Intervention Review

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Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

  1. Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas1,*,
  2. Luz Maria De-Regil1,
  3. Therese Dowswell2,
  4. Fernando E Viteri3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004736.pub4


How to Cite

Peña-Rosas JP, De-Regil LM, Dowswell T, Viteri FE. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004736. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004736.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    World Health Organization, Evidence and Programme Guidance, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, Geneva, Switzerland

  2. 2

    The University of Liverpool, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

  3. 3

    Children's Hospital and Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA

*Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Evidence and Programme Guidance, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, Geneva, 1211, Switzerland. penarosasj@who.int. juanpablopenarosas@outlook.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Barton 1994 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Barton DPJ, Joy MT, Lappin TRJ, Afrasiabi M, Morel JG, O'Riordan J, et al. Maternal erythropoietin in singleton pregnancies: a randomized trial on the effect of oral hematinic supplementation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;170:896-901.
  • Murphy JF. Randomised double blind control trial of iron/placebo administration to pregnant women with high booking Hb concentrations (Hb>149/dl). Personal communication 1990.
Batu 1976 {published data only}
  • Batu AT, Toe T, Pe H, Nyunt KK. A prophylactic trial of iron and folic acid supplements in pregnant Burmese women. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 1976;12:1410-7.
Butler 1968 {published and unpublished data}
  • Butler EB. The effect of iron and folic acid in normal pregnancy (MD thesis). Vol. 1, Cardiff: Welsh National School of Medicine, 1967.
  • Butler EB. The effect of iron and folic acid in normal pregnancy (MD thesis). Vol. 2 (Appendixes), Cardiff: Welsh National School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, 1967.
  • Butler EB. The effect of iron and folic acid on red cell and plasma volume in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1968;75:497-510.
Buytaert 1983 {published data only}
Cantlie 1971 {published data only}
  • Cantlie GSD, De Leeuw NKM, Lowenstein L. Iron and folate nutrition in a group of private obstetrical patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1971;24:637-41.
Chan 2009 {published and unpublished data}
Chanarin 1965 {published data only}
  • Chanarin I, Rothman D, Berry V. Iron deficiency and its relation to folic acid status in pregnancy: results of a clinical trial. British Medical Journal 1965;1:480-5.
Chanarin 1971 {published data only}
  • Chanarin I, Rothman D. Further observations on the relation between iron and folate status in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1971;2:81-4.
Charoenlarp 1988 {published data only}
  • Charoenlarp P, Dhanamitta S, Kaewvichit R, Silprasert A, Suwanaradd C, Na-Nakorn S, et al. A WHO collaborative study on iron supplementation in Burma and in Thailand. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;47(2):280-97.
Chisholm 1966 {published data only}
  • Chisholm M. A controlled clinical trial of prophylactic folic acid and iron in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1966;73:191-6.
Christian 2003 (C) {published and unpublished data}
  • Christian P. (personal communication) 02 October 2012.
  • Christian P. (personal communication) 28 September 2007.
  • Christian P, Darmstadt GL, Wu L, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Katz J, et al. The effect of maternal micronutrient supplementation on early neonatal morbidity in rural Nepal: a randomised, controlled, community trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2008;93(8):660-4.
  • Christian P, Jiang T, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, West Jr KP. Antenatal supplementation with micronutrients and biochemical indicators of status and subclinical infection in rural Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:788-94.
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, Katz J, Pradhan EK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ 2003;326(7389):571.
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Dali SM. Effects of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on complications of labor and delivery and puerperal morbidity in rural Nepal. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2009;106(1):3-7.
  • Christian P, Murray-Kolb LE, Khatry SK, Katz J, Schaefer BA, Cole PM, et al. Prenatal micronutrient supplementation and intellectual and motor function in early school-aged children in Nepal. JAMA 2010;304(24):2716-23.
  • Christian P, Shrestha J, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK, Jiang T, Wagner T, et al. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2003;133(11):3492-8.
  • Christian P, Stewart CP, LeClerq SC, Wu L, Katz J, West KP Jr, et al. Antenatal and postnatal iron supplementation and childhood mortality in rural Nepal: a prospective follow-up in a randomized, controlled community trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170(9):1127-36.
  • Christian P, West KP, Khatry SK, Leclerq SC, Pradhan EK, Katz J, et al. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant mortality: a cluster-randomized trial in Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78(6):1194-202.
  • Christian PS, Darmstadt GL, Wu L, Khatry SK, Leclerq SC, Katz J, et al. The impact of maternal micronutrient supplementation on early neonatal morbidity in rural Nepal: a randomized, controlled, community trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2007; Vol. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Katz J, Christian P, Dominici F, Zeger SL. Treatment effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation vary by percentiles of the birth weight distribution in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(5):1389-94.
  • Nanayakkara-Bind A, Schulze K, Wu L, Le SC, Khatry SK, Christian P. Effects of antenatal micronutrient supplementation on cortisol and erythropoietin in pregnant Nepalese women. FASEB Journal 2011;25:779.15.
  • Stewart CP, Christian P, LeClerq SC, West KP Jr, Khatry SK. Antenatal supplementation with folic acid + iron + zinc improves linear growth and reduces peripheral adiposity in school-age children in rural Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(1):132-40.
  • Stewart CP, Christian P, Schulze KJ, Arguello M, Leclerq SC, Khatry SK, et al. Low maternal vitamin B-12 status is associated with offspring insulin resistance regardless of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2011;141(10):1912-7.
  • Stewart CP, Christian P, Schulze KJ, Leclerq SC, West KP Jr, Khatry SK. Antenatal micronutrient supplementation reduces metabolic syndrome in 6- to 8-year-old children in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2009;139(8):1575-81.
  • Stewart CP, Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, West KP Jr, et al. Preterm delivery but not intrauterine growth retardation is associated with young maternal age among primiparae in rural Nepal. Maternal & Child Nutrition 2007;3(3):174-85.
Cogswell 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Ickes L, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Individual patient data (as supplied 4 February 2004). Data on file.
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Ickes L, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78(4):773-81.
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Iron supplementation during pregnancy for initially non-anemic, iron replete women - decreased prevalence of low birth weight infants. Report of the 2001 INACG Symposium. Why iron is important and what to do about it: a new perspective. Washington D.C.: ILSI Human Nutrition Institute, 2002; Vol. 1:42, Abstract no: 7.
  • Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Low iron during pregnancy increases the risk of delivering preterm or small infants. Report of the 2001 INACG Symposium. Why iron is important and what to do about it: a new perspective. Washington DC: ILSI Human Nutrition Institute, 2002; Vol. 1:42, Abstract no: 8.
Corrigan 1936 {published data only}
  • Corrigan JC, Strauss MB. The prevention of hypochromic anemia in pregnancy. JAMA 1936;106(13):1088-90.
De Benaze 1989 {published data only}
  • De Benaze C, Galan P, Wainer R, Hercberg S. Prevention of iron deficient anemia during pregnancy by early iron supplementation: a controlled trial. Revue d Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 1989;37:109-18.
Dommisse 1983 {published data only}
  • Dommisse J, Bell DJH, Du Toit ED, Midgley V, Cohen M. Iron-storage deficiency and iron supplementation in pregnancy. South African Medical Journal 1983;64:1047-51.
Eskeland 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Eskeland B. Database provided by authors (as supplied 22 February 2004). Data on file.
  • Eskeland B, Malterud K, Ulvik RJ, Hunskaar S. Iron supplementation in pregnancy: is less enough? A randomized, placebo controlled trial of low dose iron supplementation with and without heme iron. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1997;76(9):822-8.
Falahi 2010 {published data only}
  • Falahi E. Effect of prophylactic iron supplementation on pregnancy outcome. IRCT Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) (accessed 6 December 2010) 2010.
  • Falahi E, Akbari S, Ebrahimzade F, Gargari BP. Impact of prophylactic iron supplementation in healthy pregnant women on maternal iron status and birth outcome. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2011;32(3):213-7.
Fenton 1977 {published data only}
Fleming 1974 {published data only}
  • Fleming AF, Martin JD, Hahnel R, Westlake AJ. Effects of iron and folic acid antenatal supplements on maternal haematology and fetal wellbeing. Medical Journal of Australia 1974;2:429-36.
Fleming 1985 {published data only}
  • Fleming AF. Anaemia in pregnancy in the Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. In: Ludwig H, Thomsen K editor(s). Gynecology and Obstetrics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986:122-4.
  • Fleming AF, Ghatoura GBS, Harrison KA, Briggs ND, Dunn DT. The prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in primigravidae in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1986;80:211-33.
  • Harrison KA, Fleming AF, Briggs ND, Rossiter CE. Child-bearing, health and social priorities: a survey of 22,774 consecutive hospital births in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. 5. Growth during pregnancy in Nigerian teenage primigravidae. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1985;92(5):32-9.
    Direct Link:
Foulkes 1982 {published data only}
Freire 1989 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Freire WB. Hemoglobin as a predictor of response to iron therapy and its use in screening and prevalence estimates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50:1442-9.
Groner 1986 {published data only}
  • Groner JA, Holtzman NA, Charney E, Mellits ED. A randomized trial of oral iron on tests of short-term memory and attention span in young pregnant women. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 1986;7:44-8.
Han 2011 {published data only}
  • Han XX, Sun YY, Ma AG, Yang F, Zhang FZ, Jiang DC, er al. Moderate NaFeEDTA and ferrous sulfate supplementation can improve both hematologic status and oxidative stress in anemic pregnant women. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;20(4):514-20.
Hankin 1963 {published data only}
  • Hankin ME. The value of iron supplementation during pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1963;3:111-8.
  • Hankin ME, Symonds EM. Body weight, diet and pre-eclamptic toxaemia in pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1962;4:156-60.
Harvey 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fairweather-Tait S. Personal communication. 2007 September 5.
  • Harvey LJ, Dainty JR, Hollands WJ, Bull VJ, Hoogewerff JA, Foxall RJ, et al. Effect of high-dose iron supplements on fractional zinc absorption and status in pregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85:131-6.
Hemminki 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hemminki E, Merilainen J. Long-term effects of iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1994;46:3.
  • Hemminki E, Merilainen J. Long-term follow-up of mothers and their infants in a randomized trial on iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;173:205-9.
  • Hemminki E, Rimpela U. A randomized comparison of routine vs selective iron supplementation during pregnancy. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1991;10:3-10.
  • Hemminki E, Rimpela U. Iron supplementation, maternal packed cell volume, and fetal growth. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1991;66:422-5.
  • Hemminki E, Rimpela U, Yla-Outinen A. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy and infections. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1991;61:370-1.
  • Hemminki E, Uski A, Koponen P, Rimpela U. Iron supplementation during pregnancy - experiences of a randomized trial relying on health service personnel. Controlled Clinical Trials 1989;10:290-8.
Hoa 2005 (C) {published data only}
  • Hoa PT, Khan NC, Van Beusekom C, Gross R, Conde WL, Khoi HD. Milk fortified with iron or iron supplementation to improve nutritional status of pregnant women: an intervention trial from rural Vietnam. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2005;26(1):32-8.
Holly 1955 {published data only}
Hood 1960 {published data only}
Kerr 1958 {published data only}
  • Kerr DNS, Davidson S. The prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Lancet 1958;2:483-8.
Kuizon 1979 {published data only}
  • Kuizon MD, Platon TP, Ancheta LP, Angeles JC, Nunez CB, Macapinlac MP. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1979;10(4):520-7.
Lee 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lee JI, Lee JA, Lim HS. Effect of time of initiation and dose of prenatal iron and folic acid supplementation on iron and folate nutriture of Korean women during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82(4):843-9.
  • Lim HS. Personal communication 2007 September 27.
Liu 2000 {published data only}
  • Liu M, He Y, Lu J. Study of the efficacy of ferroids tablets in preventing hypoferric anemia during pregnancy. New Chinese Medicine 2000;31(5):277-8.
Ma 2010 {published data only}
  • Ma AG, Schouten EG, Sun YY, Yang F, Han XX, Zhang FZ, et al. Supplementation of iron alone and combined with vitamins improves haematological status, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and oxidative stress in anaemic pregnant women. British Journal of Nutrition 2010;104(11):1655-61.
Makrides 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Makrides M. Personal communication 2004 April 12.
  • Makrides M, Crowther CA, Gibson RA, Gibson RS, Skeaff CM. Efficacy and tolerability of low-dose iron supplements during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:145-53.
  • Makrides M, Crowther CA, Gibson RA, Gibson RS, Skeaff CM. Low-dose iron supplements in pregnancy prevent iron deficiency at the end of pregnancy and during the post-partum period: the results of a randomised controlled trial [abstract]. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 7th Annual Congress; 2003 March 9-12; Tasmania, Australia. 2003:P99.
  • Parsons AG, Zhou SJ, Spurrier NJ, Makrides M. Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the behaviour of children at early school age: long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition 2008;99(5):1133-9.
  • Zhou SH, Gibson RA, Crowther CA, Baghurst P, Makrides M. Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the intelligence quotient and behavior of children at 4 years of age: long term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(5):1112-7.
  • Zhou SJ, Gibson RA, Makrides M. Routine iron supplementation in pregnancy has no effect on iron status of children at six months and four years of age. Journal of Pediatrics 2007;151(4):438-40.
Meier 2003 {published data only}
  • Meier PR, Nickerson HJ, Olson KA, Berg RL, Meyer JA. Prevention of iron deficiency anemia in adolescent and adult pregnancies. Clinical Medicine and Research 2003;1(1):29-36.
Menendez 1994 (C) {published data only}
  • Menendez C, Todd J, Alonso PL, Francis N, Lulat S, Ceesay S, et al. The effects or iron supplementation during pregnancy, given by traditional birth attendants, on the prevalence of anaemia and malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994;88:590-3.
  • Menendez C, Todd J, Alonso PL, Francis N, Lulat S, Ceesay S, et al. The response to iron supplementation of pregnant women with the haemoglobin genotype AA or AS. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;89(3):289-92.
Milman 1991 {published data only}
  • Milman N, Agger AO, Nielsen OJ. Iron supplementation during pregnancy. Effect on iron status markers, serum erythropoietin and human placental lactogen. A placebo controlled study in 207 Danish women. Danish Medical Bulletin 1991;38(6):471-6.
  • Milman N, Agger AO, Nielson OJ. Iron status markers and serum erythropoietin in 120 mothers and newborn infants: effect of iron supplementation in normal pregnancy. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1994;73:200-4.
  • Milman N, Byg KE, Agger AO. Hemoglobin and erythrocyte indices during normal pregnancy and postpartum in 206 women with and without iron supplementation. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2000;79(2):89-98.
  • Milman N, Graudal N, Agger AO. Iron status markers during pregnancy. No relationship between levels at the beginning of the second trimester, prior to delivery and post partum. Journal of Internal Medicine 1995;237:261-7.
  • Milman N, Graudal N, Nielsen OJ, Agger AO. Serum erythropoietin during normal pregnancy: relationship to hemoglobin and iron status markers and impact of iron supplementation in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled study on 118 women. International Journal of Hematology 1997;66(2):159-68.
  • Milman N, Graudal NA, Agger AO. Iron status markers during normal pregnancy in 120 women. No clinically useful relationship between levels in the second trimester, later in pregnancy, and post partum. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1995;157:6571-5.
Ouladsahebmadarek 2011 {published data only}
  • Ouladsahebmadarek E, Sayyah-Melli M, Taghavi S, Abbasalizadeh S, Seyedhejazie M. The effect of supplemental iron elimination on pregnancy outcome. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 2011;27(3):641-5.
Paintin 1966 {published and unpublished data}
  • Paintin DB, Thompson AM, Hytten FE. Personal communication 1986.
  • Paintin DB, Thomson AM, Hytten FE. Iron and haemoglobin level in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1966;73:181-90.
Preziosi 1997 {published data only}
  • Preziosi P, Prual A, Galan P, Daouda H, Boureima H, Hercberg S. Effect of iron supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women: consequences for newborns. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;66:1178-82.
Pritchard 1958 {published data only}
  • Pritchard J, Hunt C. A comparison of the hematologic responses following the routine prenatal administration of intramuscular and oral iron. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 1958;106:516-8.
Puolakka 1980 {published data only}
  • Puolakka J, Janne O, Pakarinen A, Jarvinen PA, Vihko R. Serum ferritin as a measure of iron stores during and after normal pregnancy with and without iron supplement. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1980;95:43-51.
Romslo 1983 {published data only}
  • Romslo I, Haram K, Sagen N, Augensen K. Iron requirements in normal pregnancy as assessed by serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and erythrocyte protoporphyrin determinations. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1983;90:101-7.
Siega-Riz 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bodnar LM, Davidian M, Siega-Riz AM, Tsiatis AA. Marginal structural models for analyzing causal effects of time-dependent treatments: an application in perinatal epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004;159(10):926-34.
  • Jasti S, Siega-Riz AM, Cogswell ME, Hartzema AG. Correction for errors in measuring adherence to prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use among low-income women. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(2):479-83.
  • Jasti S, Siega-Riz AM, Cogswell ME, Hartzema AG, Bentley ME. Pill count adherence to prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use among low-income women. Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(5):1093-101.
  • Siega-Riz A, Hartzema A, Turnbull C, Thorp JJ, McDonald T. A trial of selective versus routine iron supplementation to prevent third trimester anemia during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001; Vol. 185, issue 6 Suppl:S119.
  • Siega-Riz AM, Hartzema AG, Turnbull C, Thorp J, McDonald T, Cogswell ME. The effects of prophylactic iron given in prenatal supplements on iron status and birth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;194(2):512-9.
Simmons 1993 {published data only}
  • Simmons WK, Cook JD, Bingham KC, Thomas M, Jackson J, Jackson M, et al. Evaluation of a gastric delivery system for iron supplementation in pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;58:622-6.
Suharno 1993 {published data only}
Sun 2010 {published data only}
  • Sun YY, Ma AG, Yang F, Zhang FZ, Luo YB, Jiang DC, et al. A combination of iron and retinol supplementation benefits iron status, IL-2 level and lymphocyte proliferation in anemic pregnant women. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;19(4):513-9.
Svanberg 1975 {published data only}
  • Svanberg B, Arvidsson B, Norrby A, Rybo G, Solvell L. Absorption of supplemental iron during pregnancy - a longitudinal study with repeated bone marrow studies and absorption measurements. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1975;48:87-108.
Taylor 1982 {published and unpublished data}
Tholin 1993 {published data only}
  • Tholin K, Hallmans G, Sandstrom B, Goop M, Palm R, Abrahamsson M. Serum zinc, iron supplementation and pregnancy outcome. TEMA 8: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals; 1993 May 16-22; Dresden, Germany. 1993:894-5.
  • Tholin K, Sandstrom B, Palm R, Hallmans G. Changes in blood manganese levels during pregnancy in iron supplemented and non supplemented women. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 1995;9(1):13-7.
Tura 1989 {published data only}
  • Tura S, Carenza L, Baccarani M, Bagnara M, Bocci A, Bottone P, et al. Therapy and iron supplements with ferritin during pregnancy. A randomized prospective study of 458 cases. Recenti Progessi in Medicina 1989;80:607-14.
Van Eijk 1978 {published data only}
Wallenburg 1983 {published data only}
Willoughby 1967 {published data only}
  • Willoughby ML, Jewell FJ. Investigation of folic acid requirements in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1966;2(5529):1568-71.
  • Willoughby MLN. An investigation of folic acid requirements in pregnancy. II. British Journal of Haematology 1967;13:503-9.
  • Willoughby MLN, Jewell FG. Folate status throughout pregnancy and in postpartum period. British Medical Journal 1968;4:356-60.
Wills 1947 {published data only}
  • Wills L, Hill G, Bingham K, Miall M, Wrigley J. Haemoglobin levels in pregnancy: the effect of the rationing scheme and routine administration of iron. British Journal of Nutrition 1947;1:126-38.
Zeng 2008 (C) {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Cheng Y, Dibley MJ, Zhang X, Zeng L, Yan H.  Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China. BMC Public Health 2009;9(9):222.
  • Li Q, Yan H, Zeng L, Cheng Y, Liang W, Dang S, et al. Effects of maternal multimicronutrient supplementation on the mental development of infants in rural western China: follow-up evaluation of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2009;123(4):e685-e692.
  • Wang W, Yan H, Zeng L, Cheng Y, Wang D, Li Q. No effect of maternal micronutrient supplementation on early childhood growth in rural western China: 30 month follow-up evaluation of a double blind, cluster randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012;66(2):261-8.
  • Yan H. Impact of iron/folate versus multi-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight: a randomised controlled trial in rural Western China. Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) (accessed 15 February 2007) 2007.
  • Zeng L, Dibley MJ, Cheng Y, Dang S, Chang S, Kong L, et al. Impact of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight, duration of gestation, and perinatal mortality in rural western China: double blind cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;337:a2001.
  • Zeng L, Yan H, Cheng Y, Dang S, Dibley MJ. Adherence and costs of micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in rural western China. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2009;30(4 Suppl):S480-S487.
  • Zeng L, Yan H, Cheng Y, Dibley MJ. Modifying effects of wealth on the response to nutrient supplementation in pregnancy on birth weight, duration of gestation and perinatal mortality in rural western China: double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Epidemiology 2011;40(2):350-62.
Ziaei 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Jafarbegloo E. Gastrointestinal complications of iron supplement in pregnant women. IRCT Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) (accessed 6 December 2010) 2010.
  • Ziaei S. Personal communication 2007 October 1.
  • Ziaei S, Norrozi M, Faghihzadeh S, Jafarbegloo E. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of iron supplementation on pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with haemoglobin > or = 13.2 g/dl. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2007;114(6):684-8.
Ziaei 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hamzehgardeshi Z. A randomized placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of iron supplementation on hematological indices in pregnant women with hemoglobin > 13.2 g/dl. IRCT Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) (accessed 6 December 2010) 2010.
  • Janghorban R, Ziaei S, Faghihzade S. Evaluation of serum copper level in pregnant women with high hemoglobin. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 2006;31(3):170-2.
  • Ziaei S. Iron status markers in non-anemic pregnant women with or without iron supplementation in pregnancy. Personal communication 2007 October 9.
  • Ziaei S, Janghorban R, Shariatdoust S, Faghihzadeh S. The effects of iron supplementation on serum copper and zinc levels in pregnant women with high-normal hemoglobin. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2008;100:133-5.
  • Ziaei S, Mehrnia M, Faghihzadeh S. Iron status markers in nonanemic pregnant women with and without iron supplementation. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2008;100:130-2.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Aaseth 2001 {published data only}
  • Aaseth J, Thomassen Y, Ellingsen DG, Stoa-Birketvedt G. Prophylactic iron supplementation in pregnant women in Norway. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine & Biology 2001;15(2-3):167-74.
Abel 2000 {published data only}
Adhikari 2009 {published data only}
Afifi 1978 {published data only}
Ahn 2006 {published data only}
  • Ahn E, Pairaudeau N, Pairaudeau N, Cerat Y, Couturier B, Fortier A, et al. A randomized cross over trial of tolerability and compliance of a micronutrient supplement with low iron separated from calcium vs high iron combined with calcium in pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2006;6:10.
Angeles-Agdeppa 2003 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Angeles-Agdeppa I. The effects of a community-based weekly iron-folate supplementation on hemoglobin and iron status of pregnant and non-pregnant women in Philippines. Meeting on weekly iron/folic acid supplementation for preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in the Western Pacific Region report; 2003 Sept 29 - Oct 1; Manila, Philippines. Manila, Philippines: WHO, 2003.
  • Angeles-Agdeppa I, Paulino LS, Ramos AC, Etorma UM, Cavalli-Sforza T, Milani S. Government-industry partnership in weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for women of reproductive age in the Philippines: impact on iron status. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S116-S125.
  • Paulino LS, Angeles-Agdeppa I, Etorma UM, Ramos AC, Cavalli-Sforza T. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to improve iron status and prevent pregnancy anemia in Filipino women of reproductive age: the Philippine experience through government and private partnership. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S109-S115.
Babior 1985 {published data only}
Balmelli 1974 {published data only}
  • Balmelli GP, Huser HJ. Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women in Switzerland [Zur Frage des Folsäuremangels beiSchwangeren in der Schweiz]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1974;104(10):351-6.
Bencaiova 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Bencaiova G, von Mandach U, Zimmermann R. Iron prophylaxis in pregnancy: intravenous route versus oral route. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2009;144(2):135-9.
  • Bencaiova G, von Mandach U, Zimmerman R. Optimal prophylaxis of a lack of iron and iron-deficiency anemia in the pregnancy: a randomized study [Optimale Prophylaxe e Ines Elsenmangels und elner Eisenmangelanamie In der Schwangerschaft: eine randomisierte Studie]. Gynakologisch-Geburtshilfliche Rundschau 2007;47:140.
Berger 2003 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Berger J. Effectiveness of weekly iron/folate supplementation on anaemia and iron status in women of reproductive age in rural Viet Nam. Meeting on weekly iron/folic acid supplementation for preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in the Western Pacific Region report; 2003 Sept 29-Oct 1; Manila, Philippines. Manila, Philippines: WHO, 2003.
  • Berger J, Thanh HT, Cavalli-Sforza T, Smitasiri S, Khan NC, Milani S, et al. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S95-S108.
  • Hoa PT, Berger J, Paliakara N, Nhien NV, Morestin-Cadet S, Quyen DT, et al. Weekly iron-folate supplementation in women in reproductive age in Vietnam: a new approach to control iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. INACG Symposium; 2001 Feb 15-16; Hanoi, Vietnam. 2001:45, Abstract No: 18.
  • Khan NC, Thanh HT, Berger J, Hoa PT, Quang ND, Smitasiri S, et al. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation: a new approach toward controlling anemia among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63(12 Pt 2):S87-S94.
Bergsjo 1987 {published data only}
  • Bergsjo P. The effects of iron supplementation in pregnancy. Personal communication 1987.
Bhatla 2009 {published data only}
Blot 1980 {published data only}
  • Blot I, Papiernik E, Kalwatsser JP, Werner E, Tchernia G. Influence of routine administration of folic acid and iron during pregnancy. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 1981;12:294-304.
  • Blot I, Tchernia G, Chenayer M, Hill C, Hajeri H, Leluc R. Iron deficiency in the pregnant woman. Its repercussions on the newborn. The influence of systematic iron treatment. Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 1980;9:489-95.
  • Tchernia G, Blot I, Rey A, Kaltwasser JP, Zittoun J, Papiernik E. Maternal folate status, birthweight and gestational age. Developmental Pharmacology Therapeutics 1982;4 Suppl:58-65.
  • Zittoun J, Blot I, Hill C, Zittoun R, Papiernik E, Tchernia G. Iron supplements vs placebo during pregnancy: its effects on iron and folate status on mothers and newborns. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 1983;27:320-7.
Bokhari 2011 {published data only}
  • Bokhari EJ. A functional food for the prevention of iron-deficiency anemia. ClinicalTrial.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov) (accessed 19 July 2011) 2011.
  • Bokhari F, Derbyshire EJ, Li W, Brennan CS. Can an iron-rich staple food help women to achieve dietary targets in pregnancy?. International Journal of Food Sciences & Nutrition 2012;63(2):199-207.
Brown 1972 {published data only}
  • Brown GM, Dawson DW. Prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1972;1:93-9.
Burslem 1968 {published data only}
  • Burslem RW, Poller L, Wacks H. A trial of slow release ferrous sulphate (Ferrogradumet) in prevention of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Acta Haematologica 1968;40:200-4.
Buss 1981 {published data only}
  • Buss M. Therapy of iron-folic acid deficiency in pregnancy [Therapie des Eisen-Folsauremangels in der Schwangerschaft]. Zeitschrift fur Allgemeinmedizin 1981;57(22):1526-32.
Carrasco 1962 {published data only}
  • Carrasco E, Jose F, Samson G, Germar E, Padilla B. Effect of D-sorbitol on the absorption and transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1962;11:533-6.
Casanueva 2003a {published and unpublished data}
  • Casanueva E. Weekly iron-folate (Fe-fol) supplementation during pregnancy in Mexican women. Personal communication 2003.
  • Casanueva E, Viteri FE, Mares-Galindo M, Meza-Camacho C, Loria A, Schnaas L, et al. Weekly iron as a safe alternative to daily supplementation for nonanemic pregnant women. Archives of Medical Research 2006;37(5):674-82.
Castren 1968 {published data only}
  • Castren O, Levanto A, Rauramo L, Ruponen S. Preventive iron and folic acid therapy in pregnancy. Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae Fenniae 1968;57:382-6.
Chanarin 1968 {published data only}
  • Chanarin I, Rothman D, Ward A, Perry J. Folate status and requirement in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1968;2:390-4.
Chawla 1995 {published data only}
  • Chawla PK, Puri R. Impact of nutritional supplements on hematological profile of pregnant women. Indian Pediatrics 1995;32:876-80.
Chew 1996a {published and unpublished data}
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Comparison of weekly and daily iron supplementation to pregnant women in Guatemala (supervised and unsupervised). FASEB Journal 1996;10:A4221.
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Individual patient data (as supplied 15 January 2004). Data on file.
  • Chew F, Torún B, Viteri FE. Comparison of daily and weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women with and without direct supervision [Comparación de la suplementación diaria o semanal de hierro en mujeres embarazadas con y sin supervisión directa]. XI Congreso Latino Americano de Nutrición, Libro de Resumenes. Guatemala: SLAN, 1997:94.
Chew 1996b {published and unpublished data}
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Comparison of weekly and daily iron supplementation to pregnant women in Guatemala (supervised and unsupervised). FASEB Journal 1996;10:A4221.
  • Chew F, Torun B, Viteri FE. Individual patient data (as supplied 15 January 2004). Data on file.
  • Chew F, Torún B, Viteri FE. Comparison of daily and weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women with and without direct supervision [Comparación de la suplementación diaria o semanal de hierro en mujeres embarazadas con y sin supervisión directa]. XI Congreso Latino Americano de Nutrición, Libro de Resumenes. Guatemala: SLAN, 1997:94.
Coelho 2000 {published data only}
  • Coelho K, Ramdas S, Pillai S. A comparative study of changes in haemoglobin with high and low dose iron preparations in pregnant women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 2000;50(2):37-9.
Cook 1990 {published data only}
Dawson 1962 {published data only}
  • Dawson DW, More JRS, Aird DC. Prevention of megaloblastic anaemia in pregnancy by folic acid. Lancet 1962;2:1015-20.
Dawson 1987 {published data only}
Dijkhuizen 2004 {published data only}
  • Dijkhuizen MA, Wieringa FT, West CE, Muhilal. Zinc plus beta-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to beta-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80(5):1299-307.
Edgar 1956 {published data only}
  • Edgar W, Rice HM. Administration of iron in antenatal clinics. Lancet 1956;1:599-602.
Ekstrom 1996 {published data only}
  • Ekstrom EM, Kavishe FP, Habicht J, Frongillo EA, Rasmussen KM, Hemed L. Adherence to iron supplementation during pregnancy in Tanzania: determinants and hematologic consequences. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996;64:368-74.
Ekstrom 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ekstrom EC. Personal communication 2004 April 12.
  • Ekstrom EC, Hyder SM, Chowdhury AM, Chowdhury SA, Lonnerdal B, Habicht JP, et al. Efficacy and trial effectiveness of weekly and daily iron supplementation among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: disentangling the issues. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76(6):1392-400.
  • Hyder SM, Persson LA, Chowdhury AM, Ekstrom EC. Do side-effects reduce compliance to iron supplementation? A study of daily- and weekly-dose regimens in pregnancy. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2002;2:175-9.
  • Hyder SM, Persson LA, Chowdhury R, Lonnerdal B, Ekstrom EC. Impact of daily and weekly iron supplementation to women in pregnancy and puerperium on haemoglobin and iron status six weeks postpartum: results from a community-based study in Bangladesh. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition 2003;47(1):19-25.
Fletcher 1971 {published data only}
  • Fletcher J, Gurr A, Fellingham F, Prankerd T, Brant H, Menzies D. The value of folic acid supplements in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire 1971;78:781-5.
Giles 1971 {published data only}
  • Giles PF, Harcourt AG, Whiteside MG. The effect of prescribing folic acid during pregnancy on birthweight and duration of pregnancy. A double blind trial. Medical Journal of Australia 1971;2:17-21.
Gomber 2002 {published data only}
  • Gomber S, Agarwal KN, Mahajan C, Agarwal N. Impact of daily versus weekly hematinic supplementation on anemia in pregnant women. Indian Pediatrics 2002;39(4):339-46.
Goonewardene 2001 {published data only}
  • Goonewardene M, Liyanage C, Fernando R. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Ceylon Medical Journal 2001;46(4):132-5.
Gopalan 2004 {published data only}
  • Gopalan S, Patnaik R, Ganesh K. Feasible strategies to combat low birth weight and intra-uterine growth retardation. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2004;39(Suppl 1):S37.
Gringras 1982 {published data only}
  • Gringras M. A comparison of two combined iron-folic acid preparations in the prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Journal of International Medical Research 1982;10:268-70.
Grover 1998 {published data only}
  • Grover V, Aggarwal OP, Gupta A, Kumar P, Tiwari RS. Effect of daily and alternate day iron and folic acid supplementation to pregnant females on the weight of the newborn. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 1998;23(4):165-8.
Guldholt 1991 {published data only}
Hampel 1974 {published data only}
  • Hampel K, Roetz R. Influence of a long-time substitution with a folate-iron combination in pregnancy on serum folate and serum iron and on hematological parameters. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 1974;34:409-17.
Hartman-Craven 2009 {published data only}
  • Hartman-Craven B, Christofides A, O'Connor DL, Zlotkin S. Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009;9:33.
Hawkins 1987 {published data only}
  • Hawkins DF. Relative efficacy of sustained release iron and iron with folic acid treatment in pregnancy. Personal communication 1987.
Hermsdorf 1986 {published data only}
  • Hermsdorf J, Ring D, Retzke U, Bruschke G. Oral iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. A longitudinal study about hematologic and clinical parameters in treated and non-treated pregnant women. Proceedings of 10th European Congress of Perinatal Medicine; 1986 August 12-16; Leipzig, Germany. 1986:84.
Horgan 1966 {published data only}
Hosokawa 1989 {published data only}
  • Hosokawa K. Studies on anemia in pregnant women: therapeutic efficacy of iron monotherapy vs. combination therapy with iron and vitamin C. Rinsho to Kenkyu (The Japanese Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine) 1989;66(10):3329-35.
Iyengar 1970 {published data only}
Kaestel 2005 {published data only}
  • Andersen GS, Friis H, Michaelsen KF, Rodrigues A, Benn CS, Aaby P, et al. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality: long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial from Guinea-Bissau. African Journal of Reproductive Health 2010;14(2):17-26.
  • Kaestel P, Michaelsen KF, Aaby P, Friis H. Effects of prenatal multimicronutrient supplements on birth weight and perinatal mortality: a randomised, controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(9):1081-9.
Kann 1988 {published data only}
Khambalia 2009 {published data only}
  • Khambalia AZ, O'Connor DL, Macarthur C, Dupuis A, Zlotkin SH. Periconceptional iron supplementation does not reduce anemia or improve iron status among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(5):1295-302.
Kulkarni 2010 {published data only}
  • Kulkarni B, Christian P, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK. Determinants of compliance to antenatal micronutrient supplementation and women's perceptions of supplement use in rural Nepal. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(1):82-90.
Kumar 2005 {published data only}
Lira 1989 {published data only}
  • Lira P, Barrena N, Foradori A, Gormaz G, Grebe G. Folate deficiency in pregnancy: effect of supplementary folic acid [Deficienca de folatos en el embarazo: efecto de una suplementacion con acido folico]. Sangre 1989;34(1):24-7.
Liu 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Liu XN, Liu PY. The effectiveness of weekly iron supplementation regimen in improving the iron status of Chinese children and pregnant women. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 1996;9:341-7.
  • Liu XN, Liu PY, Viteri FE. Individual patient data (as supplied December 2003). Data on file.
Ma 2008 {published data only}
  • Ma AG, Schouten EG, Zhang FZ, Kok FJ, Yang F, Jiang DC, et al. Retinol and riboflavin supplementation decreases the prevalence of anemia in Chinese pregnant women taking iron and folic acid supplements. Journal of Nutrition 2008;138(10):1946-50.
Madan 1999 {published data only}
Mbaye 2006 {published data only}
  • Mbaye A, Richardson K, Balajo B, Dunyo S, Shulman C, Milligan P, et al. Lack of inhibition of the anti-malarial action of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine by folic acid supplementation when used for intermittent preventive treatment in Gambian primigravidae. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 2006;74(6):960-4.
McKenna 2002 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • McKenna D, Spence D, Dornan J. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the place of spatone-iron plus as a prophylaxis against iron deficiency in pregnancy [abstract]. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2002;22(2 Suppl):S45.
  • McKenna D, Spence D, Haggan SE, McCrum E, Dornan JC, Lappin TR. A randomized trial investigating an iron-rich natural mineral water as a prophlylaxis against iron deficiency in pregnancy. Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 2003;25:99-103.
Menon 1962 {published data only}
  • Menon MKK, Rajan L. Prophylaxis of anaemia in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1962;12:382-9.
Metz 1965 {published data only}
  • Baumslag N, Edelstein T, Metz J. Reduction of incidence of prematurity by folic acid supplementation in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1970;1:16-7.
  • Metz J, Festenstein H, Welch P. Effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on test of folate and Vitamin B12nutrition in pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1965;16:472-9.
Milman 2005 {published data only}
  • Milman N, Bergholt T, Eriksen L, Byg KE, Graudal N, Pedersen P, et al. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy - how much iron is needed? A randomized dose-response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2005;84:238-47.
  • Milman N, Byg KE, Bergholt T, Eriksen L. Side effects of oral iron prophylaxis in pregnancy - myth or reality?. Acta Haematologica 2006;115(1-2):53-7.
  • Milman N, Byg KE, Bergholt T, Eriksen L, Hvas AM. Body iron and individual iron prophylaxis in pregnancy - should the iron dose be adjusted according to serum ferritin?. Annals of Hematology 2006;85(9):567-73.
Morgan 1961 {published data only}
  • Morgan EH. Plasma-iron and haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. Lancet 1961;1:9-12.
  • Morgan EH. Plasma-iron and haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. Personal communication 1987 January 19.
Morrison 1977 {published data only}
Mukhopadhyay 2004 {published data only}
Mumtaz 2000 {published data only}
  • Mumtaz Z, Shahab S, Butt N, Rab MA, DeMuynck A. Daily iron supplementation is more effective than twice weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women in Pakistan in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Journal of Nutrition 2000;130(11):2697-702.
Nguyen 2008 {published data only}
  • Gill SK, Nguyen P, Koren G. Adherence and tolerability of iron-containing prenatal multivitamins in pregnant women with pre-existing gastrointestinal conditions. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2009;29(7):594-8.
  • Nguyen P, Nava-Ocampo A, Levy A, O'Connor DL, Einarson TR, Taddio A, et al. Effect of iron content on the tolerability of prenatal multivitamins in pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2008;8:17.
Nogueira 2002 {published data only}
  • Nogueira NDN, Macedo ADS, Parente JV, Cozzolino SMF. Nutritional profile of newborns of adolescent mothers supplemented with iron, in different concentrations, zinc and pholic acid. Revista de Nutricao 2002;15:193-200.
  • Nogueira Ndo N, Parente JV, Cozzolino SM. Changes in plasma zinc and folic acid concentrations in pregnant adolescents submitted to different supplementation regimens. Cadernos de Saude Publica 2003;19(1):155-60.
Ogunbode 1984 {published data only}
  • Ogunbode O, Damole IO. Prophylaxis of anaemia in obstetric patients: administration of Ferrograd Folic 500 Plus compared with conventional iron and folic supplementation. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1984;35:1043-8.
Ogunbode 1992 {published data only}
  • Ogunbode O, Otubu JAM, Akeredolu OO, Akintunde EA, Olatunji PO, Jolayemi ET. The effect of Chemiron capsules on maternal and fetal hematologic indices, including birth weight. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1992;51:634-46.
  • Ogunbode O, Otubu JAM, Briggs ND, Adeleye JA. Chemiron - A new hematinic preparation. How effective during pregnancy?. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical & Experimental 1992;51:163-73.
Ortega-Soler 1998 {unpublished data only}
  • Ortega-Soler CR, Langini SH, Fleishman S, Lopez LB, Garcia M, Guntin R, et al. Iron nutritional status in pregnant women with and without iron supplementation [Estado nutricional con respecto al hierro (Fe) en gestantes con y sin suplementacion]. Personal communication 1998.
Osrin 2005 {published data only}
  • Adhikari R, Manandhar D, Costello A, Tompkins A, Filteau S, Osrin D, et al. The effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on birthweight, gestation and infection: a double blind, randomised controlled trial conducted in Nepal: study protocol. MIRA Janakpur Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation 2003.
  • Osrin D, Vaidya A, Shrestha Y, Baniya RB, Manandhar DS, Adhikari RK, et al. Effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on birthweight and gestational duration in Nepal: double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365:955-62.
Payne 1968 {published data only}
  • Payne RW. Prophylaxis of anaemia in pregnancy. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1968;16:353-8.
Pena-Rosas 2003 {published data only}
  • Pena-Rosas JP, Nesheim M, Garcia-Casal MN, Crompton DWT, Sanjur D, Viteri FE, et al. Intermittent iron supplementation regimens are able to maintain safe maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Venezuela. Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(5):1099-104.
Picha 1975 {published data only}
Pita Martin 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Pita Martin de Portela ML. Personal communication 2004 March 22.
  • Pita Martin de Portela ML, Langini SH, Fleischman S, Garcia M, Lopez LB, Guntin R, et al. Effect of iron supplementation and its frequency during pregnancy. Medicina 1999;59:430-6.
Powers 1985 {published data only}
  • Powers HJ, Bates CJ, Lamb WH. Haematological response to supplements of iron and riboflavin to pregnant and lactating women in rural Gambia. Human Nutrition. Clinical Nutrition 1985;39(2):117-29.
Quintero 2004 {unpublished data only}
  • Quintero Gutierrez AG, Gonzalez Rosendo G, Cedillo Espana F, Rivera-Dommarco J. Single weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women. Personal communication 2004 February 17.
Rae 1970 {published data only}
  • Rae PG, Robb PM. Megaloblastic anaemia of pregnancy: a clinical and laboratory study with particular reference to the total and labile serum folate levels. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1970;23:379-91.
Ramakrishnan 2003 {published data only}
  • Ramakrishnan U, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Neufeld LM, Rivera J, Martorell R. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy does not lead to greater infant birth size than does iron-only supplementation: a randomized controlled trial in a semirural community in Mexico. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77(3):720-5.
Rayado 1997 {published data only}
  • Rayado B, Carrillo JA, Fernandez-Esteban JA, Gomez-Cedillo A, Martin M, Coronel P. A comparative study of 2 ferrous proteins in the prevention of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy. Clinica e Investigacion en Ginecologia y Obstetricia 1997;24:46-50.
Reddaiah 1989 {published data only}
  • Reddaiah VP, Raj PP, Ramachandran K, Nath LM, Sood SK, Madan N, et al. Supplementary iron dose in pregnancy anemia prophylaxis. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1989;56:109-14.
Ridwan 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ridwan E, Schultink W, Dillon D, Gross R. Effects of weekly iron supplementation on pregnant Indonesian women are similar to those of daily supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996;63(6):884-90.
  • Schultink W, Ridwan E, Dillon D, Gross R. Individual patient data (as supplied 12 January 2004). Data on file.
Robinson 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Robinson JS. Individual patient data (as supplied 11 March 2004). Data on file.
  • Robinson JS. Working with traditional birth attendants to improve iron tablet utilization by pregnant women. MotherCare Technical Working Paper #7. Arlington, VA 1998.
  • Robinson JS, Sopacua J, Napitapulu J. Using traditional birth attendants to improve iron tablet utilization by pregnant women. Maluku Province, Indonesia. Draft paper. Mother Care Project. Project Concern International San Diego CA 1999.
  • Robinson JS, Yip R. Weekly versus daily iron tablet supplementation in pregnant women in Indonesia. Draft paper 2000.
Rolschau 1979 {published data only}
  • Rolschau J, Date J, Kristoffersen K. Folic acid supplement and intrauterine growth. Acta Obstetricia et GynecologicaScandinavica 1979;58:343-6.
Roth 1980 {published data only}
Roztocil 1994 {published data only}
  • Roztocil A, Charvatova M, Harastova L, Zahradkova J, Studenik P, Sochorova V, et al. Anti-anemia therapy with prophylactic administration of fe2+ in normal pregnancy and its effect on prepartum hematologic parameters in the mother and neonate. Ceska Gynekologie 1994;59(3):130-3.
Rybo 1971 {published data only}
  • Rybo G, Solvell L. Side-effect studies on a new sustained release iron preparation. Scandinavian Journal of Hematology 1971;8(4):257-64.
Sachdeva 1993 {published data only}
  • Sachdeva R, Mann SK. Impact of nutrition education and medical supervision on pregnancy outcome. Indian Pediatrics 1993;30(11):1309-14.
Saha 2007 {published data only}
  • Saha L, Pandhi P, Gopalan S, Malhotra S, Saha PK. Comparison of efficacy, tolerability, and cost of iron polymaltose complex with ferrous sulphate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women. Medscape General Medicine 2007;9(1):1.
Sandstad 2003 {published data only}
Seck 2008 {published data only}
  • Seck BC, Jackson RT. Determinants of compliance with iron supplementation among pregnant women in Senegal. Public Health Nutrition 2008;11(6):596-605.
  • Seck BC, Jackson RT. Providing iron/folic acid tablets free of charge improves compliance in pregnant women in Senegal. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2009;103(5):485-92.
Shatrugna 1999 {published data only}
  • Shatrugna V, Raman L, Kailash U, Balakrishna N, Rao KV. Effect of dose and formulation on iron tolerance in pregnancy. National Medical Journal of India 1999;12(1):18-20.
Sinha 2011 {published data only}
  • Sinha V, Dayal M, Mehrotra R, Mishra V. Intravenous iron sucrose versus oral ferrous ascorbate in the prevention of anaemia in pregnant women. 54th All India Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2011 January 5-9; Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2011:72.
Sjostedt 1977 {published data only}
  • Sjostedt JE, Manner P, Nummi S, Ekenved G. Oral iron prophylaxis during pregnancy - a comparative study on different dosage regimens. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1977;66:3-9.
Sood 1979 {published data only}
  • Sood SK, Ramachandran K, Rani K, Ramalingaswami V, Mathan VI, Ponniah J, et al. WHO sponsored collaborative studies on nutritional anaemia in India. The effect of parenteral iron administration in the control of anaemia of pregnancy. British Journal of Nutrition 1979;42:399-406.
Srisupandit 1983 {published data only}
  • Srisupandit S, Pootrakul P, Areekul S, Neungton S, Mokkaves J, Kiriwat O, et al. A prophylactic supplementation of iron and folate in pregnancy. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1983;14(3):317-23.
Steer 1992 {published data only}
  • Steer PJ. Trial to assess the effects of iron and folate supplementation on pregnancy outcome [trial abandoned]. Personal communication 1992.
Stone 1975 {published data only}
  • Stone M, Elder MG. The relative merits of a slow-release and a standard iron preparation during pregnancy. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1975;3:469-72.
Swain 2011 {published data only}
  • Swain S, Mahapatra PC, Majhi C, Das TK. Two doses of parenteral iron sucrose injection as anaemia prophylaxis in pregnancy. 54th All India Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2011 January 5-9; Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2011:181.
Tampakoudis 1996 {published data only}
  • Tampakoudis P, Tantanassis T, Tsatalas K, Lazaridis E, Tsalikis T, Venetis C, et al. A randomized trial on the effect of oral supplementation with iron protein succinylate in singleton pregnancies. The role of maternal erythropoietin as a marker. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 1996;1 Suppl 1:181.
Tan 1995 {published data only}
  • Tan CH, Ng KB. The effect of oral iron on the haemoglobin concentration during the second half of pregnancy. 27th British Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1995 July 4-7; Dublin, Ireland. Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, 1995:101.
Tange 1993 {published data only}
  • Tange E, Weigand E, Mbofung CM. Effect of iron supplementation on anemic and non-anemic pregnant teenagers in Cameroon. TEMA 8: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals; 1993 May 16-22; Dresden, Germany. 1993:220-3.
Thane-Toe 1982 {published data only}
  • Thane-Toe, Thein-Than. The effects of oral iron supplementation on ferritin levels in pregnant Burmese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;35(1):95-9.
Thomsen 1993 {published data only}
Trigg 1976 {published data only}
  • Trigg KH, Rendall EJC, Johnson A, Fellingham FR, Prankerd TAJ. Folate supplements during pregnancy. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1976;26(164):228-30.
Vogel 1963 {published data only}
  • Vogel L, Steingold L, Suchet J. Iron therapy in the treatment of anaemia in pregnancy. Lancet 1963;1:1296-9.
Wali 2002 {published data only}
  • Wali A, Mushtaq A, Nilofer. Comparative study--efficacy, safety and compliance of intravenous iron sucrose and intramuscular iron sorbitol in iron deficiency anemia of pregnancy. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 2002;52(9):392-5.
Weil 1977 {published data only}
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Willoughby 1966 {published data only}
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Willoughby 1968 {published data only}
  • Willoughby MLN, Jewell FG. Folate status throughout pregnancy and in postpartum period. British Medical Journal 1968;4:356-60.
Winichagoon 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Winichagoon P, Lertmullikaporn N, Chitcumroonchokechai C, Thamrongwarangkul T. Daily versus weekly iron supplementation to pregnant women in rural northeast Thailand. Personal communication 2003.
Wu 1998 {published data only}
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Yecta 2011 {published data only}
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Young 2000 {published data only}
  • Young MW, Lupafya E, Kapenda E, Bobrow EA. The effectiveness of weekly iron supplementation in pregnant women of rural northern Malawi. Tropical Doctor 2000;30(2):84-8.
Young 2010 {published data only}
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Yu 1998 {published and unpublished data}
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Zamani 2008 {published data only}
  • Zamani AR, Farajzadegan Z, Ghahiri A, Khademloo M, Golshiri P. Effectiveness of twice weekly iron supplementation compared with daily regimen in reducing anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy: a randomized trial in Iran. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2008;13(5):230-9.
Zhou 2009 {published data only}
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Zutshi 2004 {published data only}
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References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Biggs 2010 {unpublished data only}
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Cogswell 2006 {published data only}
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Dibley 2012 {published data only}
  • A trial to evaluate the impact of an early start to iron/folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on deaths of newborns in rural Bangladesh. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) (accessed 2 July 2012) 2012.
Fawzi 2010 {published data only}
  • Fawzi W. Prenatal iron supplements: safety and efficacy in Tanzania. ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/) (accessed 12 November 2010) 2010.
Hemminki 2008 {published data only}
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  • Parkkali S, Abacassamo F, Salome G, Augusto O, Nikula M, on behalf of the PROFEG-group. Routine iron prophylaxis during pregnancy. Effects on maternal and child health in Maputo City and the urban part of Maputo Province, Mozambique. Report of a pilot study. Profeg Group, 2007.
Mwangi 2011 {published data only}
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Mahomed 1998b
Mahomed 2000b
Mahomed 2006a
Mahomed 2006b
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Pena-Rosas 2006
Peña-Rosas 2009