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Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children

  1. Rakesh Lodha1,
  2. Sushil K Kabra2,*,
  3. Ravindra M Pandey3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 4 JUN 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 7 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004874.pub4


How to Cite

Lodha R, Kabra SK, Pandey RM. Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD004874. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004874.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India

  2. 2

    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Pediatric Pulmonology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India

  3. 3

    All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Department of Biostatistics, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India

*Sushil K Kabra, Pediatric Pulmonology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India. skkabra@hotmail.com. skkabra@rediffmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 4 JUN 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. 'Risk of bias' summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. 'Risk of bias' graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 1 Mean age (months).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 3 Wheezing present.
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 4 Cure rate.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 5 Failure rate.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 6 Side effects.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 7 Organisms identified by serology or nasopharyngeal cultures.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 8 Cure rate in radiographically confirmed pneumonia.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Azithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 9 Failure rate in radiographically confirmed pneumonia.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 1 Age below 5 years.
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 2 Cure rates.
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 3 Clinical success rate.
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 4 Failure rate.
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 5 Relapse rate.
[Analysis 2.6]
Analysis 2.6. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 6 Radiologic resolution.
[Analysis 2.7]
Analysis 2.7. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 7 Radiologic success.
[Analysis 2.8]
Analysis 2.8. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 8 Radiologic failure.
[Analysis 2.9]
Analysis 2.9. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 9 Adverse events.
[Analysis 2.10]
Analysis 2.10. Comparison 2 Clarithromycin versus erythromycin, Outcome 10 Bacteriologic response.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Azithromycin versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 1 Cure rate.
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 Azithromycin versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 2 Failure rate.
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 Azithromycin versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 3 Improved.
[Analysis 3.4]
Analysis 3.4. Comparison 3 Azithromycin versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 4 Side effects.
[Analysis 3.5]
Analysis 3.5. Comparison 3 Azithromycin versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 5 Organisms isolated.
[Analysis 3.6]
Analysis 3.6. Comparison 3 Azithromycin versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 6 Mycoplasma serology positive.
[Analysis 3.7]
Analysis 3.7. Comparison 3 Azithromycin versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 7 Failure rates in radiographically confirmed pneumonia.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Azithromycin versus amoxycillin, Outcome 1 Age in months.
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Azithromycin versus amoxycillin, Outcome 2 Duration of illness.
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Azithromycin versus amoxycillin, Outcome 3 Wheezing present.
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Azithromycin versus amoxycillin, Outcome 4 Cure rate clinical.
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Azithromycin versus amoxycillin, Outcome 5 Cure rate radiological.
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Azithromycin versus amoxycillin, Outcome 6 Fever day 7.
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Amoxycillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 1 Median age.
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 Amoxycillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 2 Failure rate.
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 1 Poor or no response.
[Analysis 6.2]
Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 2 Cure rate.
[Analysis 6.3]
Analysis 6.3. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 3 Complications.
[Analysis 6.4]
Analysis 6.4. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 4 Age (months).
[Analysis 6.5]
Analysis 6.5. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 5 Weight.
[Analysis 6.6]
Analysis 6.6. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 6 Male sex.
[Analysis 6.7]
Analysis 6.7. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 7 Wheeze present.
[Analysis 6.8]
Analysis 6.8. Comparison 6 Co-amoxyclavulanic acid versus amoxycillin, Outcome 8 Side effects.
[Analysis 7.1]
Analysis 7.1. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 1 Age less than 1 year.
[Analysis 7.2]
Analysis 7.2. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 7.3]
Analysis 7.3. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 3 Mean Z score for weight.
[Analysis 7.4]
Analysis 7.4. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 4 Non-severe pneumonia.
[Analysis 7.5]
Analysis 7.5. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 5 Received antibiotics in previous week.
[Analysis 7.6]
Analysis 7.6. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 6 Severe pneumonia.
[Analysis 7.7]
Analysis 7.7. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 7 Failure rate in non-severe pneumonia.
[Analysis 7.8]
Analysis 7.8. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 8 Failure rate severe pneumonia clinical diagnosis.
[Analysis 7.9]
Analysis 7.9. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 9 Failure rate radiological positive pneumonia.
[Analysis 7.10]
Analysis 7.10. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 10 Failure rate radiological negative pneumonia.
[Analysis 7.11]
Analysis 7.11. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 11 Death rate.
[Analysis 7.12]
Analysis 7.12. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 12 Lost to follow-up.
[Analysis 7.13]
Analysis 7.13. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 13 Wheeze positive.
[Analysis 7.14]
Analysis 7.14. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 14 Cure rate.
[Analysis 7.15]
Analysis 7.15. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 15 Change of antibiotics.
[Analysis 7.16]
Analysis 7.16. Comparison 7 Co-trimoxazole versus amoxycillin, Outcome 16 Failure rates after excluding study by Awasthi 2008.
[Analysis 8.1]
Analysis 8.1. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 1 Age less than 1 year.
[Analysis 8.2]
Analysis 8.2. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 2 Age 1 to 5 years.
[Analysis 8.3]
Analysis 8.3. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 3 Age 5 to 12 years.
[Analysis 8.4]
Analysis 8.4. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 4 Duration of illness in days.
[Analysis 8.5]
Analysis 8.5. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 5 Male sex.
[Analysis 8.6]
Analysis 8.6. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 6 Cure rate.
[Analysis 8.7]
Analysis 8.7. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 7 Hospitalisation rate.
[Analysis 8.8]
Analysis 8.8. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 8 Well at end of follow-up.
[Analysis 8.9]
Analysis 8.9. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 9 Death.
[Analysis 8.10]
Analysis 8.10. Comparison 8 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 10 Treatment failure.
[Analysis 9.1]
Analysis 9.1. Comparison 9 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin and ampicillin, Outcome 1 Mean age in months.
[Analysis 9.2]
Analysis 9.2. Comparison 9 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin and ampicillin, Outcome 2 Age less than 1 year.
[Analysis 9.3]
Analysis 9.3. Comparison 9 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin and ampicillin, Outcome 3 Male sex.
[Analysis 9.4]
Analysis 9.4. Comparison 9 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin and ampicillin, Outcome 4 Cure rate.
[Analysis 9.5]
Analysis 9.5. Comparison 9 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin and ampicillin, Outcome 5 Hospitalisation rate.
[Analysis 9.6]
Analysis 9.6. Comparison 9 Co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin and ampicillin, Outcome 6 Death rate.
[Analysis 10.1]
Analysis 10.1. Comparison 10 Cefpodoxime versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 1 Cure rate (response rate) at end of treatment.
[Analysis 10.2]
Analysis 10.2. Comparison 10 Cefpodoxime versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 2 Mean age (months).
[Analysis 10.3]
Analysis 10.3. Comparison 10 Cefpodoxime versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 3 Adverse effects.
[Analysis 10.4]
Analysis 10.4. Comparison 10 Cefpodoxime versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 4 Age in years.
[Analysis 10.5]
Analysis 10.5. Comparison 10 Cefpodoxime versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 5 Follow-up.
[Analysis 11.1]
Analysis 11.1. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 1 Adverse events.
[Analysis 11.2]
Analysis 11.2. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 2 Death.
[Analysis 11.3]
Analysis 11.3. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 3 Change of antibiotics.
[Analysis 11.4]
Analysis 11.4. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 4 Readmission before 30 days.
[Analysis 11.5]
Analysis 11.5. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 5 Absconded.
[Analysis 11.6]
Analysis 11.6. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 6 Age (months).
[Analysis 11.7]
Analysis 11.7. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 7 Culture positive.
[Analysis 11.8]
Analysis 11.8. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 8 Male sex.
[Analysis 11.9]
Analysis 11.9. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 9 Received antibiotics in previous 1 week.
[Analysis 11.10]
Analysis 11.10. Comparison 11 Chloramphenicol versus penicillin plus gentamicin, Outcome 10 Lost to follow-up.
[Analysis 12.1]
Analysis 12.1. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 1 Mean age.
[Analysis 12.2]
Analysis 12.2. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 12.3]
Analysis 12.3. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 3 Number received antibiotics in past 7 days.
[Analysis 12.4]
Analysis 12.4. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 4 Failure rates on day 5.
[Analysis 12.5]
Analysis 12.5. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 5 Failure rates on day 10.
[Analysis 12.6]
Analysis 12.6. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 6 Failure rates on day 21.
[Analysis 12.7]
Analysis 12.7. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 7 Need for change in antibiotics (day 5).
[Analysis 12.8]
Analysis 12.8. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 8 Need for change in antibiotics (day 10).
[Analysis 12.9]
Analysis 12.9. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 9 Need for change in antibiotics (day 21).
[Analysis 12.10]
Analysis 12.10. Comparison 12 Chloramphenicol with ampicillin and gentamicin, Outcome 10 Death rates.
[Analysis 13.1]
Analysis 13.1. Comparison 13 Chloramphenicol plus penicillin versus ceftriaxone, Outcome 1 Cure rates.
[Analysis 14.1]
Analysis 14.1. Comparison 14 Chloramphenicol versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin, Outcome 1 Need for change of antibiotics.
[Analysis 14.2]
Analysis 14.2. Comparison 14 Chloramphenicol versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin, Outcome 2 Death rates.
[Analysis 14.3]
Analysis 14.3. Comparison 14 Chloramphenicol versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin, Outcome 3 Lost to follow-up.
[Analysis 15.1]
Analysis 15.1. Comparison 15 Ampicillin alone versus penicillin with chloramphenicol, Outcome 1 Cure rates.
[Analysis 15.2]
Analysis 15.2. Comparison 15 Ampicillin alone versus penicillin with chloramphenicol, Outcome 2 Age (months).
[Analysis 15.3]
Analysis 15.3. Comparison 15 Ampicillin alone versus penicillin with chloramphenicol, Outcome 3 Male sex.
[Analysis 15.4]
Analysis 15.4. Comparison 15 Ampicillin alone versus penicillin with chloramphenicol, Outcome 4 Duration of hospital stay.
[Analysis 15.5]
Analysis 15.5. Comparison 15 Ampicillin alone versus penicillin with chloramphenicol, Outcome 5 Grade 2 to 4 malnutrition.
[Analysis 16.1]
Analysis 16.1. Comparison 16 Benzathine penicillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 1 Cure rate.
[Analysis 16.2]
Analysis 16.2. Comparison 16 Benzathine penicillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 2 Failure rate.
[Analysis 16.3]
Analysis 16.3. Comparison 16 Benzathine penicillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 3 Male sex.
[Analysis 16.4]
Analysis 16.4. Comparison 16 Benzathine penicillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 4 Age between 2 to 6 years.
[Analysis 16.5]
Analysis 16.5. Comparison 16 Benzathine penicillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 5 Age between 7 to 12 years.
[Analysis 16.6]
Analysis 16.6. Comparison 16 Benzathine penicillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 6 Lost to follow-up.
[Analysis 16.7]
Analysis 16.7. Comparison 16 Benzathine penicillin versus procaine penicillin, Outcome 7 Failure rates in radiographically confirmed pneumonia.
[Analysis 17.1]
Analysis 17.1. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 1 Nasopharyngeal aspirates for S. pneumoniae.
[Analysis 17.2]
Analysis 17.2. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 2 Age less than 1 year.
[Analysis 17.3]
Analysis 17.3. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 3 Male sex.
[Analysis 17.4]
Analysis 17.4. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 4 Weight below 2 Z score (indicating severe malnutrition).
[Analysis 17.5]
Analysis 17.5. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 5 Breast fed.
[Analysis 17.6]
Analysis 17.6. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 6 Received antibiotics in last 7 days.
[Analysis 17.7]
Analysis 17.7. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 7 Failure rate at 48 hours.
[Analysis 17.8]
Analysis 17.8. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 8 Failure rate on day 5.
[Analysis 17.9]
Analysis 17.9. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 9 Failure rate on day 14.
[Analysis 17.10]
Analysis 17.10. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 10 Death rates.
[Analysis 17.11]
Analysis 17.11. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 11 Nasopharyngeal H. influenzae.
[Analysis 17.12]
Analysis 17.12. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 12 Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in nasopharyngeal swabs.
[Analysis 17.13]
Analysis 17.13. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 13 Mean age.
[Analysis 17.14]
Analysis 17.14. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 14 Blood culture positive for S. pneumoniae.
[Analysis 17.15]
Analysis 17.15. Comparison 17 Amoxycillin versus penicillin, Outcome 15 Failure rate on day 5 in radiographically confirmed pneumonia.
[Analysis 18.1]
Analysis 18.1. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 1 Age below one year.
[Analysis 18.2]
Analysis 18.2. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 18.3]
Analysis 18.3. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 3 Wheezing in infants.
[Analysis 18.4]
Analysis 18.4. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 4 Wheezing in age group one to five years.
[Analysis 18.5]
Analysis 18.5. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 5 Failure rates.
[Analysis 18.6]
Analysis 18.6. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 6 Relapse rates.
[Analysis 18.7]
Analysis 18.7. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 7 Death rates.
[Analysis 18.8]
Analysis 18.8. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 8 Lost to follow-up.
[Analysis 18.9]
Analysis 18.9. Comparison 18 Amoxycillin with IV ampicillin, Outcome 9 Protocol violation.
[Analysis 19.1]
Analysis 19.1. Comparison 19 Amoxycillin with cefuroxime, Outcome 1 Mean age in months.
[Analysis 19.2]
Analysis 19.2. Comparison 19 Amoxycillin with cefuroxime, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 19.3]
Analysis 19.3. Comparison 19 Amoxycillin with cefuroxime, Outcome 3 Cure rates.
[Analysis 19.4]
Analysis 19.4. Comparison 19 Amoxycillin with cefuroxime, Outcome 4 Failure rates.
[Analysis 20.1]
Analysis 20.1. Comparison 20 Amoxycillin with clarithromycin, Outcome 1 Mean age.
[Analysis 20.2]
Analysis 20.2. Comparison 20 Amoxycillin with clarithromycin, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 20.3]
Analysis 20.3. Comparison 20 Amoxycillin with clarithromycin, Outcome 3 Cure rates.
[Analysis 20.4]
Analysis 20.4. Comparison 20 Amoxycillin with clarithromycin, Outcome 4 Failure rates.
[Analysis 21.1]
Analysis 21.1. Comparison 21 Penicillin and gentamycin with co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 1 Number of children less than 1 year age.
[Analysis 21.2]
Analysis 21.2. Comparison 21 Penicillin and gentamycin with co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 21.3]
Analysis 21.3. Comparison 21 Penicillin and gentamycin with co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 3 Failure rates.
[Analysis 22.1]
Analysis 22.1. Comparison 22 Levofloxacin with comparator (co-amoxyclavulanic acid/ceftriaxone), Outcome 1 Mean age.
[Analysis 22.2]
Analysis 22.2. Comparison 22 Levofloxacin with comparator (co-amoxyclavulanic acid/ceftriaxone), Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 22.3]
Analysis 22.3. Comparison 22 Levofloxacin with comparator (co-amoxyclavulanic acid/ceftriaxone), Outcome 3 Numbers received antibiotics in past 1 week.
[Analysis 22.4]
Analysis 22.4. Comparison 22 Levofloxacin with comparator (co-amoxyclavulanic acid/ceftriaxone), Outcome 4 Cure rates.
[Analysis 23.1]
Analysis 23.1. Comparison 23 Cefuroxime with clarithromycin, Outcome 1 Mean age.
[Analysis 23.2]
Analysis 23.2. Comparison 23 Cefuroxime with clarithromycin, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 23.3]
Analysis 23.3. Comparison 23 Cefuroxime with clarithromycin, Outcome 3 Cure rates.
[Analysis 23.4]
Analysis 23.4. Comparison 23 Cefuroxime with clarithromycin, Outcome 4 Failure rates.
[Analysis 24.1]
Analysis 24.1. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 1 Age in months.
[Analysis 24.2]
Analysis 24.2. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 24.3]
Analysis 24.3. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 3 Weight for age.
[Analysis 24.4]
Analysis 24.4. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 4 Wheezing positive.
[Analysis 24.5]
Analysis 24.5. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 5 Cure rate.
[Analysis 24.6]
Analysis 24.6. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 6 Failure rate.
[Analysis 24.7]
Analysis 24.7. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 7 Excluded.
[Analysis 24.8]
Analysis 24.8. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 8 Relapse rate.
[Analysis 24.9]
Analysis 24.9. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 9 Need for change in antibiotics.
[Analysis 24.10]
Analysis 24.10. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 10 Death rate.
[Analysis 24.11]
Analysis 24.11. Comparison 24 Co-trimoxazole versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 11 Organisms isolated on blood culture or lung puncture.
[Analysis 25.1]
Analysis 25.1. Comparison 25 Ceftibuten versus cefuroxime, Outcome 1 Male sex.
[Analysis 25.2]
Analysis 25.2. Comparison 25 Ceftibuten versus cefuroxime, Outcome 2 Positive for microbial agent.
[Analysis 25.3]
Analysis 25.3. Comparison 25 Ceftibuten versus cefuroxime, Outcome 3 Adverse reaction.
[Analysis 25.4]
Analysis 25.4. Comparison 25 Ceftibuten versus cefuroxime, Outcome 4 Cure rate.
[Analysis 25.5]
Analysis 25.5. Comparison 25 Ceftibuten versus cefuroxime, Outcome 5 Failure rate.
[Analysis 26.1]
Analysis 26.1. Comparison 26 Oxacillin ceftriaxone versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 1 Median age (months) with IQR.
[Analysis 26.2]
Analysis 26.2. Comparison 26 Oxacillin ceftriaxone versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 26.3]
Analysis 26.3. Comparison 26 Oxacillin ceftriaxone versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 3 Mean number of days before admission.
[Analysis 26.4]
Analysis 26.4. Comparison 26 Oxacillin ceftriaxone versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 4 Received antibiotics before enrolment.
[Analysis 26.5]
Analysis 26.5. Comparison 26 Oxacillin ceftriaxone versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 5 Failure rates.
[Analysis 26.6]
Analysis 26.6. Comparison 26 Oxacillin ceftriaxone versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 6 Mean time for improvement in tachypnoea.
[Analysis 26.7]
Analysis 26.7. Comparison 26 Oxacillin ceftriaxone versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 7 Mean length of stay.
[Analysis 27.1]
Analysis 27.1. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 1 Male sex.
[Analysis 27.2]
Analysis 27.2. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 2 Age below 12 months.
[Analysis 27.3]
Analysis 27.3. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 3 Received antibiotics in the past week.
[Analysis 27.4]
Analysis 27.4. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 4 Children with wheezing.
[Analysis 27.5]
Analysis 27.5. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 5 RSV positivity.
[Analysis 27.6]
Analysis 27.6. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 6 Failure rates on day 3.
[Analysis 27.7]
Analysis 27.7. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 7 Failure rates on day 6.
[Analysis 27.8]
Analysis 27.8. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 8 Failure rate in children below 5 years of age.
[Analysis 27.9]
Analysis 27.9. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 9 Failure rates in children receiving oral amoxicillin or injectable antibiotics.
[Analysis 27.10]
Analysis 27.10. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 10 Failure rate in children receiving cotrimoxazole or injectable penicillin.
[Analysis 27.11]
Analysis 27.11. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 11 Failure rate in children treated with oral or parenteral antibiotics on ambulatory basis.
[Analysis 27.12]
Analysis 27.12. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 12 Failure rate after removing one study.
[Analysis 27.13]
Analysis 27.13. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 13 Hospitalisation.
[Analysis 27.14]
Analysis 27.14. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 14 Relapse rates.
[Analysis 27.15]
Analysis 27.15. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 15 Death rates.
[Analysis 27.16]
Analysis 27.16. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 16 Lost to follow-up.
[Analysis 27.17]
Analysis 27.17. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 17 Cure rate.
[Analysis 27.18]
Analysis 27.18. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 18 Failure rates in radiographically confirmed-pneumonia.
[Analysis 27.19]
Analysis 27.19. Comparison 27 Oral versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of severe pneumonia, Outcome 19 Death rates after removing one study.
[Analysis 28.1]
Analysis 28.1. Comparison 28 Co-trimoxazole versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 1 Children below 1 year of age.
[Analysis 28.2]
Analysis 28.2. Comparison 28 Co-trimoxazole versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 28.3]
Analysis 28.3. Comparison 28 Co-trimoxazole versus co-amoxyclavulanic acid, Outcome 3 Failure rate.
[Analysis 29.1]
Analysis 29.1. Comparison 29 Amoxycillin versus cefpodoxime, Outcome 1 Age in months.
[Analysis 29.2]
Analysis 29.2. Comparison 29 Amoxycillin versus cefpodoxime, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 29.3]
Analysis 29.3. Comparison 29 Amoxycillin versus cefpodoxime, Outcome 3 Response/cure rate.
[Analysis 30.1]
Analysis 30.1. Comparison 30 Amoxycillin versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 1 Age (mean/median).
[Analysis 30.2]
Analysis 30.2. Comparison 30 Amoxycillin versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 2 Male sex.
[Analysis 30.3]
Analysis 30.3. Comparison 30 Amoxycillin versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 3 Cure rate.
[Analysis 30.4]
Analysis 30.4. Comparison 30 Amoxycillin versus chloramphenicol, Outcome 4 Failure rates.