Mass media interventions for promoting HIV testing
Editorial Group: Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group
Published Online: 20 JUL 2005
Assessed as up-to-date: 15 MAY 2005
Copyright © 2009 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
How to Cite
Vidanapathirana J, Abramson MJ, Forbes A, Fairley C. Mass media interventions for promoting HIV testing. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004775. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004775.pub2.
- Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
- Published Online: 20 JUL 2005
Use of the mass media is one of the important strategies in communicating behavioral change in relation to HIV/AIDS prevention. Mass media are used to promote voluntary HIV counseling and testing and to sustain test-seeking behavior.
To assess the effect of mass media interventions and the most effective form of mass media intervention at a general population level or in specific target populations, in relation to changes in HIV testing, compared with a control group or with pre-intervention levels.
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2004), EMBASE (1980 to April 2004), NLM Gateway, CINAHL (1982 to April 2004), AIDSearch (1980 to April 2004), and PsycINFO (1974 to April 2004), Sociological abstracts (1982 to April 2004), and Communication studies (1982 to April 2003). The reference lists of related reviews were searched and experts in the field were contacted to identify ongoing research. Relevant web sites of international agencies (UNAIDS, WHO, UNFPA, World Bank, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) were also searched. All these searches were done without language restriction. All databases were searched up to April 2004.
Randomized controlled trials, including cluster-randomized trials and controlled clinical trials, that compared either multimedia interventions or one type of media strategy with a control in relation to promotion of HIV testing were included. Interrupted time series analyses that assessed the effect of mass media against no media or an alternative intervention to promote HIV testing were also included.
Data collection and analysis
Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Types of mass media interventions, participants, and outcomes were extracted in every possible instance.
Of the 35 references that were identified, two randomized controlled trials, three non-randomized controlled studies, and nine interrupted time series were included in the final analysis. All individual studies concluded that mass media were effective, and this was confirmed by reanalysis of the interrupted time series studies which all had initial impact. Mass media interventions for promotion of HIV testing showed significant immediate (Random effect: Estimated mean = 5.487, 95%CI = 2.370 to 8.605) and overall (Random effect: Estimated mean = 6.095, 95%CI = 1.812 to 10.378) effect. No long-term effects were seen on mass media interventions for promotion of HIV testing (Random effect: Estimated mean = 4.447, 95%CI = -0.188 to 9.082).
Mass media interventions have immediate and overall effects in promotion of HIV testing. No long-term effects were seen. There was no significant impact of detecting seropositive status after mass media intervention for promoting HIV testing, and this finding was limited to a small number of studies. Further research is required to identify possible effects on seropositivity status after mass media intervention for promotion of HIV testing among high-risk groups in epidemic countries. Additional research is needed to identify the effectiveness of different types of mass media interventions, the cost effectiveness of the interventions, and characteristics of messages.
Plain language summary
Mass media campaigns designed to raise awareness of HIV and AIDS have shown immediate and significant effects in the promotion of voluntary counseling and testing for HIV.
According to UNAIDS, 42 million people in the world have HIV infection. Notably, the majority of new infections are preventable and are spread through unsafe sex. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) can lead to the practice of safe sexual behaviors and increased condom use, thus preventing spread of the disease.
While mass media campaigns have shown an immediate and significant overall effect on VCT, no significant long-term effect was demonstrated. This may have been due to the short duration of the campaigns. Further research is needed to identify the impact of mass media campaigns, their cost effectiveness, and types of campaigns and message characteristics. In addition, more studies are needed to explore new media strategies for the long term.
我們搜尋了Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2004), EMBASE (1980 to April 2004), NLM Gateway, CINAHL (1982 to April 2004), AIDSearch (1980 to April 2004), and PsycINFO (1974 to April 2004), Sociological abstracts (1982 to April 2004), and Communication studies (1982 to April 2003)。有關的參考資料都會被研究和也會聯絡這領域的專家已確定有正在進行中的研究。國際機構的網站包括(UNAIDS, WHO, UNFPA, World Bank, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)也會被搜尋。所有的研究沒有語言的限制。所有的資料庫會搜尋到2004年4月。
隨機控制試驗包括群聚隨意試驗， 臨床控制試驗。這些試驗都要比較大眾媒體的介入或是任何一種媒體在關於推動HIV 測試有何不同。另外， 中斷時間性的一連串分析也會被用來評估大眾媒體的介入與無媒體介入或是其他替代方案在推動HIV測試有何不同。
在35個參考資料中，有2個隨機控制實驗組, 有3個不隨機控制實驗組， 和9個時間中斷序列進入到最後的分析。所有的研究結論出大眾媒體是很有效的，且再次分析那些一系列時間中斷的研究，都發現有最初的影響。 大眾媒體的介入來推動HIV測試發現有明顯且立即(Random effect: Estimated mean = 5.487, 95%CI = 2.370 to 8.605)和(Random effect: Estimated mean = 6.095, 95%CI = 1.812 to 10.378)總和的效果。 我們發現在大眾媒體推動HIV的測試, 沒有長期性的效果(Random effect: Estimated mean = 4.447, 95%CI = −0.188 to 9.082)。
此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。
大眾媒體活動設出計增加對HIV和AIDS的認知，發現在推動自願測試HIV及詢問有立即且有意義的效果。根據UNAIDS, 全世界有4千2百萬人有HIV感染。特別是，大多數的新型感染多是可以預防的且是經過不安全的性行為。自願詢問且測試(VCT)可以造就安全性行為以及增加保險套使用率，這都可以預防傳播疾病。當大眾媒體活動在VCT表現出明顯且總效果，卻發現沒有長期性的效果。這可能是因為活動時間較短的原因。還需要更進一步的研究來確認大眾媒體活動的影響, 經濟效益，各種傳遞訊息的特色和活動形式。 另外，需要更多研究來長期地發掘新的大眾媒體策略。