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Consumer-providers of care for adult clients of statutory mental health services

  1. Veronica Pitt1,
  2. Dianne Lowe2,*,
  3. Sophie Hill3,
  4. Megan Prictor4,
  5. Sarah E Hetrick5,
  6. Rebecca Ryan3,
  7. Lynda Berends6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Consumers and Communication Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 MAR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004807.pub2


How to Cite

Pitt V, Lowe D, Hill S, Prictor M, Hetrick SE, Ryan R, Berends L. Consumer-providers of care for adult clients of statutory mental health services. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004807. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004807.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  2. 2

    Australian Institute for Primary Care & Ageing, La Trobe University, Centre for Health Communication and Participation, Bundoora, VIC, Australia

  3. 3

    La Trobe University, Centre for Health Communication and Participation, Australian Institute for Primary Care & Ageing, Bundoora, VIC, Australia

  4. 4

    Australian Institute for Primary Care & Ageing, La Trobe University, Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group, Bundoora, VIC, Australia

  5. 5

    University of Melbourne, Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  6. 6

    Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Fitzroy, VIC, Australia

*Dianne Lowe, Centre for Health Communication and Participation, Australian Institute for Primary Care & Ageing, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, 3086, Australia. d.lowe@latrobe.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Bright 1999 {published data only}
  • Bright JI, Baker KD, Neimeyer RA. Professional and paraprofessional group treatments for depression: a comparison of cognitive-behavioral and mutual support interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(4):491-501.
Clarke 2000 {published data only}
  • Clarke GN, Herinckx HA, Kinney RF, Paulson RI, Cutler DL, Lewis K, et al. Psychiatric hospitalizations, arrests, emergency room visits, and homelessness of clients with serious and persistent mental illness: findings from a randomized trial of two ACT programs vs. usual care. Mental Health Services Research 2000;2(3):155-64.
  • Herinckx H, Kinney R, Clarke G, Paulson R. Assertive community treatment versus usual care in engaging and retaining clients with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 1997;48(10):1297-306.
  • Paulson R, Clarke G, Herinckx H, Kinney R, Lewis K, Oxman E. First year outcomes from a randomised trial comparing consumer and non-consumer assertive community treatment teams with usual care [conference abstract]. Schizophrenia 1996: Breaking down the Barriers 4th International Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada October 6-9 1996.
  • Paulson R, Herinckx H, Demmler J, Clarke G, Cutler D, Birecree E. Comparing practice patterns of consumer and non-consumer mental health service providers. Community Mental Health Journal 1999;35(3):251-69.
Craig 2004 {published data only}
  • Craig T, Doherty I, Jamieson-Craig R, Boocock A, Attafua G. The consumer-employee as a member of a Mental Health Assertive Outreach Team. I. Clinical and social outcomes. Journal of Mental Health 2004;13(1):59-69.
  • Doherty I, Craig T, Attafua G, Boocock A, Jamieson-Craig R. The consumer-employee as a member of a Mental Health Assertive Outreach Team II Clinical and social outcomes. Journal of Mental Health 2004; Vol. 13, issue 1:71-81.
Gordon 1979 {published data only}
  • Edmunson ED, Bedell JR, Archer RP, Gordon RE. Integrating skill building and peer support in mental health treatment: the Early Intervention and Community Network Development projects. In: Jeger AM, Slotnick RS editor(s). Community Mental Health and Behavioral Ecology. New York: Plenum Press, 1982:127-39.
  • Edmunson ED, Bedell JR, Gordon RE. The Community Network Development Project: bridging the gap between professional aftercare and self-help. In: Gartner A, Riesman F editor(s). The Self-Help Revolution. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1984:195-203.
  • Gordon R, Edmunson E, Bedell J, Goldstein N. Peer mutual aid networks reduce rehospitalization of mental patients. Self-Help Reporter (New York) 1979 (March-April);3(2).
  • Gordon R, Edmunson E, Bedell J, Goldstein N. Reducing rehospitalization of state mental patients: peer management and support. Journal of the Florida Medical Association 1979;66(9):927-33.
Kaufmann 1995 {published data only}
  • Kaufmann CL, Schulberg HC, Schooler NR. Chapter 14: Self-help group participation among people with severe mental illness. Prevention in Human Services 1995;11(2):315-31.
O'Donnell 1999 {published data only}
  • O'Donnell M, Parker G, Proberts M, Matthews R, Fisher D, Johnson B, et al. A study of client-focused case management and consumer advocacy: the Community and Consumer Service Project. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1999;33(5):684-93.
  • O'Donnell M, Proberts M, Parker G. Development of a consumer advocacy program. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1998;32(6):873-9.
Rivera 2007 {published data only}
Rogers 2007 {published data only}
  • Johnsen MT, McDonel G, Herr E. Common ingredients as a fidelity measure. In: Clay SS editor(s). On Our Own, Together: Peer Programs for People with Mental Illness. Nashville (TN): Vanderbilt University Press, 2005:213-38.
  • Rogers ES, Teague GB, Lichenstein C, Campbell J, Lyass A, Chen R, et al. Effects of participation in consumer-operated service programs on both personal and organizationally mediated empowerment: results of multisite study. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2007;47(6):785-99.
Sells 2006 {published data only}
  • Jewell C, Davidson L, Rowe M. The paradox of engagement: how political, organizational, and evaluative demands can hinder innovation in community mental health services. Social Service Review 2006;80(1):4-26. [DOI: 10.1086/498837]
  • Sells D, Black R, Davidson L, Rowe M. Beyond generic support: Incidence and impact of invalidation in peer services for clients with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2008; Vol. 59, issue 11:1322-7. [DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.59.11.1322]
  • Sells D, Davidson L, Jewell C, Falzer P, Rowe M. The treatment relationship in peer-based and regular case management for clients with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2006; Vol. 57, issue 8:1179-84. [DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.57.8.1179]
Sledge 2011 {published data only}
  • Sledge WH, Lawless M, Sells D, Wieland M, O'Connell MJ, Davidson L. Effectiveness of peer support in reducing readmissions of persons with multiple psychiatric hospitalizations. Psychiatric Services 2011;62(5):541-4.
Solomon 1995 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Bedell 1980 {published data only}
Bruxner 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bruxner A. The development of a project designed to test the feasibility and effects of a peer support intervention in young people being discharged from a first episode psychosis treatment centre. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4:56.
  • Robinson J, Bruxner A, Harrigan S, Bendall S, Killackey E, Tonin V, et al. Study protocol: the development of a pilot study employing a randomised controlled design to investigate the feasibility and effects of a peer support program following discharge from a specialist first-episode psychosis treatment centre. BMC Psychiatry 2010;10(37):1-7.
  • Robinson J, Bruxner A, Harrigan S, Bendall S, Killackey E, Tonin V, et al. The development, design, and testing of a peer support intervention in youth being discharged from a first episode psychosis clinic. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2010;44:A43.
Campbell 2004 {published data only}
  • Campbell J. Consumer-operated services program (COSP) multisite research initiative: overview and preliminary findings. http://www.power2u.org/downloads/COSPVAREPORT.pdf (accessed 28 Jan 2011) May 2004.
Castelein 2008 {published data only}
Chatterjee 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Balaji M, Chatterjee S, Koschorke M, Rangaswamy T, Chavan A, Dabholkar H, et al. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India. BMC Health Services Research 2012;12(42). [DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-42]
  • Chatterjee S, Leese M, Koschorke M, McCrone P, Naik S, John S, et al. Collaborative community based care for people and their families living with schizophrenia in India: protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2011;12(12).
  • Thornicroft G. A randomised trial comparing the clinical and cost effectiveness of usual, facility based care compared to an additional collaborative community care package for people and their families living with schizophrenia in India (ISRCTN 56877013). http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/trial.aspx?trialid=ISRCTN56877013 2009.
Cook 2012a {published data only}
  • Cook JA, Steigman P, Pickett S, Diehl S, Fox A, Shipley P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of peer-led recovery education using Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support (BRIDGES). Schizophrenia Research 2012;136(1-3):36-42.
Cook 2012b {published data only}
  • Cook JA, Copeland ME, Jonikas JA, Hamilton MM, Razzano LA, Grey DD, et al. Results of a randomized controlled trial of mental illness self-management using Wellness Recovery Action Planning. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2012;38(4):881-91.
Davidson 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Davidson L, Shahar G, Stayner DA, Chinman MJ, Rakfeldt J, Tebes JK. Supported socialization for people with psychiatric disabilities: Lessons from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Community Psychology 2004; Vol. 32, issue 4:453-77. [DOI: 10.1002/jcop.20013]
  • Shahar G, Davidson L. Depressive symptoms erode self-esteem in severe mental illness: a three-wave, cross-lagged study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71(5):890-900.
  • Shahar G, Kidd S, Styron TH, Davidson L. Consumer support and satisfaction with mental health services in severe mental illness: the moderating role of morale. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 2006;25(9):945-62.
Dennis 2003 {published data only}
  • Dennis C. The effect of peer support on postpartum depression: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2003;48(2):115-24.
Dennis 2009 {published data only}
  • Dennis CL, Hodnett E, Kenton L, Weston J, Zupancic J, Stewart DE, et al. Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: multisite randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2009;338:a3064.
Draine 1995 {published data only}
  • Draine JN. Case management for homeless mentally ill adult offenders: a re-examination of random field trial data. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 1995. [: ProQuest AAI9615035]
  • Solomon P, Draine J. One-year outcomes of a randomized trial of case management with seriously mentally ill clients leaving jail. Evaluation Review 1995;19(3):256-73.
  • Solomon P, Draine J, Meyerson A. Jail recidivism and receipt of community mental health services. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1994;45(8):793-7.
Dumont 2002 {published data only}
  • Dumont J, Jones K. Findings from a consumer/survivor defined alternative to psychiatric hospitalization. Outlook 2002;Spring:4-6.
Felton 1995 {published data only}
  • Felton CJ, Stastny P, Shern DL, Blanch A, Donahue SA, Knight E, et al. Consumers as peer specialists on intensive case management teams - impact on client outcomes. Psychiatric Services 1995;46(10):1037-44.
Forchuk 2005 {published data only}
Galanter 1988 {published data only}
Greenfield 2008 {published data only}
  • Arntzen B, Greenfield TK, Sundby E. Early experiences at Sacramento's consumer run crisis residential program. Journal of the California Alliance for the Mentally Ill 1995; Vol. 6, issue 3:35-6.
  • Greenfield TK, Stoneking BC, Humphreys K, Sundby E, Bond J. A randomized trial of a mental health consumer-managed alternative to civil commitment for acute psychiatric crisis. American Journal of Community Psychology 2008; Vol. 42, issue 1-2:135-44. [DOI: 10.1007/s10464-008-9180-1]
Hartley 2011 {published data only}
  • Hartley S, Haddock G. Self-help therapy and recovery in psychosis: Methodological considerations and service user involvement in a partially randomised preference trial. Trials 2011;12(S1):A84.
Hunkeler 2000 {published data only}
  • Hunkeler E, Meresman J, Hargreaves W, Fireman B, Berman W, Kirsch A, et al. Efficacy of nurse telehealth care and peer support in augmenting treatment of depression in primary care. Archives of Family Medicine 2000;9(8):700-8.
Jonikas 2011 {published data only}
  • Cook JA, Copeland ME, Jonikas JA, Hamilton MM, Razzano LA, Grey DD, et al. Results of a randomized controlled trial of mental illness self-management using Wellness Recovery Action Planning. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2012;136:36-42. [DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbr012]
  • Grey DD, Cook JA, Hamilton MM, Jonikas JA. Randomized controlled trial of a peer-led recovery intervention for mental illness self-management. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 2011;14:S9.
  • Jonikas JA, Grey DD, Copeland ME, Razzano LA, Hamilton MM, et al. Improving propensity for patient self-advocacy through Wellness Recovery Action Planning: results of a randomized controlled trial. Community Mental Health Journal 2011;Dec:ns. [DOI: 10.1007/s10597-011-9475-9]
Kaufmann 1995a {published data only}
Klein 1997 {published data only}
  • Klein AR. The significance of peer social support in intensive case management. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 1997. [: ProQuest AAI9637397]
  • Klein AR, Cnaan RA, Whitecraft J. Significance of peer social support with dually diagnosed clients: findings from a pilot study. Research on Social Work Practice 1998;8:529-51.
Krebaum 1999a {published and unpublished data}
  • Krebaum SR. Mental health consumers as case management aides in the transition from hospital to community: outcome of consumers served. Dallas, TX: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1999.
Lafave 1996 {published data only}
  • Lafave HG, de Souza HR, Gerber GJ. Assertive community treatment of severe mental illness: a Canadian experience. Psychiatric Services 1996; Vol. 47, issue 7:757-9.
Landers 2011 {published data only}
  • Landers GM, Zhou M. An analysis of relationships among peer support, psychiatric hospitalization, and crisis stabilization. Community Mental Health Journal 2011;47:106-12.
Lehman 1997 {published data only}
  • Lehman AF, Dixon LB, DeForge B, Kernan E. Assertive community treatment for homeless persons with schizophrenia and other chronic mental disorders [conference abstract]. Schizophrenia Research (The Vth International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, Wormsprings, VA USA, 6 -12 April, 1995). 1995; Vol. 1, 2:128.
  • Lehman AF, Dixon LB, Kernan E, DeForge BR, Postrado LT. A randomized trial of assertive community treatment for homeless persons with severe mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 1997; Vol. 54, issue 11:1038-43.
Lehman 1999 {published data only}
  • Lehman A, Dixon L, Hoch J, Deforge B, Kernan E, Frank R. Cost-effectiveness of assertive community treatment for homeless persons with severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 1999; Vol. 174, issue April:346-52.
Lehman 2002 {published data only}
  • Lehman AF, Goldberg R, Dixon L B, McNary S, Postrado L, Hackman A, et al. Improving employment outcomes for persons with severe mental illnesses. Archives of General Psychiatry 2002;59(2):165-72.
Liberman 1998 {published data only}
  • Liberman RP, Wallace CJ, Blackwell G, Kopelowicz A, Vaccaro JV, Mintz J. Skills training versus psychosocial occupational therapy for persons with persistent schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 1998; Vol. 155, issue 8:1087-91.
Liviniemi 2001 {published data only}
  • Liviniemi L, Niemelä N. Elements of community care in mental health work: "Vertaansa Vailla" project [Finnish] [Yhteisöhoidon elementtejä mielenterveystyössä: Esimerkkinä Vertaansa Vailla - projekti]. Sairaanhoitaja - Sjuksköterskan 2001;74(3):11-12.
Ludman 2007 {published data only}
  • Ludman E, Simon G, Grothaus L, Luce C, Markley D, Schaefer J. A pilot study of telephone care management and structured disease self-management groups for chronic depression. Psychiatric Services 2007;58(8):1065-72.
Macias 2006 {published data only}
  • Macias C, Rodican C, Hargreaves W, Jones D, Barreira P, Wang Q. Supported employment outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of ACT and clubhouse models. Psychiatric Services 2006;57(10):1406-15.
McCorkle 2008 {published data only}
  • McCorkle B, Rogers E, Dunn E, Lyass A, Wan Y. Increasing social support for individuals with serious mental illness: evaluating the compeer model of intentional friendship. Community Mental Health Journal 2008;44(5):359-66.
Powell 2001 {published data only}
  • Powell TJ, Yeaton W, Hill EM, Silk KR. Predictors of psychosocial outcomes for patients with mood disorders: the effects of self-help group participation. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2001;25(1):3-11.
Quinlivan 1995 {published data only}
  • Quinlivan R, Hough R, Crowell A, Beach C, Hofstetter R, Kenworthy K. Service utilization and costs of care for severely mentally ill clients in an intensive case management program. Psychiatric Services 1995; Vol. 46, issue 4:365-71.
Reynolds 2004 {published data only}
  • Reynolds W, Lauder W, Sharkey S, Maciver S, Veitch T, Cameron D, et al. The effects of a transitional discharge model for psychiatric patients. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing 2004; Vol. 11, issue 1:82-8.
  • Sharkey S, Maciver S, Cameron D, Reynolds W, Lauder W, Veitch T. An exploration of factors affecting the implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a transitional discharge model for people with a serious mental illness. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2005;12(1):51-6.
Rowe 2007 {published data only}
  • Rowe M, Bellamy C, Baranoski M, Wieland M, O'Connell M, Benedict P, et al. A peer-support, group intervention to reduce substance use and criminality among persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2007;58(7):955-61.
Sacks 2008 {published data only}
Salyers 2010 {published data only}
  • Salyers MP, McGuire AB, Rollins AL, Bond GR, Mueser KT, Macy VR. Integrating assertive community treatment and illness management and recovery for consumers with severe mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal 2010;46(4):319-29.
Schmidt 2006 {published data only}
  • Schmidt LT. Comparison of service outcomes of case management teams with and without a consumer provider. Newark, NJ: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 2005. [: ProQuest AAT 3181928]
  • Schmidt LT, Gill KJ, Pratt CW, Solomon P. Comparison of service outcomes of case management teams with and without a consumer provider. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation 2008;11:310-29.
Seeman 2001 {published data only}
  • Seeman MV. Group oriented interpersonal therapy reduced postpartum depression in women at risk. Evidence-Based Mental Health 2001;4(4):118.
Segal 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Segal SP, Silverman CJ, Temkin TL. Self-help and community mental health agency outcomes: a recovery-focused randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric Services 2010;61(9):905-10.
Segal 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Segal SP, Silverman CJ, Temkin TL. Outcomes from consumer-operated and community mental health services: a randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric Services 2011;62(8):915-21.
Simon 2011 {published data only}
  • Simon GE, Cutsogeorge D, Ludman EJ, Operskalski B, Goodale LC, Savarino J, et al. An online recovery plan program: can peer coaching increase participation?. Psychiatric Services 2011;62(6):666-9.
Stefancic 2007 {published data only}
  • Stefancic A, Tsemberis S. Housing first for long-term shelter dwellers with psychiatric disabilities in a suburban county: a four-year study of housing access and retention. Journal of Primary Prevention 2007;28(3-4):265-79.
Straughan 2006 {published data only}
  • Straughan H, Buckenham M. In-Sight: an evaluation of user-led, recovery-based, holistic group training for bipolar disorder. Journal of Public Mental Health 2006;5(3):29-43.
Sytema 2007 {published data only}
  • Sytema S, Wunderink L, Bloemers W, Roorda L, Wiersma D. Assertive community treatment in the Netherlands: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2007; Vol. 116, issue 2:105-12.
van Gestel 2012 {published and unpublished data}
  • ISRCTN47331661. Recovery ... you do that yourself: a randomised controlled trial for assessing the effects of a consumer-run course on the recovery of persons with serious mental illnesses. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/pf/47331661 (accessed 28 Jan 2011).
  • van Gestel-Timmermans H, Brouwers EPM, van Assen MALM, van Nieuwenhuizen C. Effects of a peer-run course on recovery from serious mental illness: a randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric Services 2012;63(1):54-60.
  • van Gestel-Timmermans J, Brouwers E, van Assen M, van Nieuwenhuizen C. Effects and feasibility of a peer-run course on the recovery of people with major psychiatric problems: a randomised controlled trial and feasibility study. Psychiatrische Praxis 2011;38. [DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1277755]
  • van Gestel-Timmermans JAWM. Recovery is Up to You: Evaluation of a Peer-run Course [PhD thesis]. Tranzo, The Netherlands: Tilburg University, 2011.
  • van Gestel-Timmermans JAWM, Brouwers EPM, van Nieuwenhuizen C. Recovery Is Up To You, a peer-run course. Psychiatric Services 2010;61(9):944-5.
Young 2005 {published data only}

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Kroon 2011 {published data only}
Stone 1979 {unpublished data only}
  • Donoghue B, Stone A, Rust A, Cone W. Peer management inpatient treatment of chronic psychiatric patients: a preliminary report of a controlled study [unpublished paper]. Florida Mental Health Institute, Tampa 1979.
  • Stone A, Donoghue B, Rust A, Cone W. Peer management in patient treatment of chronic psychiatric patients: controlled study with follow-up. [to be presented at SEPA, New Orleans] 1979.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Chinman 2012 {published and unpublished data}
  • Chinman M. The impact of adding Consumer Providers to intensive case management teams. Psychiatric Services [submitted].
  • Chinman M, Lucksted A, Gresen R, Davis M, Losonczy M, Sussner B, et al. Early experiences of employing consumer-providers in the VA. Psychiatric Services 2008;59(11). [DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.59.11.1315]
  • Chinman M, Shoai R, Cohen A. Using organizational change strategies to guide peer support technician implementation in the Veterans Administration. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2009;33(4 Special Issue):269-77. [DOI: 10.2975/33.4.2010.269-277]
  • Department of Veterans Affairs. Promoting recovery using mental health consumer providers [PEers Enhancing Recovery (PEER) - NCT00781079]. ClinicalTrials.gov [www.clinicaltrials.gov] 2010.
Tondora 2010 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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Campbell 2008a
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
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