemminki E, Rimpela U. Iron supplementation, maternal packed cell volume, and fetal growth. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1991;66:422-5.
  • Hemminki E, Rimpela U, Yla-Outinen A. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy and infections. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1991;61:370-1.
  • Hemminki E, Uski A, Koponen P, Rimpela U. Iron supplementation during pregnancy - experiences of a randomized trial relying on health service personnel. Controlled Clinical Trials 1989;10:290-8.
Holly 1955 {published data only}
Hood 1960 {published data only}
Kerr 1958 {published data only}
  • Kerr DNS, Davidson S. The prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Lancet 1958;2:483-8.
Lee 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lee JI, Lee JA, Lim HS. Effect of time of initiation and dose of prenatal iron and folic acid supplementation on iron and folate nutriture of Korean women during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82(4):843-9.
  • Lim HS. Personal communication 2007 September 27.
Liu 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Liu XN, Liu PY. The effectiveness of weekly iron supplementation regimen in improving the iron status of Chinese children and pregnant women. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 1996;9:341-7.
  • Liu XN, Liu PY, Viteri FE. Individual patient data (as supplied December 2003). Data on file.
Makrides 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Makrides M. Personal communication 2004 April 12.
  • Makrides M, Crowther CA, Gibson RA, Gibson RS, Skeaff CM. Efficacy and tolerability of low-dose iron supplements during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:145-53.
  • Makrides M, Crowther CA, Gibson RA, Gibson RS, Skeaff CM. Low-dose iron supplements in pregnancy prevent iron deficiency at the end of pregnancy and during the post-partum period: the results of a randomised controlled trial [abstract]. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 7th Annual Congress; 2003 March 9-12; Tasmania, Australia. 2003:P99.
  • Parsons AG, Zhou SJ, Spurrier NJ, Makrides M. Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the behaviour of children at early school age: long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition 2008;99(5):1133-9.
  • Zhou SH, Gibson RA, Crowther CA, Baghurst P, Makrides M. Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the intelligence quotient and behavior of children at 4 years of age: long term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(5):1112-7.
  • Zhou SJ, Gibson RA, Makrides M. Routine iron supplementation in pregnancy has no effect on iron status of children at six months and four years of age. Journal of Pediatrics 2007;151(4):438-40.
Meier 2003 {published data only}
  • Meier PR, Nickerson HJ, Olson KA, Berg RL, Meyer JA. Prevention of iron deficiency anemia in adolescent and adult pregnancies. Clinical Medicine and Research 2003;1(1):29-36.
Menendez 1994 {published data only}
  • Menendez C, Todd J, Alonso PL, Francis N, Lulat S, Ceesay S, et al. The effects or iron supplementation during pregnancy, given by traditional birth attendants, on the prevalence of anaemia and malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88:590-3.
  • Menendez C, Todd J, Alonso PL, Francis N, Lulat S, Ceesay S, et al. The response to iron supplementation of pregnant women with the haemoglobin genotype AA or AS. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;89(3):289-92.
Milman 1991 {published data only}
  • Milman N, Agger AO, Nielsen OJ. Iron supplementation during pregnancy. Effect on iron status markers, serum erythropoietin and human placental lactogen. A placebo controlled study in 207 Danish women. Danish Medical Bulletin 1991;38(6):471-6.
  • Milman N, Agger AO, Nielson OJ. Iron status markers and serum erythropoietin in 120 mothers and newborn infants: effect of iron supplementation in normal pregnancy. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1994;73:200-4.
  • Milman N, Byg KE, Agger AO. Hemoglobin and erythrocyte indices during normal pregnancy and postpartum in 206 women with and without iron supplementation. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2000;79(2):89-98.
  • Milman N, Graudal N, Agger AO. Iron status markers during pregnancy. No relationship between levels at the beginning of the second trimester, prior to delivery and post partum. Journal of Internal Medicine 1995;237:261-7.
  • Milman N, Graudal N, Nielsen OJ, Agger AO. Serum erythropoietin during normal pregnancy: relationship to hemoglobin and iron status markers and impact of iron supplementation in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled study on 118 women. International Journal of Hematology 1997;66(2):159-68.
  • Milman N, Graudal NA, Agger AO. Iron status markers during normal pregnancy in 120 women. No clinically useful relationship between levels in the second trimester, later in pregnancy, and post partum. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1995;157:6571-5.
Mukhopadhyay 2004 {published data only}
Paintin 1966 {published and unpublished data}
  • Paintin DB, Thompson AM, Hytten FE. Personal communication 1986.
  • Paintin DB, Thomson AM, Hytten FE. Iron and haemoglobin level in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1966;73:181-90.
Pita Martin 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Pita Martin de Portela ML. Personal communication 2004 March 22.
  • Pita Martin de Portela ML, Langini SH, Fleischman S, Garcia M, Lopez LB, Guntin R, et al. Effect of iron supplementation and its frequency during pregnancy. Medicina 1999;59:430-6.
Preziosi 1997 {published data only}
  • Preziosi P, Prual A, Galan P, Daouda H, Boureima H, Hercberg S. Effect of iron supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women: consequences for newborns. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;66:1178-82.
Pritchard 1958 {published data only}
  • Pritchard J, Hunt C. A comparison of the hematologic responses following the routine prenatal administration of intramuscular and oral iron. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 1958;106:516-8.
Puolakka 1980 {published data only}
  • Puolakka J, Janne O, Pakarinen A, Jarvinen PA, Vihko R. Serum ferritin as a measure of iron stores during and after normal pregnancy with and without iron supplement. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1980;95:43-51.
Ridwan 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ridwan E, Schultink W, Dillon D, Gross R. Effects of weekly iron supplementation on pregnant Indonesian women are similar to those of daily supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996;63(6):884-90.
  • Schultink W, Ridwan E, Dillon D, Gross R. Individual patient data (as supplied 12 January 2004). Data on file.
Robinson 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Robinson JS. Individual patient data (as supplied 11 March 2004). Data on file.
  • Robinson JS. Working with traditional birth attendants to improve iron tablet utilization by pregnant women. MotherCare Technical Working Paper #7. Arlington, VA 1998.
  • Robinson JS, Sopacua J, Napitapulu J. Using traditional birth attendants to improve iron tablet utilization by pregnant women. Maluku Province, Indonesia. Draft paper. Mother Care Project. Project Concern International San Diego CA 1999.
  • Robinson JS, Yip R. Weekly versus daily iron tablet supplementation in pregnant women in Indonesia. Draft paper 2000.
Romslo 1983 {published data only}
  • Romslo I, Haram K, Sagen N, Augensen K. Iron requirements in normal pregnancy as assessed by serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and erythrocyte protoporphyrin determinations. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1983;90:101-7.
Siega-Riz 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bodnar LM, Davidian M, Siega-Riz AM, Tsiatis AA. Marginal structural models for analyzing causal effects of time-dependent treatments: an application in perinatal epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004;159(10):926-34.
  • Jasti S, Siega-Riz AM, Cogswell ME, Hartzema AG. Correction for errors in measuring adherence to prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use among low-income women. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(2):479-83.
  • Jasti S, Siega-Riz AM, Cogswell ME, Hartzema AG, Bentley ME. Pill count adherence to prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use among low-income women. Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(5):1093-101.
  • Siega-Riz A, Hartzema A, Turnbull C, Thorp JJ, McDonald T. A trial of selective versus routine iron supplementation to prevent third trimester anemia during pregnancy [abstract]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001; Vol. 185, issue 6 Suppl:S119.
  • Siega-Riz AM, Hartzema AG, Turnbull C, Thorp J, McDonald T, Cogswell ME. The effects of prophylactic iron given in prenatal supplements on iron status and birth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;194(2):512-9.
Svanberg 1975 {published data only}
  • Svanberg B, Arvidsson B, Norrby A, Rybo G, Solvell L. Absorption of supplemental iron during pregnancy - a longitudinal study with repeated bone marrow studies and absorption measurements. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1975;48:87-108.
Taylor 1982 {published data only}
  • Taylor DJ, Mallen C, McDougall N, Lind T. Personal communication 1982.
  • Taylor DJ, Mallen C, McDougall N, Lind T. Effect of iron supplementation on serum ferritin levels during and after pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1982;89:1011-7.
Tura 1989 {published data only}
  • Tura S, Carenza L, Baccarani M, Bagnara M, Bocci A, Bottone P, et al. Therapy and iron supplements with ferritin during pregnancy. A randomized prospective study of 458 cases. Recenti Progessi in Medicina 1989;80:607-14.
Van Eijk 1978 {published data only}
Wallenburg 1983 {published data only}
Willoughby 1967 {published data only}
Wills 1947 {published data only}
  • Wills L, Hill G, Bingham K, Miall M, Wrigley J. Haemoglobin levels in pregnancy: the effect of the rationing scheme and routine administration of iron. British Journal of Nutrition 1947;1:126-38.
Winichagoon 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Winichagoon P, Lertmullikaporn N, Chitcumroonchokechai C, Thamrongwarangkul T. Daily versus weekly iron supplementation to pregnant women in rural northeast Thailand. Personal communication 2003.
Young 2000 {published data only}
  • Young MW, Lupafya E, Kapenda E, Bobrow EA. The effectiveness of weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women of rural northern Malawi. Tropical Doctor 2000;30(2):84-8.
Yu 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Yu KH, Yoon, JS. Individual patient data (as supplied 11 March 2004). Data on file.
  • Yu KH, Yoon JS. The effect of weekly iron supplementation on iron and zinc nutritional status in pregnant women. Korean Journal of Nutrition 1998;31(8):1270-82.
Ziaei 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ziaei S. Personal communication 2007 October 1.
  • Ziaei S, Norrozi M, Faghihzadeh S, Jafarbegloo E. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of iron supplementation on pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with haemoglobin > or = 13.2 g/dl. BJOG :an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007;114(6):684-8.
Ziaei 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Janghorban R, Ziaei S, Faghihzade S. Evaluation of serum copper level in pregnant women with high hemoglobin. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 2006;31(3):170-2.
  • Ziaei S. Iron status markers in non-anemic pregnant women with or without iron supplementation in pregnancy. Personal communication 2007 October 9.
  • Ziaei S, Janghorban R, Shariatdoust S, Faghihzadeh S. The effects of iron supplementation on serum copper and zinc levels in pregnant women with high-normal hemoglobin. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2008;100:133-5.
  • Ziaei S, Mehrnia M, Faghihzadeh S. Iron status markers in nonanemic pregnant women with and without iron supplementation. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2008;100:130-2.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aaseth 2001 {published data only}
  • Aaseth J, Thomassen Y, Ellingsen DG, Stoa-Birketvedt G. Prophylactic iron supplementation in pregnant women in Norway. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine & Biology 2001;15(2-3):167-74.
Abel 2000 {published data only}
Afifi 1978 {published data only}
Ahn 2006 {published data only}
  • Ahn E, Pairaudeau N, Pairaudeau N, Cerat Y, Couturier B, Fortier A, et al. A randomized cross over trial of tolerability and compliance of a micronutrient supplement with low iron separated from calcium vs high iron combined with calcium in pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2006;6:10.
Angeles-Agdeppa 2003 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Angeles-Agdeppa I. The effects of a community-based weekly iron-folate supplementation on hemoglobin and iron status of pregnant and non-pregnant women in Philippines. Meeting on weekly iron/folic acid supplementation for preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in the Western Pacific Region Report. Manila, Philippines, February 2004.
  • Angeles-Agdeppa I, Paulino LS, Ramos AC, Etorma UM, Cavalli-Sforza T, Milani S. Government-industry partnership in weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for women of reproductive age in the Philippines: impact on iron status. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S116-25.
  • Paulino LS, Angeles-Agdeppa I, Etorma UM, Ramos AC, Cavalli-Sforza T. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to improve iron status and prevent pregnancy anemia in Filipino women of reproductive age: the Philippine experience through government and private partnership. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S109-115.
Babior 1985 {published data only}
Bencaiova 2007 {unpublished data only}
  • Bencaiova G, von Mandach U, Zimmerman R. Optimal prophylaxis of a lack of iron and iron-deficiency anemia in the pregnancy [abstract] [Optimale Prophylaxe e Ines Elsenmangels und elner Eisenmangelanamie In der Schwangerschaft: eine randomisierte Studie]. Gynakologisch-Geburtshilfliche Rundschau 2007;47:140.
Berger 2003 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Berger J. Effectiveness of weekly iron/folate supplementation on anaemia and iron status in women of reproductive age in rural Viet Nam. Meeting on weekly iron/folic acid supplementation for preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in the Western Pacific Region Report. Manila, Philippines, February 2004.
  • Berger J, Thanh HT, Cavalli-Sforza T, Smitasiri S, Khan NC, Milani S, et al. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S95-108.
  • Hoa PT, Berger J, Paliakara N, Nhien NV, Morestin-Cadet S, Quyen DT, et al. Weekly iron-folate supplementation in women in reproductive age in Vietnam: a new approach to control iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. INACG Symposium; February 2001; Hanoi, Vietnam. 2001:45, Abstract No: 18.
  • Khan NC, Thanh HT, Berger J, Hoa PT, Quang ND, Smitasiri S, et al. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation: a new approach toward controlling anemia among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S87-94.
Bergsjo 1987 {published data only}
  • Bergsjo P. The effects of iron supplementation in pregnancy. Personal communication 1987.
Blot 1980 {published data only}
  • Blot I, Tchernia G, Chenayer M, Hill C, Hajeri H, Leluc R. Iron deficiency in the pregnant woman. Its repercussions on the newborn. The influence of systematic iron treatment. Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 1980;9:489-95.
Brown 1972 {published data only}
  • Brown GM, Dawson DW. Prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1972;1:93-9.
Burslem 1968 {published data only}
  • Burslem RW, Poller L, Wacks H. A trial of slow release ferrous sulphate (Ferrogradumet) in prevention of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Acta Haematologica 1968;40:200-4.
Buss 1981 {published data only}
  • Buss M. Therapy of iron-folic acid deficiency in pregnancy [Therapie des Eisen-Folsauremangels in der Schwangerschaft]. Zeitschrift fur Allgemeinmedizin 1981;57(22):1526-32.
Carrasco 1962 {published data only}
  • Carrasco E, Jose F, Samson G, Germar E, Padilla B. Effect of D-sorbitol on the absorption and transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1962;11:533-6.
Casanueva 2003a {published and unpublished data}
  • Casanueva E. Weekly iron-folate (Fe-fol) supplementation during pregnancy in Mexican women. Personal communication 2003.
  • Casanueva E, Viteri FE, Mares-Galindo M, Meza-Camacho C, Loria A, Schnaas L, et al. Weekly iron as a safe alternative to daily supplementation for nonanemic pregnant women. Archives of Medical Research 2006;37(5):674-82.
Chanarin 1965 {published data only}
  • Chanarin I, Rothman D, Berry V. Iron deficiency and its relation to folic acid status in pregnancy: results of a clinical trial. BMJ 1965;1:480-5.
Chawla 1995 {published data only}
  • Chawla PK, Puri R. Impact of nutritional supplements on hematological profile of pregnant women. Indian Pediatrics 1995;32:876-80.
Coelho 2000 {published data only}
  • Coelho K, Ramdas S, Pillai S. A comparative study of changes in haemoglobin with high and low dose iron preparations in pregnant women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 2000;50(2):37-9.
Cook 1990 {published data only}
Dawson 1987 {published data only}
Dijkhuizen 2004 {published data only}
  • Dijkhuizen MA, Wieringa FT, West CE, Muhilal. Zinc plus beta-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to beta-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin a status in both mothers and infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80(5):1299-307.
Dommisse 1983 {published data only}
  • Dommisse J, Bell DJH, Du Toit ED, Midgley V, Cohen M. Iron-storage deficiency and iron supplementation in pregnancy. South African Medical Journal 1983;64:1047-51.
Edgar 1956 {published data only}
  • Edgar W, Rice HM. Administration of iron in antenatal clinics. Lancet 1956;1:599-602.
Ekstrom 1996 {published data only}
  • Ekstrom EM, Kavishe FP, Habicht J, Frongillo EA, Rasmussen KM, Hemed L. Adherence to iron supplementation during pregnancy in Tanzania: determinants and hematologic consequences. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996;64:368-74.
Fenton 1977 {published data only}
Fleming 1974 {published data only}
  • Fleming AF, Martin JD, Hahnel R, Westlake AJ. Effects of iron and folic acid antenatal supplements on maternal haematology and fetal wellbeing. Medical Journal of Australia 1974;2:429-36.
Fleming 1986 {published data only}
  • Fleming AF. Anaemia in pregnancy in the Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. In: Ludwig H, Thomsen K editor(s). Gynecology and Obstetrics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986:122-4.
  • Fleming AF, Ghatoura GBS, Harrison KA, Briggs ND, Dunn DT. The prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in primigravidae in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1986;80:211-33.
  • Harrison KA, Fleming AF, Briggs ND, Rossiter CE. Child-bearing, health and social priorities: a survey of 22,774 consecutive hospital births in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. 5. Growth during pregnancy in Nigerian teenage primigravidae. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1985;92(5):32-9.
    Direct Link:
Fletcher 1971 {published data only}
  • Fletcher J, Gurr A, Fellingham F, Prankerd T, Brant H, Menzies D. The value of folic acid supplements in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire 1971;78:781-5.
Foulkes 1982 {published data only}
Freire 1989 {published data only}
  • Freire WB. Hemoglobin as a predictor of response to iron therapy and its use in screening and prevalence estimates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50:1442-9.
Gomber 2002 {published data only}
  • Gomber S, Agarwal KN, Mahajan C, Agarwal N. Impact of daily versus weekly hematinic supplementation on anemia in pregnant women. Indian Pediatrics 2002;39(4):339-46.
Goonewardene 2001 {published data only}
  • Goonewardene M, Liyanage C, Fernando R. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Ceylon Medical Journal 2001;46(4):132-5.
Gopalan 2004 {published data only}
  • Gopalan S, Patnaik R, Ganesh K. Feasible strategies to combat low birth weight and intra-uterine growth retardation. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2004;39(Suppl 1):S37.
Gringras 1982 {published data only}
  • Gringras M. A comparison of two combined iron-folic acid preparations in the prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Journal of International Medical Research 1982;10:268-70.
Groner 1986 {published data only}
  • Groner JA, Holtzman NA, Charney E, Mellits ED. A randomized trial of oral iron on tests of short-term memory and attention span in young pregnant women. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 1986;7:44-8.
Guldholt 1991 {published data only}
Hampel 1974 {published data only}
  • Hampel K, Roetz R. Influence of a long-time substitution with a folate-iron combination in pregnancy on serum folate and serum iron and on hematological parameters. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 1974;34:409-17.
Hawkins 1987 {published data only}
  • Hawkins DF. Relative efficacy of sustained release iron and iron with folic acid treatment in pregnancy. Personal communication 1987.
Hermsdorf 1986 {published data only}
  • Hermsdorf J, Ring D, Retzke U, Bruschke G. Oral iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. A longitudinal study about hematologic and clinical parameters in treated and non-treated pregnant women. Proceedings of 10th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1986 August 12-16; Leipzig, Germany. 1986:84.
Hoa 2005 {published data only}
  • Hoa PT, Khan NC, Van Beusekom C, Gross R, Conde WL, Khoi HD. Milk fortified with iron or iron supplementation to improve nutritional status of pregnant women: an intervention trial from rural Vietnam. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2005;26(1):32-8.
Horgan 1966 {published data only}
Hosokawa 1989 {published data only}
  • Hosokawa K. Studies on anemia in pregnant women: therapeutic efficacy of iron monotherapy vs. combination therapy with iron and vitamin C. Rinsho to Kenkyu (The Japanese Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine) 1989;66(10):3329-35.
Iyengar 1970 {published data only}
Kaestel 2005 {published data only}
  • Kaestel P, Michaelsen KF, Aaby P, Friis H. Effects of prenatal multimicronutrient supplements on birth weight and perinatal mortality: a randomised, controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(9):1081-9.
Kann 1988 {published data only}
Kumar 2005 {published data only}
Madan 1999 {published data only}
Mbaye 2006 {published data only}
  • Mbaye A, Richardson K, Balajo B, Dunyo S, Shulman C, Milligan P, et al. Lack of inhibition of the anti-malarial action of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine by folic acid supplementation when used for intermittent preventive treatment in Gambian primigravidae. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 2006;74(6):960-4.
McKenna 2002 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • McKenna D, Spence D, Dornan J. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the place of spatone-iron plus as a prophylaxis against iron deficiency in pregnancy [abstract]. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2002;22(2 Suppl):S45.
  • McKenna D, Spence D, Haggan SE, McCrum E, Dornan JC, Lappin TR. A randomized trial investigating an iron-rich natural mineral water as a prophlylaxis against iron deficiency in pregnancy. Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 2003;25:99-103.
Menon 1962 {published data only}
  • Menon MKK, Rajan L. Prophylaxis of anaemia in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1962;12:382-9.
Milman 2005 {published data only}
  • Milman N, Bergholt T, Eriksen L, Byg KE, Graudal N, Pedersen P, et al. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy - how much iron is needed? A randomized dose-response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2005;84:238-47.
  • Milman N, Byg KE, Bergholt T, Eriksen L. Side effects of oral iron prophylaxis in pregnancy - myth or reality?. Acta Haematologica 2006;115(1-2):53-57.
  • Milman N, Byg KE, Bergholt T, Eriksen L, Hvas AM. Body iron and individual iron prophylaxis in pregnancy - should the iron dose be adjusted according to serum ferritin?. Annals of Hematology 2006;85(9):567-73.
Morgan 1961 {published data only}
  • Morgan EH. Plasma-iron and haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. Lancet 1961;1:9-12.
  • Morgan EH. Plasma-iron and haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. Personal communication 1987 January 19.
Morrison 1977 {published data only}
Mumtaz 2000 {published data only}
  • Mumtaz Z, Shahab S, Butt N, Rab MA, DeMuynck A. Daily iron supplementation is more effective than twice weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women in Pakistan in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Journal of Nutrition 2000;130(11):2697-702.
Nguyen 2008 {published data only}
  • Nguyen P, Nava-Ocampo A, Levy A, O'Connor DL, Einarson TR, Taddio A, et al. Effect of iron content on the tolerability of prenatal multivitamins in pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2008;8:17.
Nogueira 2002 {published data only}
  • Nogueira NDN, Macedo ADS, Parente JV, Cozzolino SMF. Nutritional profile of newborns of adolescent mothers supplemented with iron, in different concentrations, zinc and pholic acid. Revista de Nutricao 2002;15:193-200.
  • Nogueira Ndo N, Parente JV, Cozzolino SM. Changes in plasma zinc and folic acid concentrations in pregnant adolescents submitted to different supplementation regimens. Cadernos de Saude Publica 2003;19(1):155-60.
Ogunbode 1984 {published data only}
  • Ogunbode O, Damole IO. Prophylaxis of anaemia in obstetric patients: administration of Ferrograd Folic 500 Plus compared with conventional iron and folic supplementation. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1984;35:1043-8.
Ogunbode 1992 {published data only}
  • Ogunbode O, Otubu JAM, Akeredolu OO, Akintunde EA, Olatunji PO, Jolayemi ET. The effect of Chemiron capsules on maternal and fetal hematologic indices, including birth weight. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1992;51:634-46.
  • Ogunbode O, Otubu JAM, Briggs ND, Adeleye JA. Chemiron - A new hematinic preparation. How effective during pregnancy?. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical & Experimental 1992;51:163-73.
Ortega-Soler 1998 {unpublished data only}
  • Ortega-Soler CR, Langini SH, Fleishman S, Lopez LB, Garcia M, Guntin R, et al. Iron nutritional status in pregnant women with and without iron supplementation [Estado nutricional con respecto al hierro (Fe) en gestantes con y sin suplementacion]. Personal communication 1998.
Osrin 2005 {published data only}
  • Adhikari R, Manandhar D, Costello A, Tompkins A, Filteau S, Osrin D, et al. The effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on birthweight, gestation and infection: a double blind, randomised controlled trial conducted in Nepal: study protocol. MIRA Janakpur Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation 2003.
  • Osrin D, Vaidya A, Shrestha Y, Baniya RB, Manandhar DS, Adhikari RK, et al. Effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on birthweight and gestational duration in Nepal: double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365:955-62.
Payne 1968 {published data only}
  • Payne RW. Prophylaxis of anaemia in pregnancy. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1968;16:353-8.
Pena-Rosas 2003 {published data only}
  • Pena-Rosas JP, Nesheim M, Garcia-Casal MN, Crompton DWT, Sanjur D, Viteri FE, et al. Intermittent iron supplementation regimens are able to maintain safe maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Venezuela. Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(5):1099-104.
Picha 1975 {published data only}
Quintero 2004 {unpublished data only}
  • Quintero Gutierrez AG, Gonzalez Rosendo G, Cedillo Espana F, Rivera-Dommarco J. Single weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women. Personal communication 2004 February 17.
Ramakrishnan 2003 {published data only}
  • Ramakrishnan U, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Neufeld LM, Rivera J, Martorell R. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy does not lead to greater infant birth size than does iron-only supplementation: a randomized controlled trial in a semirural community in Mexico. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77(3):720-5.
Rayado 1997 {published data only}
  • Rayado B, Carrillo JA, Fernandez-Esteban JA, Gomez-Cedillo A, Martin M, Coronel P. A comparative study of 2 ferrous proteins in the prevention of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy. Clinica e Investigacion En Ginecologia y Obstetricia 1997;24:46-50.
Reddaiah 1989 {published data only}
  • Reddaiah VP, Raj PP, Ramachandran K, Nath LM, Sood SK, Madan N, et al. Supplementary iron dose in pregnancy anemia prophylaxis. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1989;56:109-14.
Roztocil 1994 {published data only}
  • Roztocil A, Charvatova M, Harastova L, Zahradkova J, Studenik P, Sochorova V, et al. Anti-anemia therapy with prophylactic administration of fe2+ in normal pregnancy and its effect on prepartum hematologic parameters in the mother and neonate. Ceska Gynekologie 1994;59(3):130-3.
Rybo 1971 {published data only}
  • Rybo G, Solvell L. Side-effect studies on a new sustained release iron preparation. Scandinavian Journal of Hematology 1971;8(4):257-64.
Sandstad 2003 {published data only}
Seck 2008 {published data only}
Shatrugna 1999 {published data only}
  • Shatrugna V, Raman L, Kailash U, Balakrishna N, Rao KV. Effect of dose and formulation on iron tolerance in pregnancy. National Medical Journal of India 1999;12(1):18-20.
Simmons 1993 {published data only}
  • Simmons WK, Cook JD, Bingham KC, Thomas M, Jackson J, Jackson M, et al. Evaluation of a gastric delivery system for iron supplementation in pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;58:622-6.
Sjostedt 1977 {published data only}
  • Sjostedt JE, Manner P, Nummi S, Ekenved G. Oral iron prophylaxis during pregnancy - a comparative study on different dosage regimens. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1977;66:3-9.
Sood 1979 {published data only}
  • Sood SK, Ramachandran K, Rani K, Ramalingaswami V, Mathan VI, Ponniah J, et al. WHO sponsored collaborative studies on nutritional anaemia in India. The effect of parenteral iron administration in the control of anaemia of pregnancy. British Journal of Nutrition 1979;42:399-406.
Steer 1992 {published data only}
  • Steer PJ. Trial to assess the effects of iron and folate supplementation on pregnancy outcome [trial abandoned]. Personal communication 1992.
Stone 1975 {published data only}
  • Stone M, Elder MG. The relative merits of a slow-release and a standard iron preparation during pregnancy. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1975;3:469-72.
Suharno 1993 {published data only}
Tampakoudis 1996 {published data only}
  • Tampakoudis P, Tantanassis T, Tsatalas K, Lazaridis E, Tsalikis T, Venetis C, et al. A randomized trial on the effect of oral supplementation with iron protein succinylate in singleton pregnancies. The role of maternal erythropoietin as a marker. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 1996;1 Suppl 1:181.
Tan 1995 {published data only}
  • Tan CH, Ng KB. The effect of oral iron on the haemoglobin concentration during the second half of pregnancy. 27th British Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1995 July 4-7; Dublin, Ireland. Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, 1995:101.
Tange 1993 {published data only}
  • Tange E, Weigand E, Mbofung CM. Effect of iron supplementation on anemic and non-anemic pregnant teenagers in Cameroon. TEMA 8: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals; 1993 May 16-22; Dresden, Germany. 1993:220-3.
Thane-Toe 1982 {published data only}
  • Thane-Toe, Thein-Than. The effects of oral iron supplementation on ferritin levels in pregnant Burmese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;35(1):95-9.
Tholin 1993 {published data only}
  • Tholin K, Hallmans G, Sandstrom B, Goop M, Palm R, Abrahamsson M. Serum zinc, iron supplementation and pregnancy outcome. TEMA 8: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals; 1993 May 16-22; Dresden, Germany. 1993:894-5.
  • Tholin K, Sandstrom B, Palm R, Hallmans G. Changes in blood manganese levels during pregnancy in iron supplemented and non supplemented women. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 1995;9(1):13-7.
Thomsen 1993 {published data only}
Vogel 1963 {published data only}
  • Vogel L, Steingold L, Suchet J. Iron therapy in the treatment of anaemia in pregnancy. Lancet 1963;1:1296-9.
Wali 2002 {published data only}
  • Wali A, Mushtaq A, Nilofer. Comparative study--efficacy, safety and compliance of intravenous iron sucrose and intramuscular iron sorbitol in iron deficiency anemia of pregnancy. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 2002;52(9):392-5.
Willoughby 1966 {published data only}
  • Willoughby M, Jewell F. Investigation of folic acid requirements in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1966;2:1568-71.
Willoughby 1968 {published data only}
  • Willoughby MLN, Jewell FG. Folate status throughout pregnancy and in postpartum period. British Medical Journal 1968;4:356-60.
Wu 1998 {published data only}
  • Wu Y, Weng L, Wu L. Clinical experience with iron supplementation in pregnancy. Chung-Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology] 1998;33(4):206-8.
Zhou 2007 {published data only}
  • Zhou SJ, Gibson RA, Crowther CA, Makrides M. Should we lower the dose of iron when treating anaemia in pregnancy? A randomized dose-response trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Oct 10; Vol. [Epub ahead of print].
Zittoun 1983 {published data only}
  • Zittoun J, Blot I, Hill C, Zittoun R, Papiernik E, Tchernia G. Iron supplements vs placebo during pregnancy: its effects on iron and folate status on mothers and newborns. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 1983;27:320-7.
Zutshi 2004 {published data only}
  • Zutshi V, Batra S, Ahmad SS, Khera N, Chauhan G, Gandhi G, et al. Injectable iron supplementation instead of oral therapy for antenatal care. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 2004;54(1):37-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Bhatla 2009 {published data only}
Zeng 2008 {published data only}
  • Li Q, Yan H, Zeng L, Cheng Y, Liang W, Dang S, et al. Effects of maternal multimicronutrient supplementation on the mental development of infants in rural western China: follow-up evaluation of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2009;123(4):e685-e692.
  • Yan H. Impact of iron/folate versus multi-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight: a randomised controlled trial in rural Western China. Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) (accessed 15 February 2007) 2007.
  • Zeng L, Dibley MJ, Cheng Y, Dang S, Chang S, Kong L, et al. Impact of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight, duration of gestation, and perinatal mortality in rural western China: double blind cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;337:a2001.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Cogswell 2006 {published data only}
  • Cogswell ME. Impact of prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements on perinatal mortality. www.clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 21 March 2006).
Hemminki 2008 {published data only}
  • Hemminki E. Routine iron prophylaxis during pregnancy (PROFEG). ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 20 February 2008).
  • Parkkali S, Abacassamo F, Salome G, Augusto O, Nikula M, on behalf of the PROFEG-group. Routine iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. Effects on maternal and child health in Maputo City and the urban part of Maputo Province, Mozambique. Report of a pilot study. Profeg Group, 2007.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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Anderson 2005
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IOM 1993
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Lund 1961
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Mahomed 1997
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Mercer 2001
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Mora 2002
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Oppenheimer 2001
Pena-Rosas 2006
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Mahomed 1998b
Mahomed 2000b
Peña-Rosas 2006