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Newer generation antidepressants for depressive disorders in children and adolescents

  1. Sarah E Hetrick1,2,*,
  2. Joanne E McKenzie3,
  3. Georgina R Cox1,
  4. Magenta B Simmons1,2,
  5. Sally N Merry4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group

Published Online: 14 NOV 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 28 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004851.pub3


How to Cite

Hetrick SE, McKenzie JE, Cox GR, Simmons MB, Merry SN. Newer generation antidepressants for depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004851. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004851.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Melbourne, Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  2. 2

    University of Melbourne, headspace Centre of Excellence, Centre for Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  3. 3

    Monash University, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  4. 4

    University of Auckland, Department of Psychological Medicine, Auckland, New Zealand

*Sarah E Hetrick, Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Locked Bag 10, 35 Poplar Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, 3054, Australia. shetrick@unimelb.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 14 NOV 2012

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Almeida-Montes 2005 {published data only}
  • Almeida-Montes LG, Friederichsen A. Treatment of major depressive disorder with fluoxetine in children and adolescents. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study [Tratamiento del trastorno depresivo mayor con fluoxetina en ninos y adolescentes. Estudio doble ciego, controlado con placebo]. Psiquiatria Biologica 2005;12(5):198-205.
Berard 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Berard R, Fong R, Carpenter DJ, Thomason C, Wilkinson C. An international, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in adolescents with major depressive disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2004;16(1-2):59-75.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A double-blind, multicentre placebo controlled study of paroxetine in adolescents with unipolar major depression [Study 377]. www.gsk.com/media/paroxetine.htm (accessed 16 August 2004).
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Paroxetine Study 2 ID#377. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
  • Milin R, Simeon J, Spenst W. Double-blind study of paroxetine in adolescents with unipolar major depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Emslie 1997 {published data only}
  • Emslie GJ, Rush AJ, Weinberg WA, Kowatch RA, Carmody T, Mayes TL. Fluoxetine in child and adolescent depression: acute and maintenance treatment. Depression and Anxieety 1998;7:32-9.
  • Emslie GJ, Rush AJ, Weinberg WA, Kowatch RA, Hughes CW, Carmody T. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of fluoxetine in depressed children and adolescents. Sixth World Congress of Biological Psychiatry, Nice, France. June 22-27. 1997.
  • Emslie GJ, Rush R, Weinberg WA, Kowatch WA, Hughes CW, Carmody T, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 1997;54(11):1031-7.
  • Emslie GJ, Weinberg WA, Mayes TL. Treatment of children with antidepressants: focus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Depression and Anxiety 1998;8(Suppl 1):13-7.
  • Hughes CW, Emslie G, Kowatch R, Weinberg W, Rintelmann J, Rush AJ. Clinician, parent, and child prediction of medication or placebo in double-blind depression study. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;23(5):591-4.
  • Kowatch RA, Carmody TJ, Emslie GJ, Rintelmann JW, Hughes CW, Rush AJ. Prediction of response to fluoxetine and placebo in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder: a hypothesis generating study. Journal of Affective Disorders 1999;54:269-76.
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Fluoxetine Study 1 ID# X065. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (assessed 20 June 2004).
  • Rintelmann JW, Emslie GJ, Rush AJ, Varghese T, Gullion CM, Kowatch RA, et al. The effects of extended evaluation on depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders 1996;41:149-56.
Emslie 2002 {published data only}
  • Emslie GJ, Heiligenstein JH, Hoog SL, Judge R, Brown EB, Nilsson M. Fluoxetine for acute treatment of depression in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology; 2000 Dec 10-14; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2000:172.
  • Emslie GJ, Heiligenstein JH, Wagner KD, Hoog SI, Ernest DE, Brown E, et al. Fluoxetine for acute treatment of depression in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2002;41(10):1205-15.
  • Jain S, Carmody TJ, Trivedi MH, Hughes C, Bernstein IH, Morris D, et al. A psychometric evaluation of the CDRS and MADRS in assessing depressive symptoms in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2007; Vol. 46, issue 9:1204-12.
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Fluoxetine Study 2 ID# HCJE. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
  • Nilsson M, Joliat MJ, Miner CM, Brown EB, Heiligenstein JH. Safety of subchronic treatment with fluoxetine for major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2004;14(3):412-7.
Emslie 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Brooks SJ, Krulewicz MA, Kutcher S. The Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale: assessment of its evaluative properties over the course of an 8-week pediatric pharmacotherapy trial. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2003;13(3):227-349.
  • Emslie GJ, Wagner KD, Kutcher S, Krulewicz S, Fong R, Carpenter DJ, et al. Paroxetine treatment in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder: a randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2006;45(6):709-19.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A randomized multicentre, 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled flexible dose study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paroxetine in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (29060/701). www.gsk.com/media/paroxetine.htm (accessed 16 August 2004).
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Paroxetine Study 3 ID#701. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
Emslie 2007 {published data only}
  • Emslie GJ, Finding RL, Yeung PP, Kunz NR, Li Y, Durn BL. Efficacy and safety of venlafaxine ER in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (poster presentation). Proceedings of the American Psychiatric Association; 2004 May 1-6; New York. 2004.
  • Emslie GJ, Findling RL, Yeung PP, Kunz NR, Li Y. Venlafaxine ER for the treatment of pediatric subjects with depression: results of two placebo-controlled trials. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007;46(4):479-88.
  • Emslie GJ, Yeung PR, Kunz NR, Li Y. Long-term efficacy and safety of venlafaxine ER in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Proceedings of the American Psychiatric Association; 2004 May 1-6; New York. 2004.
Emslie 2007 Trial 1 {published data only}
  • Wyeth. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of venlafaxine ER in children and adolescents with major depression. (Protocol 0600B1-382-US (Study Period: October 1997 to September 2000)). http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/documents/company-study_44_0.pdf 2004 (accessed 24 November 2011).
Emslie 2007 Trial 2 {published data only}
  • Wyeth. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of venlafaxine ER in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. (Protocol 0600B1-394-US) (Study Period: August 2000 to August 2001). http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/documents/company-study_2252_0.pdf 2004 (accessed 24 November 2011).
Emslie 2009 {published data only}
  • Emslie GJ, Ventura D, Korotzer A, Tourkodimitris S. Escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression: a randomized placebo-controlled multisite trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;48(7):721-9.
Keller 2001 {published data only}
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A multi-centre, double-blind, placebo controlled study of paroxetine and imipramine in adolescents with unipolar major depression - acute phase (29060/329). www.gsk.com/media/paroxetine.htm (accessed 16 August 2004).
  • Jureidini J, Tonkin A. Paroxetine in major depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42(5):514.
  • Keller MB, Ryan ND, Birmaher B, Klein RG, Strober M, Wagner KD, et al. Paroxetine and imipramine in the treatment of adolescent depression [Abstract NR206]. Proccedings of the 151st Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association: New Research Program and Abstracts; 1998 May 30 - June 4; Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1998:123.
  • Keller MB, Ryan ND, Strober M, Klein RG, Kutcher SP, Birmaher B, et al. Efficacy of paroxetine in the treatment of adolescent major depression: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2001;40(7):762-72.
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Paroxetine Study 1 ID#329. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
Mirtazapine Trial 1 {published data only}
  • www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/UCM164066.pdf.
  • Rapporteurs Public Assessment Report for Peadiatric Data in EU Worksharing Procedure: Mirtazapine (Remeron). UK/H/0016/pdWS/001 (http://www.hma.eu/fileadmin/dateien/Human_Medicines/CMD_h_/Paediatric_Regulation/Assessment_Reports/Article_45_work-sharing/Mirtazapine_2010_07_45PaedPAR.pdf) 18 June 2010.
Mirtazapine Trial 1 & 2 {published data only}
  • www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/UCM164066.pdf.
  • Rapporteurs Public Assessment Report for Peadiatric Data in EU Worksharing Procedure: Mirtazapine (Remeron). UK/H/0016/pdWS/001 (http://www.hma.eu/fileadmin/dateien/Human_Medicines/CMD_h_/Paediatric_Regulation/Assessment_Reports/Article_45_work-sharing/Mirtazapine_2010_07_45PaedPAR.pdf) 18 June 2010.
  • Organon Pharmaceuricals USA Inc. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy and safety study of Remeron® in outpatient children and adolescents with major depressive disorder [Studies 1 and 2]. http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/documents/company-study_51_0.pdf 2001 (accessed 24 November 2011).
Mirtazapine Trial 2 {published data only}
  • www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/UCM164066.pdf.
  • Rapporteurs Public Assessment Report for Peadiatric Data in EU Worksharing Procedure: Mirtazapine (Remeron). UK/H/0016/pdWS/001 (http://www.hma.eu/fileadmin/dateien/Human_Medicines/CMD_h_/Paediatric_Regulation/Assessment_Reports/Article_45_work-sharing/Mirtazapine_2010_07_45PaedPAR.pdf) 18 June 2010.
Paroxetine Trial 1 {published data only}
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, flexible dose study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Paxil® tablets in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder <Post-marketing clinical study>. GSK - Clinical Study Register (http://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com) 2010.
Simeon 1990 {published data only}
  • Simeon JG, Dinicola VF, Ferguson HB, Copping W. Adolescent depression: a placebo controlled fluoxetine treatment study and follow-up. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 1990;14:791-5.
TADS 2004 {published data only}
  • Emslie G, Kratochvil C, Vitiello B, Silva S, Mayes T, McNulty S, et al. The Columbia Classification Team, The TADS Team. Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS): safety results. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 2006;45(12):1440-55.
  • March J, Silva S, Petrycki S, Curry J, Wells K, Fairbank J, et al. Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;292:807-20.
  • Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) Team. Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): rationale, design, and methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42:531-42.
  • Vitiello B, Silva S, Rohde P, Kratochvil C, Kennard B, Reinecke M, et al. Suicidal events in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2009;70(5):741–7.
Von Knorring 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Citalopram Study 2 ID#94404. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
  • von Knorring A, Olsson GI, Thomson PH, Lemming OM, Hulten A. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of citalopram in adolescents with major depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2006;26(3):311-5.
Wagner 2004 {published data only}
  • Forest Laboratories. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of citalopram in children and adolescent outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD) [CIT-MD-18]. Forest Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.forestclinicaltrials.com/CTR/CTRController/CTRViewPdf?_file_id=scsr/SCSR_CIT-MD-18final.pdf ) 2005 (accessed 24 November 2011).
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Citalopram Study 1 ID# CIT-MD-18. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
  • Wagner KD, Robb AS, Findling R, Tiseo P. Citalopram is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: results of a placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 2002;5(Suppl 1):161.
  • Wagner KD, Robb AS, Findling RL, Jin J, Gutierrez MM, Heydorn WE. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram for the treatment of major depression in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry 2004;161:1079-83.
  • Wagner KD, Robb AS, Findling RL, Jin J, Tiseo PJ. Efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of MDD in children and adolescents [Abstract NR328]. Proceedings of the 155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association: New Research Program and Abstracts; 2002 May 18-23; Philadelpheia, PA, USA 2002:90.
Wagner 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Forest Laboratories Ltd. Forest announces results of recently completed Lexapro pediatric depression clinical trial. http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/Depression/news/children_antidepressants_lexapro_2.asp OR http://www.frx.com/ (accessed October 2004).
  • Wagner KD, Jonas J, Findling RL, Ventura D, Saikali K. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in the treatment of pediatric depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2006;45(3):280-8.
Wagner Trial 1 {published data only}
  • Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Inc. Study A050100. A multicenter 10-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled flexible dose outpatient study of sertraline in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/documents/company-study_98_0.pdf 2004 (accessed 24 November 2011).
Wagner Trial 1&2 (2003) {published data only}
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Sertraline Study 1 ID#1001. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Sertraline Study 2 ID # 1017. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk (accessed 20 June 2004).
  • Wagner KD, Ambrosini P, Rynn M, Wohlberg C, Yang R, Greenbaum MS, et al. Efficacy of sertraline in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. JAMA 2003;290(8):1033-41.
  • Wagner KD, Wohlberg C. Efficacy and safety of sertraline for treatment of pediatric major depressive disorder [Abstract NR327]. 155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2002 May 18-23; Philadelphia, PA. 2002.
  • Wagner KD, Wohlberg CJ, Yang R. "Efficacy of sertraline in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder": Reply. JAMA 2004; Vol. 291, issue 1:42.
Wagner Trial 2 {published data only}
  • Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Inc. Study A0501017A. Multicenter 10-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled flexible dose outpatient study of sertraline in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/documents/company-study_1981_0.pdf 2004 (accessed 24 November 2011).

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Braconnier 2003 {published data only}
  • Braconnier A, Coent R, Cohen D. Paroxetine versus clomipramine in adolescents with severe major depression: a double blind, randomized, multicentre trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42(1):22-9.
Cornelius 2009 {published data only}
  • Cornelius JR, Bukstein OG, Wood DS, Kirisci L, Douaihy A, Clark DB. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in adolescents with comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder. Addictive Behaviors 2009;34(10):905-9.
  • Cornelius JR, Clark DB, Bukstein OG, Salloum IM, Matta J, Wood DS. Alcohol use but not cannabis use reported to contribute to depression in treatment trial of comorbid adolescents. Proceedings of the 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence; June 17-22 2006. Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, 2006.
Cornelius 2010 {published data only}
  • Cornelius JR, Bukstein OG, Douaihy AB, Clark DB, Chung TA, Daley DC, et al. Double-blind fluoxetine trial in comorbid MDD-CUD youth and young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2010;112(1-2):39-45.
  • Cornelius JR, Clark DB, Bukstein OG, Salloum IM, Matta J, Wood DS. Alcohol use but not cannabis use reported to contribute to depression in treatment trial of comorbid adolescents. Proceedings of the 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence; June 17-22. Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, 2006.
Cosgrove 1994 {published data only}
Findling 2009 {published data only}
  • Findling RL, Pagano ME, McNamara NK, Stansbrey RJ, Faber JE, Lingler J, et al. The short-term safety and efficacy of fluoxetine in depressed adolescents with alcohol and cannabis use disorders: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2009;3(1):11.
Mandoki 1997 {published data only}
  • Mandoki MW, Tappia MR, Tapia MA, Sumner GS, Parker JL. Veanlafaxine in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depression. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1997;33(1):149-54.
NIMH 2000 {unpublished data only}
  • National Institute of Mental Health. Fluoxetine for the treatment of major depression in youth with bipolar disorder [Study numbers N01-MH-70008A; N01-MH-70008]. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00005015 2000 (accessed 24 November 2011).
Riggs 2007 {published data only}
  • Riggs PD, Lohman M, Davies R, Mikulich-Gilbertson S, Laudenslager M, Klein C, et al. Randomized controlled trial of fluoxetine/placebo and cognitive behavioral treatments in depressed adolescents with substance use disorders. Proceedings of the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence; June 19-23 2005. Orlando, Florida, USA, 2005.
  • Riggs PD, Mikulich-Gilbertson SK, Davies RD, Lohman M, Klein C, Stover SK. A randomized controlled trial of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy in adolescents with major depression, behavior problems, and substance use disorders. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2007;161(11):1026-34.
  • Thurstone C, Riggs PD, Orton HD, Libby AM. Fluoxetine for cannabis withdrawal in depressed adolescents. Proceedings of the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence; June 19-23 2005. Orlando, Florida, USA, 2005.
Sallee 1997 {published data only}
Tashakori 1997 {published data only}
  • Tashakori A, Arabgol F, Panaghi L, Davari R. The effect of reboxetine in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Tehran University Medical Journal 2007;65(8):40-8.
Wohlfarth 2007 {published data only}
  • Wohlfarth T, Boer F, van den Brink W. Withdrawal of attention rather than pharmacological treatment affects suicide rates in depressed children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry 2007;164(12):1908-10.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Duloxetine NCT00849693 {published data only}
  • Eli Lilly. A double-blind, efficacy and safety study of duloxetine versus placebo in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00849693 2009 (accessed 24 November 2011).
Duloxetine NCT00849901 {published data only}
  • Eli Lilly. A double-blind, efficacy and safety study of duloxetine versus placebo in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00849901 2009 (accessed 24 Nov 2011).
Glod 2004 {published data only}
  • Glod CA, Lynch A, Berkowitz C, Hennen J, Baldessarini RJ. Bupropion versus citalopram versus placebo in adolescents with major depression [Abstract NR484]. 157th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; May 1-6 2004 2004.
Solvay NCT00353028 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Yamaguchi T. SME3110 (fluvoxamine maleate) in the treatment of depression/depressive state: a post-marketing clinical study in children and adolescents (8 through 18 years of age) - a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00353028 2010 (accessed 24 November 2011).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
AACAP 2004
  • American Academy of Child, Adolescent Psychiatry. Supplementary talking points for child and adolescent psychiatrists: regarding the FDA black box warning on the use of antidepressants for pediatric patients. http://www.aacap.org/press_release/2004/1101.htm 31 October 2004.
AHRG 2003
  • Adolescent Health Research Group. A health profile of New Zealand youth who attend secondary school. New Zealand Medical Journal 2003;116(1171):3-12.
Altman 2006
Andrews 1992
  • Andrews JA, Lewinsohn PM. Suicide attempts among older adolescents: prevalence and co-occurance with psychiatric disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1992;31(4):655-62.
Angold 1988
APA 2000
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Asarnow 1992
  • Asarnow JR. Suicidal ideation and attempts during middle childhood: associations with perceived family stress and depression among child psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Clinical Child Psychiatry 1992;21(1):35-40.
Axelson 2001
Beck 1961
Birmaher 1996
  • Birmaher B, Ryan ND, Williamson DE, Brent DA, Kaufman J, Dahl RE, et al. Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years: Part 1. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1996;35(11):1427-39.
Brent 1986
  • Brent DA, Kalas R, Edelbrock C, Costello AJ, Dulcan MK, Conover N. Psychopathology and its relationship to suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1986;25(5):666-73.
Brent 1993
  • Brent DA, Perper JA, Moritz G, Allman C, Friend A, Roth C, et al. Psychiatric risk factors for adolescent suicide: a case control study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1993;32(3):521-9.
Brent 2002
Brent 2004
Bridge 2007
  • Bridge JA, Iyengar S, Salary CB, Barbe RP, Birmaher B, Pincus HA, et al. Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in pediatric antidepressant treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2007;297:1683-96.
Brooks 2001
Carlson 1988
Castren 2005
Chambers 1985
  • Chambers WJ, Puig-Antich J, Hirsch M, Paez P, Ambrosini PJ, Tabrizi MA, et al. The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semi-structured interview: test-retest reliability of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children. Present episode version. Archives of General Psychiatry 1985;42:696-702.
Cheung 2005
Churchill 2010
  • Churchill R, Caldwell D, McGuire H, Barbui C, Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, et al. Reboxetine versus other antidepressive agents for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007852]
Cipriani 2005
Cipriani 2009
  • Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Geddes JR, Higgins JPT, Churchill R, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. The Lancet 2009;373:746-58.
Cipriani 2009a
  • Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Veronese A, Watanabe N, Churchill R, McGuire H, et al. Paroxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006531]
Cipriani 2009b
  • Cipriani A, Signoretti A, Furukawa TA, Churchill R, Tomelleri S, Omori IM, et al. Venlafaxine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006530]
Cipriani 2009c
  • Cipriani A, Santilli C, Furukawa TA, Signoretti A, Nakagawa A, McGuire H, et al. Escitalopram versus other antidepressive agents for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006532.pub2]
Cipriani 2010
  • Cipriani A, La Ferla T, Furukawa TA, Signoretti A, Nakagawa A, Churchill R, et al. Sertraline versus other antidepressive agents for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006117.pub4]
Cohen 2004
  • Cohen D, Gerardin P, Mazet P, Purper-Ouakil D, Flament MF. Pharmacological treatment of adolescent major depression. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2004;14(1):19-31.
Cooper 1988
Costello 2006
  • Costello JE, Erkanli A, Angold A. Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2006;47(12):1263-71.
CSM 2004
  • Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM). Report of the CSM expert working group on the safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants. http://medicines.mhra.gov.uk/ourwork/monitorsafequalmed/safetymessages/SSRIfinal.pdf 2004.
Cuijpers 2005
  • Cuijpers P, Dekker J. Psychological treatment of depression; a systematic review of meta-analyses [Psychologische behandeling van depressie; een systematisch overzicht van meta-analysen]. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 2005;149:1892-7.
De Leo 2002
DerSimonian 1986
Dubicka 2006
Dubitsky 2004
  • Dubitsky GM. Review and Evaluation of Clinical Data: Placebo-Controlled Antidepressant Studies In Pediatric Patients. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency 6 August 2004.
Dunlop 2010
  • Dunlop BW, Vaughan CL. Survey of investigators opinions on the acceptability of interactions with patients participating in clinical trials. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2010;30(3):323-7.
Ebmeier 2006
Elbourne 2002
  • Elbourne DR, Altman DG, Higgins JPT, Curtin F, Worthington HV, Vail A. Meta-analyses involving cross-over trials: methodological issues. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31(1):140-9.
EMEA 2005
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