Intervention Review

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Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly

  1. Tom Jefferson1,*,
  2. Carlo Di Pietrantonj2,
  3. Lubna A Al-Ansary3,
  4. Eliana Ferroni4,
  5. Sarah Thorning5,
  6. Roger E Thomas6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group

Published Online: 17 FEB 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 6 OCT 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004876.pub3


How to Cite

Jefferson T, Di Pietrantonj C, Al-Ansary LA, Ferroni E, Thorning S, Thomas RE. Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004876. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004876.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The Cochrane Collaboration, Vaccines Field, Roma, Italy

  2. 2

    Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL AL, Servizio Regionale di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia, SSEpi-SeREMI - Cochrane Vaccines Field, Alessandria, Piemonte, Italy

  3. 3

    College of Medicine, King Saud University, Department of Family & Community Medicine, Holder of "Shaikh Abdullah S. Bahamdan" Research Chair for Evidence-Based Health Care and Knowledge Translation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

  4. 4

    Public Health Agency of Lazio Region, Infectious Diseases Unit, Rome, Italy

  5. 5

    Bond University, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

  6. 6

    University of Calgary, Department of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

*Tom Jefferson, Vaccines Field, The Cochrane Collaboration, Via Adige 28a, Anguillara Sabazia, Roma, 00061, Italy. jefferson.tom@gmail.com. jefferson@assr.it.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 17 FEB 2010

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Ahmed 1995 {published data only}
Ahmed 1997 {published data only}
  • Ahmed AH, Nicholson KG, Nguyen-van Tam JS, Pearson JC. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing hospital admissions during the 1989-90 epidemic. Epidemiology and Infection 1997;118(1):27-33.
Allsup 2004 {published data only}
  • Allsup S, Haycox A, Regan M, Gosney M. Is influenza vaccination cost effective for healthy people between ages 65 and 74 years? A randomised controlled trial. Vaccine 2004;23(5):639-45.
Arden 1988 {published data only}
  • Arden NH, Patriarca PA, Fasano MB, Lui KJ, Harmon MW, Kendal AP, et al. The roles of vaccination and amantadine prophylaxis in controlling an outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a nursing home. Archive of Internal Medicine 1988;148(4):865-8.
Arroyo 1984 {published data only}
  • Arroyo JC, Postic B, Brown A, Harrison K, Birgenheier R, Dowda H. Influenza A/Philippines/2/82 outbreak in a nursing home: limitations of influenza vaccination in the aged. American Journal of Infection Control 1984;12(6):329-34.
Aymard 1979a {published data only}
  • Aymard M, Bentejac MC, Larbaigt G, Michaut D, Triau R. Efficacy of the antiinfluenza A vaccination during epidemics due to A/VIC/3/75 and A/Texas/1/77 viruses. Developments in Biological Standardization 1979;43:231-9.
Aymard 1979b {published data only}
  • Aymard M, Bentejac MC, Larbaigt G, Michaut D, Triau R. Efficacy of the antiinfluenza A vaccination during epidemics due to A/VIC/3/75 and A/Texas/1/77 viruses. Developments in biological standardization 1979;43:231-9.
Caminiti 1994 {published data only}
  • Caminiti C, Ricco D, Tanzi ML, Borrini B, Corsello A, Biasio LR, et al. Field evaluation of influenza vaccine efficacy in a population of institutionalized elderly. L’igiene Moderna 1994;101(2):163-75.
Cartter 1990a {published data only}
  • Cartter ML, Renzullo PO, Helgerson SD, Martin SM, Jekel JF. Influenza outbreaks in nursing homes: how effective is influenza vaccine in the institutionalized elderly?. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1990;11(9):473-8.
Cartter 1990b {published data only}
  • Cartter ML, Renzullo PO, Helgerson SD, Martin SM, Jekel JF. Influenza outbreaks in nursing homes: how effective is influenza vaccine in the institutionalized elderly?. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1990;11(9):473-8.
Cartter 1990c {published data only}
  • Cartter ML, Renzullo PO, Helgerson SD, Martin SM, Jekel JF. Influenza outbreaks in nursing homes: how effective is influenza vaccine in the institutionalized elderly?. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1990;11(9):473-8.
Christenson 2001a {published data only}
  • Christenson B, Lundbergh P, Hedlund J, Ortqvist A. Effects of a large-scale intervention with influenza and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines in adults aged 65 years or older: a prospective study. Lancet 2001;357(9261):1008-11.
Christenson 2001b {published data only}
  • Christenson B, Lundbergh P, Hedlund J, Ortqvist A. Effects of a large-scale intervention with influenza and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines in adults aged 65 years or older: a prospective study. Lancet 2001;357(9261):1008-11.
Christenson 2004a {published data only}
Christenson 2004b {published data only}
Coles 1992 {published data only}
Comeri 1995 {published data only}
  • Comeri L, Tinella M, Croce E, Arzese M. Protective efficacy of antiinfluenza vaccination in the elderly. L’igiene Moderna 1995;103(6):651-6.
Consonni 2004a {published data only}
  • Consonni S, Sandrini C, Segato E, Perruchini E, Bergamaschini L, Vergani C. Tolerability and efficacy of anti-influenza vaccination alone and associated with antipneumococcal vaccination in an elderly ambulatory population and adherence to the vaccination campaign. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene 2004;45:45-50.
Consonni 2004b {published data only}
  • Consonni S, Sandrini C, Segato E, Perruchini E, Bergamaschini L, Vergani C. Tolerability and efficacy of anti-influenza vaccination alone and associated with antipneumococcal vaccination in an elderly ambulatory population and adherence to the vaccination campaign. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene 2004;45:45-50.
Crocetti 2001 {published data only}
  • Crocetti E, Arniani S, Bordoni F, Maciocco G, Zappa M, Buiatti E. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly in a community in Italy. European Journal of Epidemiology 2001;17(2):163-8.
Cuneo Crovari 1980 {published data only}
  • Cuneo Crovari P, Gasparini R, Crovari P. Efficacy of influenza vaccination: results in a community controlled for 2 years. Bollettino dell’Istituto Sieroterapico Milanese 1980;59(4):306-13.
Currier 1988 {published data only}
  • Currier M, Coffman T, Boyd P, Fremd B, Israel E. Influenza vaccine efficacy in a Maryland nursing home. Maryland Medical Journal 1988;37(10):781-3.
D'Alessio 1969 {published data only}
Davis 2001a {published data only}
Davis 2001b {published data only}
Davis 2001c {published data only}
Deguchi 2001 {published data only}
  • Deguchi Y, Nishimura K. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in elderly persons in welfare nursing homes: reduction in risks of mortality and morbidity during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2001;56(6):M391-4.
Edmondson 1971 {published data only}
  • Edmondson WP Jr, Rothenberg R, White PW, Gwaltney JM Jr. A comparison of subcutaneous, nasal, and combined influenza vaccination. II. Protection against natural challenge. American Journal of Epidemiology 1971;93(6):480-6.
Fedson 1993a {published data only}
Fedson 1993b {published data only}
Feery 1976 {published data only}
  • Feery BJ, Evered MG, Morrison EI. Different protection rates in various groups of volunteers given subunit influenza virus vaccine in 1976. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1979;139(2):237-41.
Fleming 1995 {published data only}
  • Fleming DM, Watson JM, Nicholas S, Smith GE, Swan AV. Study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly in the epidemic of 1989-90 using a general practice database. Epidemiology and Infection 1995;115(3):581-9.
Foster 1992 {published data only}
  • Foster DA, Talsma A, Furumoto-Dawson A, Ohmit SE, Margulies JR, Arden NH, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalization for pneumonia in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology 1992;136(3):296-307.
Fyson 1983a {published data only}
  • Fyson RE. Influenza outbreaks in two institutions for the elderly - Ontari. Canadian Diseases Weekly Report 1983;9:37.
Fyson 1983b {published data only}
  • Fyson RE. Influenza outbreaks in two institutions for the elderly - Ontario. Canadian Diseases Weekly Report 1983;9:37.
Gavira Iglesias 1987 {published data only}
  • Gavira Iglesias FJ, Rodriguez Lopez FC, Berni Maestre RM. Analysis of an influenza vaccination campaign in rural environment. Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Publica 1987;61(7-8):759-81.
Gené Badia 1991 {published data only}
  • Gene Badia J, Calero Munoz S, Castanera Ribe C, Gran Rovireta A. Effectiveness of an anti-influenza vaccination program in 4 primary care centers. Gaceta Sanitaria 1991;5(26):203-8.
Goodman 1982 {published data only}
Govaert 1993 {published data only}
  • Govaert TM, Dinant GJ, Aretz K, Masurel N, Sprenger MJ, Knottnerus JA. Adverse reactions to influenza vaccine in elderly people: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 1993;307(6910):988-90.
Govaert 1994 {published data only}
  • Govaert TM, Thijs CT, Masurel N, Sprenger MJ, Dinant GJ, Knottnerus JA. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly individuals. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. JAMA 1994;272(21):1661-5.
Gross 1988 {published data only}
  • Gross PA, Quinnan GV, Rodstein M, LaMontagne JR, Kaslow RA, Saah AJ, et al. Association of influenza immunization with reduction in mortality in an elderly population. A prospective study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1988;148(3):562-5.
Hak 2002a {published data only}
  • Hak E, Nordin J, Wei F, Mullooly J, Poblete S, Strikas R, et al. Influence of high-risk medical conditions on the effectiveness of influenza vaccination among elderly members of 3 large managed-care organizations. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;35(4):370-7.
Hak 2002b {published data only}
  • Hak E, Nordin J, Wei F, Mullooly J, Poblete S, Strikas R, et al. Influence of high-risk medical conditions on the effectiveness of influenza vaccination among elderly members of 3 large managed-care organizations. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;35(4):370-7.
Hara 2006 {published data only}
  • Hara M, Sakamoto T, Tanaka K. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing influenza-like illness among community-dwelling elderly: population-based cohort study in Japan. Vaccine 2006;24(27-8):5546-51.
Horman 1986 {published data only}
Howarth 1987a {published data only}
  • Howarth DM, Chaston TM, Lickiss K, Weekes JR, O'Doherty C, Foster RE, et al. Age-related responses to influenza vaccination in the Newcastle region during 1983 and 1984. Medical Journal of Australia 1987;146(10):514-7.
Howarth 1987b {published data only}
  • Howarth DM, Chaston TM, Lickiss K, Weekes JR, O'Doherty C, Foster RE, et al. Age-related responses to influenza vaccination in the Newcastle region during 1983 and 1984. Medical Journal of Australia 1987;146(10):514-7.
Howells 1975a {published data only}
Howells 1975b {published data only}
Howells 1975c {published data only}
Isaacs 1997 {published data only}
  • Isaacs S, Dickinson C, Brimmer G. Outbreak of influenza A in an Ontario nursing home - January 1997. Canada Communicable Disease Report 1997;23(14):105-8.
Jordan 2007 {published data only}
  • Jordan RE, Hawker JI, Ayres JG, Tunnicliffe W, Adab P, Olowokure B, et al. A case-control study of elderly patients with acute respiratory illness: effect of influenza vaccination on admission to hospital in winter 2003-2004. Vaccine 2007;25(46):7909-13.
Kaplan 1982 {published data only}
  • Kaplan JE, Katona P, Hurwitz ES, Schonberger LB. Guillain-Barre syndrome in the United States, 1979-1980 and 1980-1981. Lack of an association with influenza vaccination. JAMA 1982;248(6):698-700.
Kaway 2003 {published data only}
  • Kawai N, Ikematsu H, Iwaki N, Satoh I, Kawashima T, Tsuchimoto T, et al. A prospective, internet-based study of the effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination in the 2001-2002 influenza season. Vaccine 2003;21(31):4507-13.
Keitel 1996 {published data only}
  • Keitel WA, Cate TR, Atmar RL, Turner CS, Nino D, Dukes CM, et al. Increasing doses of purified influenza virus hemagglutinin and subvirion vaccines enhance antibody responses in the elderly. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1996;3(5):507-10.
Lasky 1998 {published data only}
  • Lasky T, Terracciano GJ, Magder L, Koski CL, Ballesteros M, Nash D, et al. The Guillain-Barre syndrome and the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 influenza vaccines. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;339(25):1797-802.
Leung 2007 {published data only}
  • Leung JCK. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination among elderly home residents in Hong Kong: a retrospective cohort study. Hong Kong Practitioner 2007;29(4):123-33.
Lopez Hernandez 1994 {published data only}
  • Lopez Hernandez B, Vazquez J, Fernandez E, Martinez B, Romero J, Arribas L. Effectiveness of anti-flu vaccine in the elderly. Atencion Primaria 1994;14(1):532-6.
Mangtani 2004a {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004b {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004c {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004d {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004e {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004f {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004g {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004h {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004i {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Mangtani 2004j {published data only}
  • Mangtani P, Cumberland P, Hodgson CR, Roberts JA, Cutts FT, Hall AJ. A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;190(1):1-10.
Margolis 1990a {published data only}
Meiklejohn 1987 {published data only}
Monto 2001 {published data only}
Morens 1995 {published data only}
Mukerjee 1994 {published data only}
Mullooly 1994 {published data only}
  • Mullooly JP, Bennett MD, Hornbrook MC, Barker WH, Williams WW, Patriarca PA, et al. Influenza vaccination programs for elderly persons: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994;121(12):947-52.
Murayama 1999 {published data only}
  • Murayama N, Suzuki H, Arakawa M, Nerome K, Mizuta K, Kameyama K. Two outbreaks of influenza A (H3N2) in a Japanese nursing home in the winter of 1996-1997, with differing vaccine efficacy. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 1999;188(4):289-98.
Nichol 1994a {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Margolis KL, Wuorenma J, Von Sternberg T. The efficacy and cost effectiveness of vaccination against influenza among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331(12):778-84.
Nichol 1994b {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Margolis KL, Wuorenma J, Von Sternberg T. The efficacy and cost effectiveness of vaccination against influenza among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331(12):778-84.
Nichol 1994c {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Margolis KL, Wuorenma J, Von Sternberg T. The efficacy and cost effectiveness of vaccination against influenza among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331(12):778-84.
Nichol 1998a {published data only}
Nichol 1998b {published data only}
Nichol 2003a {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Nordin J, Mullooly J, Lask R, Fillbrandt K, Iwane M. Influenza vaccination and reduction in hospitalizations for cardiac disease and stroke among the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(14):1322-32.
Nichol 2003b {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Nordin J, Mullooly J, Lask R, Fillbrandt K, Iwane M. Influenza vaccination and reduction in hospitalizations for cardiac disease and stroke among the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(14):1322-32.
Nicholson 1999 {published data only}
  • Nicholson KG, Kent J, Hammersley V. Influenza A among community-dwelling elderly persons in Leicestershire during winter 1993-4; cigarette smoking as a risk factor and the efficacy of influenza vaccination. Epidemiology and Infection 1999;123(1):103-8.
Nordin 2001a {published data only}
  • Nordin J, Mullooly J, Poblete S, Strikas R, Petrucci R, Wei F, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations and deaths in persons 65 years or older in Minnesota, New York, and Oregon: data from 3 health plans. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;184(6):665-70.
Nordin 2001b {published data only}
  • Nordin J, Mullooly J, Poblete S, Strikas R, Petrucci R, Wei F, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations and deaths in persons 65 years or older in Minnesota, New York, and Oregon: data from 3 health plans. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;184(6):665-70.
Ohmit 1995a {published data only}
  • Ohmit SE, Monto AS. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalization among the elderly during influenza type A and type B seasons. International Journal of Epidemiology 1995;24(6):1240-8.
Ohmit 1995b {published data only}
  • Ohmit SE, Monto AS. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalization among the elderly during influenza type A and type B seasons. International Journal of Epidemiology 1995;24(6):1240-8.
Ohmit 1999 {published data only}
  • Ohmit SE, Arden NH, Monto AS. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine among nursing home residents during an influenza type A (H3N2) epidemic. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 1999;47(2):165-71.
Patriarca 1985a {published data only}
  • Patriarca PA, Weber JA, Parker RA, Hall WN, Kendal AP, Bregman DJ, et al. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes. Reduction in illness and complications during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. JAMA 1985;253(8):1136-9.
Patriarca 1985b {published data only}
  • Patriarca PA, Weber JA, Parker RA, Hall WN, Kendal AP, Bregman DJ, et al. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes. Reduction in illness and complications during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. JAMA 1985;253(8):1136-9.
Pregliasco 2002 {published data only}
  • Pregliasco F, Giardini G, Sandrini MC, Perucchini E, Vergani C. Efficacia protettiva di Inflexal V nel pazinte anziano. Vaccine at a Glance 2002;1(1):2-5.
Puig-Barbera 2007 {published data only}
  • Puig-Barberà J, Díez-Domingo J, Varea AB, Chavarri GS, Rodrigo JA, Hoyos SP, et al. Effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine in preventing hospitalisations for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease and pneumonia in the elderly. Vaccine 2007;25(42):7313-21.
Puig-Barberà 1997 {published data only}
  • Puig-Barbera J, Marquez-Calderon S, Masoliver-Fores A, Lloria-Paes F, Ortega-Dicha A, Gil-Martin M, et al. Reduction in hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people as a result of influenza vaccination: a case-control study in Spain. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1997;51(5):526-30.
Puig-Barberà 2004 {published data only}
  • Puig-Barbera J, Diez-Domingo J, Perez Hoyos S, Belenguer Varea A, Gonzalez Vidal D. Effectiveness of the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in preventing emergency admissions for pneumonia in the elderly over 64 years of age. Vaccine 2004;23(3):283-9.
Ruben 1974 {published data only}
  • Ruben FL, Johnston F, Streiff EJ. Influenza in a partially immunized aged population. Effectiveness of killed Hong Kong vaccine against infection with the England strain. JAMA 1974;230(6):863-6.
Rudenko 2001 {published data only}
  • Rudenko LG, Arden NH, Grigorieva E, Naychin A, Rekstin A, Klimov AI, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy of Russian live attenuated and US inactivated influenza vaccines used alone and in combination in nursing home residents. Vaccine 2000;19(2-3):308-18.
Saah 1986a {published data only}
  • Saah AJ, Neufeld R, Rodstein M, La Montagne JR, Blackwelder WC, Gross P, et al. Influenza vaccine and pneumonia mortality in a nursing home population. Archive of Internal Medicine 1986;146(12):2353-7.
Saah 1986b {published data only}
  • Saah AJ, Neufeld R, Rodstein M, La Montagne JR, Blackwelder WC, Gross P, et al. Influenza vaccine and pneumonia mortality in a nursing home population. Archive of Internal Medicine 1986;146(12):2353-7.
Saah 1986c {published data only}
  • Saah AJ, Neufeld R, Rodstein M, La Montagne JR, Blackwelder WC, Gross P, et al. Influenza vaccine and pneumonia mortality in a nursing home population. Archive of Internal Medicine 1986;146(12):2353-7.
Saito 2002a {published data only}
  • Saito R, Suzuki H, Oshitani H, Sakai T, Seki N, Tanabe N. The effectiveness of influenza vaccine against influenza a (H3N2) virus infections in nursing homes in Niigata, Japan, during the 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 seasons. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2002;23(2):82-6.
Saito 2002b {published data only}
  • Saito R, Suzuki H, Oshitani H, Sakai T, Seki N, Tanabe N. The effectiveness of influenza vaccine against influenza a (H3N2) virus infections in nursing homes in Niigata, Japan, during the 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 seasons. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2002;23(2):82-6.
Schonberger 1979 {published data only}
  • Schonberger LB, Bregman DJ, Sullivan-Bolyai JZ, Keenlyside RA, Ziegler DW, Retailliau HF, et al. Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccination in the National Influenza Immunization Program, United States, 1976-1977. American Journal of Epidemiology 1979;110(2):105-23.
Shapiro 2003 {published data only}
  • Shapiro Y, Shemer J, Heymann A, Shalev V, Maharshak N, Chodik G, et al. Influenza vaccination: reduction in hospitalizations and death rates among members of "Maccabi Healthcare Services" during the 2000-2001 influenza season. Israel Medical Association Journal 2003;5(10):706-8.
Strassburg 1986 {published data only}
Stuart 1969 {published data only}
Taylor 1992 {published data only}
  • Taylor JL, Dwyer DM, Coffman T, Groves C, Patel J, Israel E. Nursing home outbreak of influenza A (H3N2): evaluation of vaccine efficacy and influenza case definitions. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1992;13(2):93-7.
Treanor 1994 {published data only}
  • Treanor J, Dumyati G, O'Brien D, Riley MA, Riley G, Erb S, et al. Evaluation of cold-adapted, reassortant influenza B virus vaccines in elderly and chronically ill adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169(2):402-7.
Voordouw 2003 {published data only}
  • Voordouw BC, van der Linden PD, Simonian S, van der Lei J, Sturkenboom MC, Stricker BH. Influenza vaccination in community-dwelling elderly: impact on mortality and influenza-associated morbidity. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163(9):1089-94.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Allsup 2001 {published data only}
  • Allsup SJ, Gosney M, Regan M, Haycox A, Fear S, Johnstone FC. Side effects of influenza vaccination in healthy older people: a randomised single-blind placebo-controlled trial. Gerontology 2001;47(6):311-4.
Allsup 2003 {published data only}
  • Allsup S, Gosney M, Haycox A, Regan M. Cost-benefit evaluation of routine influenza immunisation in people 65-74 years of age. Health Technology Assessment 2003;7(24):iii-x, 1-65.
Anonymous 1995 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Influenza vaccination in the elderly: a bona fide clinical trial. Hospital Practice 1995;30(2):100.
Anonymous 2004b {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Vaccination protects against influenza deaths in elderly. Pharmaceutical Journal 2004;273(7318):410.
Ansaldi 2002 {published data only}
  • Ansaldi F, Tominz R, D'Agaro P, Michieletto F, Quadranti M, Cornelio G, et al. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Trieste: comparison of a cross-sectional study and routine public health surveillance [Vaccinazione anti-influenzale negli anziani a Trieste: confronto fra uno studio trasversale ed il sistema di sorveglianza passivo]. Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita` 2002;14(4):305-11.
Arden 1986 {published data only}
  • Arden NH, Patriarca PA, Kendal P. Experiences in the use and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine in nursing homes. In: Kendal AP, Patriarca PA editor(s). Options for the Control of Influenza. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1986:155-68.
Armstrong 2004 {published data only}
  • Armstrong BG, Mangtani P, Fletcher A, Kovats S, McMichael A, Pattenden S, et al. Effect of influenza vaccination on excess deaths occurring during periods of high circulation of influenza: cohort study in elderly people. BMJ 2004;329(7467):660.
Arroyo 1988 {published data only}
Arya 2003 {published data only}
Ayala-Montiel 2004 {published data only}
  • Ayala-Montiel O, Mascarenas de los Santos C, Garcia-Hernandez D, Rendon-Muniz J, Garcia-Olvera L. Reactogenicity of the simultaneous administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in adults over 55 years of age. Revista de Investigacion Clinica 2004;56(1):27-31.
Baldo 1999 {published data only}
  • Baldo V, Menegon T, Buoro S, Scalici C, Vesco A, Perale S, et al. Vaccination against influenza in the elderly. Experience with adjuvant vaccines. Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita` 1999;11(5):369-74.
Barker 1980 {published data only}
Bektimirov 1993 {published data only}
Belshe 2004 {published data only}
  • Belshe RB, Nichol KL, Black SB, Shinefield H, Cordova J, Walker R, et al. Safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of live, attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccine in an indicated population aged 5-49 years. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004;39(7):920-7.
Ben-Yehuda 2003 {published data only}
  • Ben-Yehuda A, Joseph A, Barenholz Y, Zeira E, Even-Chen S, Louria-Hayon I, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel IL-2-supplemented liposomal influenza vaccine (INFLUSOME-VAC) in nursing-home residents. Vaccine 2003;21(23):3169-78.
Berg 2004 {published data only}
  • Berg GD, Thomas E, Silverstein S, Neel CL, Mireles M. Reducing medical service utilization by encouraging vaccines: randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004;27(4):284-8.
Buxton 2001 {published data only}
  • Buxton JA, Skowronski DM, Ng H, Marion SA, Li Y, King A, et al. Influenza revaccination of elderly travelers: antibody response to single influenza vaccination and revaccination at 12 weeks. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;184(2):188-91.
Carman 2000 {published data only}
  • Carman WF, Elder AG, Wallace LA, McAulay K, Walker A, Murray GD, et al. Effects of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on mortality of elderly people in long-term care: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355(9198):93-7.
Castilla 2006 {published data only}
  • Castilla J, Arregui L, Baleztena J, Barricarte A, Brugos A, Carpintero M, et al. Incidence of influenza and influenza vaccine effectiveness in the 2004-2005 season. Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra 2006;29(1):97-106.
Chen 2004 {published data only}
Chlibek 2002 {published data only}
  • Chlibek R, Beran J, Splino M. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in healthy adults--a fourfold decrease in influenza morbidity during one influenza season. Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie 2002;51(2):47-51.
Christenson 2002 {published data only}
Chumakov 1992 {published data only}
  • Chumakov MP, Beregovskii NA, Linev MB, Reizin FN, Malyshkina LP, Matrosovich MN, et al. Use of highly purified subvirion trivalent flue vaccine ("Grippovak") in groups with a high risk of complications. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 1992;3:55-7.
Cohen 2004 {published data only}
Conne 1997 {published data only}
  • Conne P, Gauthey L, Vernet P, Althaus B, Que JU, Finkel B, Gluck R, et al. Immunogenicity of trivalent subunit versus virosome-formulated influenza vaccines in geriatric patients. Vaccine 1997;15(15):1675-9.
Cruijff 1999 {published data only}
  • Cruijff M, Thijs C, Govaert T, Aretz K, Dinant GJ, Knottnerus A. The effect of smoking on influenza, influenza vaccination efficacy and on the antibody response to influenza vaccination. Vaccine 1999;17(5):426-32.
D'Alessandro 2004 {published data only}
  • D'Alessandro D, Ciriminna S, Rossini A, Bossa MC, Fara GM. Requests of medical examinations after pneumococcal & influenza vaccination in the elderly. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2004;119(Suppl):108-14.
de Bernardi 2002 {published data only}
  • de Bernardi di Valserra M, Zanasi A, Ragusa S, Gluck R, Herzog C. An open-label comparison of the immunogenicity and tolerability of intranasal and intramuscular formulations of virosomal influenza vaccine in healthy adults. Clinical Therapeutics 2002;24(1):100-11.
de Bruijn 2004 {published data only}
  • de Bruijn IA, Nauta J, Gerez L, Palache AM. Virosomal influenza vaccine: a safe and effective influenza vaccine with high efficacy in elderly and subjects with low pre-vaccination antibody titers. Virus Research 2004;103(1-2):139-45.
De Serres 2004 {published data only}
  • De Serres G, Skowronski DM, Guay M, Rochette L, Jacobsen K, Fuller T, et al. Recurrence risk of oculorespiratory syndrome after influenza vaccination: randomized controlled trial of previously affected persons. Archive of Internal Medicine 2004;164(20):2266-72.
Deguchi 2000 {published data only}
  • Deguchi Y, Takasugi Y. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in the elderly: reduction in risks of mortality and morbidity during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic for the elderly in nursing homes. International Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Research 2000;30(1):1-4.
Deguchi 2000a {published data only}
  • Deguchi Y, Takasugi Y, Tatara K. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in the elderly in welfare nursing homes: reduction in risks of mortality and morbidity during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2000;49(6):553-6.
Deguchi 2000b {published data only}
  • Deguchi Y, Takasugi Y, Nishimura K. Vaccine effectiveness for influenza in the elderly in welfare nursing homes during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. Epidemiology and Infection 2000;125(2):393-7.
Deibel 1970 {published data only}
Elder 1996 {published data only}
  • Elder AG, O'Donnell B, McCruden EA, Symington IS, Carman WF. Incidence and recall of influenza in a cohort of Glasgow healthcare workers during the 1993-4 epidemic: results of serum testing and questionnaire. BMJ 1996;313(7067):1241-2.
Ender 2001 {published data only}
  • Ender PT, DeRussy PK, Caldwell MM, Taylor SE, Trevino SC, Ybarra D. The effect of a multivitamin on the immunologic response to the influenza vaccine in the elderly. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. Vol. 10, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc., 2001:81-5.
Erofeeva 2001 {published data only}
  • Erofeeva MK, Paramonova MS, Maksakova VL, Kolyvanova IL, Nikolaeva EV, Shadrin AS. Vaccine prophylaxis in elderly patients. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 2001;3:91-3.
Fedson 1992 {published data only}
  • Fedson DS, Wajda A, Nicol JP, Roos LL. Disparity between influenza vaccination rates and risks for influenza-associated hospital discharge and death in Manitoba in 1982-1983. Annals of Internal Medicine 1992;116(7):550-5.
Fedson 1993 {published data only}
Fitzner 2001 {published data only}
Fukumi 1969 {published data only}
  • Fukumi H. Interpretation of influenza antibody patterns in man. Existence and significance of Hong Kong antibody in old people prior to the Hong Kong influenza epidemic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1969;41(3):469-73.
Fukushima 1999 {published data only}
Galanti 1976 {published data only}
  • Galanti B, Picciotto L, Ruggiero G, Romano E, Vaccaro L. Homologous and heterologous antibody response induced in man by anti-influenza vaccine containing A/England/42/72 and b/Massachusetts/71. Bollettino dell’Istituto Sieroterapico Milanese 1976;55(71):13-7.
Galasso 1977 {published data only}
  • Galasso GJ, Tyeryar FJ Jr, La Montagne JR. Overview of clinical trials of influenza vaccines, 1976. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):425-8.
Garcia Garcia 2009 {published data only}
  • Garcia-Garcia L, Valdespino-Gómez JL, Lazcano-Ponce E, Jiminez-Corona A, Higuera-Iglesias A, Cruz-Hervert P, et al. Partial protection of seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine against novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009: case-control study in Mexico City. BMJ 2009;339:3928. [10.1136/bmj.b3928 ]
Garcia-Doval 2001 {published data only}
  • Garcia-Doval I, Roson E, Feal C, De la Torre C, Rodriguez T, Cruces MJ. Generalized bullous fixed drug eruption after influenza vaccination, simulating bullous pemphigoid. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 2001;81(6):450-1.
Gasparini 2002 {published data only}
  • Gasparini R, Lucioni C, Lai P, Maggioni P, Sticchi L, Durando P. Cost-benefit evaluation of influenza vaccination in the elderly in the Italian region of Liguria. Vaccine 2002;20(Suppl 5):B50-4.
Gavira 1990 {published data only}
  • Gavira FJ, Lardinois R. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antigrippal vaccination in a rural population (La Victoria, Cordoba). Medicina Clinica 1990;94(20):777-81.
Gendon 1988 {published data only}
  • Gendon I. Prevention of influenza in the aged. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 1988;9(9):93-6.
Giglio 1994 {published data only}
  • Giglio E, Roggi L, Bonanni P, Giacchi M, Gasparini R. Influenza vaccination in subjects of the local health unit of Arezzo (Tuscany - Italy) during the winter 1990/91. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene 1994;35(3-4):125-30.
Glass 1978 {published data only}
  • Glass RI, Brann EA, Slade JD, Jones WE, Scally MJ, Craven RB, et al. Community-wide surveillance of influenza after outbreaks due to H3N2 (A/Victoria/75 and A/Texas/77) and H1N1 (A/USSR/77) influenza viruses, Mercer County, New Jersey, 1978. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1978;138(5):703-6.
Glezen 1987 {published data only}
Gomez de Caso 1996 {published data only}
  • Gomez de Caso JA, Franco Yague JA, Castillo Izquierdo JM, Ruiz Cosin C. Study of a disease outbreak in a home for the aged. Atencion Primaria 1996;17(3):211-4.
Govaert 1994 2 {published data only}
  • Govaert TM, Sprenger MJ, Dinant GJ, Aretz K, Masurel N, Knottnerus JA. Immune response to influenza vaccination of elderly people. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vaccine 1994;12(13):1185-9.
Gowda 1979 {published data only}
Grigor'eva 1994 {published data only}
  • Grigor'eva EP, Rekstin AR, Rudenko LG, Ramirez A, Barro M, Lisovskaia KV, et al. The immunogenic properties and prophylactic efficacy of a live polyvalent influenza vaccine in children 5 to 14 years old. Voprosy Virusologii 1994;39(1):26-9.
Grigor'eva 2002 {published data only}
  • Grigor'eva EP, Desheva IuA, Donina SA, Naikhin AN, Rekstin AR, Barantseva IB, et al. The comparative characteristics of the safety, immunogenic activity and prophylactic potency of the adult and children types of live influenza vaccine in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Voprosy Virusologii 2002;47(4):24-7.
Gross 1977 {published data only}
  • Gross PA. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of bivalent influenza vaccine in one- and two-dose trials in children: a summary. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):616-25.
Gross 1995 {published data only}
  • Gross PA, Hermogenes AW, Sacks HS, Lau J, Levandowski RA. The efficacy of influenza vaccine in elderly persons. A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995;123(7):518-27.
Guarino 1977 {published data only}
  • Guarino F, Di Peppe C, D'Antonio D, Melena E, Lattanzio FM. Immunity to the HSW1N1 virus in the older population of Chieti. Bollettino della Societa Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1977;53(21):1942-4.
Guillevin 1983 {published data only}
Gutierrez 2001 {published data only}
  • Gutierrez EB, Li HY, Santos AC, Lopes MH. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly outpatients in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 2001;43(6):317-20.
Hak 1998 {published data only}
  • Hak E, van Essen GA, Buskens E, Stalman W, de Melker RA. Is immunising all patients with chronic lung disease in the community against influenza cost effective? Evidence from a general practice based clinical prospective cohort study in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1998;52(2):120-5.
Hall 1981 {published data only}
Hampson 1997 {published data only}
  • Hampson AW, Irving LB. Influenza vaccination: cost-effective health care for the older adult?. Journal of Quality in Clinical Practice 1997;17(1):3-11.
Hara 2008 {published data only}
Harling 2004 {published data only}
  • Harling R, Hayward A, Watson JM. Implications of the incidence of influenza-like illness in nursing homes for influenza chemoprophylaxis: descriptive study. BMJ 2004;329(7467):663-4.
Harper 1985 {published data only}
Hedlund 2003 {published data only}
  • Hedlund J, Christenson B, Lundbergh P, Ortqvist A. Effects of a large-scale intervention with influenza and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines in elderly people: a 1-year follow-up. Vaccine 2003;21(25-6):3906-11.
Helliwell 1988 {published data only}
Hennessen 1978 {published data only}
Herzog 2003 {published data only}
  • Herzog NS, Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Jiang H, Nsa W, Shook C, et al. Effects of previous influenza vaccination on subsequent readmission and mortality in elderly patients hospitalized with pneumonia. American Journal of Medicine 2003;115(6):454-61.
Heymann 2004 {published data only}
  • Heymann AD, Shapiro Y, Chodick G, Shalev V, Kokia E, Kramer E, et al. Reduced hospitalizations and death associated with influenza vaccination among patients with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27(11):2581-4.
Hirota 1997 {published data only}
Hoberman 2003 {published data only}
  • Hoberman A, Greenberg DP, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Lave JR, Kearney DH, et al. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing acute otitis media in young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290(12):1608-16.
Hope-Simpson 1970 {published data only}
Howell 1967 {published data only}
Hurwitz 1983 {published data only}
Icardi 2002 {published data only}
  • Icardi G, Durando P, Marasso P, Lai P. Vaccinations for adults at risk and the elderly. Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita 2002;14(Suppl 3):51-8.
Ikematsu 1998 {published data only}
  • Ikematsu H, Nabeshima A, Kakuda K, Yamaji K, Hayashi J, Goto S, et al. Impact of influenza epidemics and efficacy of vaccination among geriatric inpatients. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1998;72(1):60-6.
Ikematsu 2000 {published data only}
  • Ikematsu H, Nabeshima A, Yong C, Hayashi J, Goto S, Oka T, et al. The efficacy of influenza vaccine among geriatric inpatients. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2000;74(1):17-23.
Isahak 2007 {published data only}
  • Isahak I, Mahayiddin AA, Ismail R. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in prevention of influenza-like illness among inhabitants of old folk homes. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 2007;38(5):841-8.
Jackson 1999 {published data only}
  • Jackson LA, Holmes SJ, Mendelman PM, Huggins L, Cho I, Rhorer J. Safety of a trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine, FluMist, administered in addition to parenteral trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine to seniors with chronic medical conditions. Vaccine 1999;17(15-6):1905-9.
Jackson 2002 {published data only}
  • Jackson LA, Yu O, Heckbert SR, Psaty BM, Malais D, Barlow WE, et al. Influenza vaccination is not associated with a reduction in the risk of recurrent coronary events. American Journal of Epidemiology 2002;156(7):634-40.
Jahnz-Rozyk 2003 {published data only}
  • Jahnz-Rozyk K. Pharmaco-economics of anti-influenza vaccinations. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski 2003;14(84):679-81.
Jani 1994 {published data only}
Jarstrand 1974 {published data only}
Jovanovic 1977 {published data only}
  • Jovanovic D, Delvaux AM. Clinical acceptability of live influenza vaccine in high risk subjects and children. Experience with three consecutive recombinant strains. Developments in Biological Standardization 1977;39:105-12.
Kaplan 1983 {published data only}
  • Kaplan JE, Schonberger LB, Hurwitz ES, Katona P. Guillain-Barre syndrome in the United States, 1978-1981: additional observations from the national surveillance system. Neurology 1983;33(5):633-7.
Keavey 1999 {published data only}
  • Keavey S. Preparing for the next influenza outbreak--or (inevitably) pandemic. JAAPA 1999;12(11):28-30, 33-4, 37-40.
King 1997 {published data only}
Knight 1984 {published data only}
Knottnerus 1996 {published data only}
Kurland 1984 {published data only}
Landi 2003 {published data only}
  • Landi F, Onder G, Cesari M, Gravina EM, Lattanzio F, Russo A, et al. Effects of influenza vaccination on mortality among frail, community-living elderly patients: an observational study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2003;15(3):254-8.
Landi 2006 {published data only}
  • Landi F, Onder G, Cesari M, Russo A, Barillaro C, Bernabei R, et al. In a prospective observational study, influenza vaccination prevented hospitalization among older home care patients. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2006;59(10):1072-7.
Lavergne 1980 {published data only}
  • Lavergne B, Frappier-Davignon L, Chagnon A, Burr-Paxton M, Quevillon M, Pavilanis V, et al. Reactogenicity and serologic response to trivalent inactivated A/Texas, A/USSR and B/Hong Kong whole-virus influenza vaccine in human volunteers. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1980;71(1):25-31.
Lawson 2000 {published data only}
  • Lawson F, Baker V, Au D, McElhaney JE. Standing orders for influenza vaccination increased vaccination rates in inpatient settings compared with community rates. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2000;55(9):M522-6.
Lindahl 1999 {published data only}
  • Lindahl G, Perman E. Influenza vaccine caused problems in joints. Compensation from the drug insurance authority. Lakartidningen 1999;96(37):3912-4.
Lohse 1999 {published data only}
  • Lohse A, Michel F, Auge B, Toussirot E, Wendling D. Vascular purpura and cryoglobulinemia after influenza vaccination. Case-report and literature review. Revue du Rhumatisme (English ed.) 1999;66(6):359-60.
Luce 2001 {published data only}
  • Luce BR, Zangwill KM, Palmer CS, Mendelman PM, Yan L, Wolff MC, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of an intranasal influenza vaccine for the prevention of influenza in healthy children. Pediatrics 2001;108(2):E24.
Mair 1974 {published data only}
Mandal 1973 {published data only}
Manzano 2000 {published data only}
  • Manzano E, Grau A, Sequeira E, Valles JA. Possible toxicoderma secondary to influenza vaccination. Atencion Primaria 2000;26(6):429.
Manzoli 2007 {published data only}
  • Manzoli L, Villari P, Granchelli C, Savino A, Carunchio C, Pacifico D, et al. Cohort analysis on influenza vaccine effectiveness for the elderly as a study case to evaluate an alternative approach involving general practitioners for routine assessment of vaccination impact. European Journal of Public Health 2007;17:28-9.
Margolis 1990b {published data only}
Marine 1973 {published data only}
Marinich 1997 {published data only}
  • Marinich IG, Paramonova MS, Erofeeva MK, Maksakova VL, Nikolaeva VM, Naikhin AN, et al. The immunoprophylaxis of influenza among elderly persons. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 1997;3:60-4.
Martin 1997 {published data only}
Marwick 1995 {published data only}
Masurel 1979 {published data only}
  • Masurel N. Immunization of elderly subjects with subunit and total virus vaccine containing H1N1 influenza virus. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 1979;123(6):196-9.
Maxim 1998 {published data only}
  • Maxim R. Adult immunization. Medicine and Health, Rhode Island 1998;81(8):272-3.
Mayon-White 1994 {published data only}
McCall 1996 {published data only}
McCarthy 1978 {published data only}
McElhaney 2002 {published data only}
McGuffey 1993 {published data only}
  • McGuffey EC. Flu vaccinations. American Pharmacy 1993;NS33(11):24.
Meiklejohn 1989 {published data only}
  • Meiklejohn G, Hoffman R, Graves P. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine when given during an outbreak of influenza A/H3N2 in a nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1989;37(5):407-10.
Mendelman 2001 {published data only}
  • Mendelman PM, Cordova J, Cho I. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of the influenza virus vaccine, trivalent, types A and B, live, cold-adapted (CAIV-T) in healthy children and healthy adults. Vaccine 2001;19(17-9):2221-6.
Meynaar 1991 {published data only}
Mignogna 2000 {published data only}
Miller 1975 {published data only}
Modlin 1977 {published data only}
  • Modlin JF, Smith DH, Harding L. Clinical trials of bivalent A/New Jersey/76-A/Victoria/75 influenza vaccines in high-risk children. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):626-31.
Monto 1994 {published data only}
Moreno 2009 {published data only}
Mostow 1969 {published data only}
  • Mostow SR, Schoenbaum SC, Dowdle WR, Coleman MT, Kaye HS. Studies with inactivated influenza vaccines purified by zonal centrifugation. 1. Adverse reactions and serological responses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1969;41(3):525-30.
Mostow 1988 {published data only}
Nguyen-van-Tam 1992 {published data only}
Nichol 1996 {published data only}
Nichol 1999a {published data only}
Nichol 1999b {published data only}
Nichol 1999c {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Baken L, Nelson A. Relation between influenza vaccination and outpatient visits, hospitalization, and mortality in elderly persons with chronic lung disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 1999;130(5):397-403.
Nichol 1999d {published data only}
  • Nichol KL, Mendelman PM, Mallon KP, Jackson LA, Gorse GJ, Belshe RB, et al. Effectiveness of live, attenuated intranasal influenza virus vaccine in healthy, working adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999;282(2):137-44.
Nichol 2002 {published data only}
Nichol 2007 {published data only}
Nicholson 1979 {published data only}
  • Nicholson KG, Tyrrell DA, Harrison P, Potter CW, Jennings R, Clark A, et al. Clinical studies of monovalent inactivated whole virus and subunit A/USSR/77 (H1N1) vaccine: serological responses and clinical reactions. Journal of Biological Standardization 1979;7(2):123-36.
Nicholson 1983 {published data only}
Nicholson 1990a {published data only}
  • Nicholson KG, Baker DJ, Farquhar A, Hurd D, Kent J, Smith SH. Acute upper respiratory tract viral illness and influenza immunization in homes for the elderly. Epidemiology and Infection 1990;105(3):609-18.
Nicholson 1990b {published data only}
Nicholson 1992 {published data only}
  • Nicholson KG, Baker DJ, Chakraverty P, Farquhar A, Hurd D, Kent J, et al. Immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine in residential homes for elderly people. Age and Ageing 1992;21(3):182-8.
Nielsen 1996 {published data only}
  • Nielsen PV. Vaccination against influenza of the elderly population of Copenhagen. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1996;158(48):6928.
Nygaard 1999 {published data only}
  • Nygaard HA. Prevention of influenza in nursing homes. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening 1999;119(14):2079.
Odelin 1993 {published data only}
  • Odelin MF, Pozzetto B, Aymard M, Defayolle M, Jolly-Million J. Role of influenza vaccination in the elderly during an epidemic of A/H1N1 virus in 1988-1989: clinical and serological data. Gerontology 1993;39(2):109-16.
Odelin 2003 {published data only}
  • Odelin MF, Momplot C, Bourlet T, Gonthier R, Aymard M, Pozzetto B. Temporal surveillance of the humoral immunity against influenza vaccine in the elderly over 9 consecutive years. Gerontology 2003;49(4):233-9.
Ohmit 1995 {published data only}
  • Ohmit SE, Furumoto-Dawson A, Monto AS, Fasano N. Influenza vaccine use among an elderly population in a community intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1995;11(4):271-6.
Ortqvist 2007 {published data only}
  • Ortqvist A, Granath F, Askling J, Hedlund J. Influenza vaccination and mortality: prospective cohort study of the elderly in a large geographical area [see comment]. European Respiratory Journal 2007;30(3):414-22.
Oshitani 2000 {published data only}
  • Oshitani H, Saito R, Seki N, Tanabe N, Yamazaki O, Hayashi S, et al. Influenza vaccination levels and influenza-like illness in long-term-care facilities for elderly people in Niigata, Japan, during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2000;21(11):728-30.
Parkin 1978 {published data only}
  • Parkin WE, Beecham HJ, Streiff E, Sharrar RG, Harris JC. Relationship studied in Pennsylvania. Guillain-Barre syndrome and influenza immunization. Pennsylvania Medicine 1978;81(4):47-8, 50-2.
Parsons 1997 {published data only}
Patel 1988 {published data only}
Patriarca 1985 {published data only}
Patriarca 1994 {published data only}
Pena-Rey 2003 {published data only}
  • Pena-Rey I, Perez-Farinos N, Sarria-Santamera A. Determinants of flu vaccination in Galician women over 65 years old. Atencion Primaria 2003;31(7):462-3.
Perez 2000 {published data only}
Perez-Tirse 1992 {published data only}
  • Perez-Tirse J, Gross PA. Review of cost-benefit analyses of influenza vaccine. Pharmacoeconomics 1992;2(3):198-206.
Perucchini 2004 {published data only}
Peters 1988 {published data only}
Philip 1969 {published data only}
  • Philip RN, Bell JA, Davis DJ, Beem MO, Beigelman PM, Engler JI, et al. Epidemiologic studies on influenza in familial and general population groups, 1951-1956. V. Effectiveness of adjuvant vaccines. American Journal of Epidemiology 1969;90(6):471-83.
Phillips 1970 {published data only}
  • Phillips CA, Forsyth BR, Christmas WA, Gump DW, Whorton EB, Rogers I, et al. Purified influenza vaccine: clinical and serologic responses to varying doses and different routes of immunization. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1970;122(1):26-32.
Phillips 1971 {published data only}
Piedra 2002 {published data only}
  • Piedra PA, Yan L, Kotloff K, Zangwill K, Bernstein DI, King J, et al. Safety of the trivalent, cold-adapted influenza vaccine in preschool-aged children. Pediatrics 2002;110(4):662-72.
Poe 1977 {published data only}
  • Poe GS, Massey JT. Estimating influenza cases and vaccinations by means of weekly rapid reporting system; methodological considerations and results obtained in the U.S. health interview survey. Public Health Reports 1977;92(4):299-306.
Poland 2002 {published data only}
Potter 1997 {published data only}
  • Potter J, Stott DJ, Roberts MA, Elder AG, O'Donnell B, Knight PV, et al. Influenza vaccination of health care workers in long-term-care hospitals reduces the mortality of elderly patients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1997;175(1):1-6.
Powers 1991 {published data only}
  • Powers DC, Fries LF, Murphy BR, Thumar B, Clements ML. In elderly persons live attenuated influenza A virus vaccines do not offer an advantage over inactivated virus vaccine in inducing serum or secretory antibodies or local immunologic memory. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1991;29(3):498-505.
Pregliasco 1997 {published data only}
  • Pregliasco F, Sodano L, Mensi C, Borghetti MC, Camorali L, D'Argenio P. Anti-influenza vaccination: knowledge, attitude and practice of the elderly residing in the city of Milan. Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita 1997;9(2):127-31.
Pregliasco 1999 {published data only}
  • Pregliasco F, Sodano L, Mensi C, Selvaggi MT, Adamo B, D'Argenio P, et al. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1999;77(2):127-31.
Profeta 1987 {published data only}
Provinciali 1994 {published data only}
Puig Barberà 1995 {published data only}
  • Puig Barbera J, Marquez Calderon S. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in the elderly. A critical review of the bibliography. Medicina Clinica 1995;105(17):645-8.
Puretz 1979 {published data only}
Pyhala 1997 {published data only}
  • Pyhala R, Hovi T. Influenza vaccinations--use with care. Duodecim 1997;113(21):2129, 2131.
Quinlisk 1990 {published data only}
  • Quinlisk P, Smithee L. Shanghai in Oklahoma?. Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association 1990;83(11):562-4.
Quinnan 1983 {published data only}
  • Quinnan GV, Schooley R, Dolin R, Ennis FA, Gross P, Gwaltney JM. Serologic responses and systemic reactions in adults after vaccination with monovalent A/USSR/77 and trivalent A/USSR/77, A/Texas/77, B/Hong Kong/72 influenza vaccines. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1983;5(4):748-57.
Rao 1982 {published data only}
  • Rao BL, Kadam SS, Pavri KM, Kothavale VS. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological features of influenza outbreaks in Pune, India, 1980. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1982;60(4):639-42.
Read 2000 {published data only}
  • Read CA, Mohsen A, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, McKendrick M, Kudesia G. Outbreaks of influenza A in nursing homes in Sheffield during the 1997-1998 season: implications for diagnosis and control. Journal of Public Health Medicine 2000;22(1):116-20.
Reedy 2000 {published data only}
  • Reedy JL, Paul SM, Zanna MT. Influenza: prevention and treatment. New Jersey Medicine 2000;97(11):41-50.
Ruben 1973 {published data only}
Rubin 1973 {published data only}
Rudenko 1981 {published data only}
  • Rudenko LG, Zykov MP. Protection of the elderly against influenza (a review of the literature). Vrachebnoe Delo 1981;12:8-11.
Rudenko 1993 {published data only}
  • Rudenko LG, Slepushkin AN, Monto AS, Kendal AP, Grigorieva EP, Burtseva EP, et al. Efficacy of live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in schoolchildren and their unvaccinated contacts in Novgorod, Russia. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993;168(4):881-7.
Ruel 2002 {published data only}
  • Ruel N, Odelin MF, Jolly J, Momplot C, Diana MC, Bourlet T, et al. Outbreaks due to respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus A/H3N in institutionalized aged. Role of immunological status to influenza vaccine and possible implication of caregivers in the transmission. Presse Medicale 2002;31(8):349-55.
Ruf 2004 {published data only}
  • Ruf BR, Colberg K, Frick M, Preusche A. Open, randomized study to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an influenza split vaccine with an MF59-adjuvanted subunit vaccine and a virosome-based subunit vaccine in elderly. Infection 2004;32(4):191-8.
Runehagen 2002 {published data only}
  • Runehagen A, Petersson C. Free vaccine and increased information suggested to increase the vaccination coverage. A questionnaire study concerning influenza vaccination of elderly persons and other risk groups. Lakartidningen 2002;99(6):496-7.
Russell 2001 {published data only}
  • Russell ML, Ferguson CA. Improving population influenza vaccine coverage through provider feedback and best practice identification. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2001;92(5):345-6.
Ryan 1984 {published data only}
  • Ryan MP, MacLeod AF. A comparison of adverse effects of two influenza vaccines, and the influence on subsequent uptake. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1984;34(265):442-4.
Sadler 2000 {published data only}
Sandrini 1997 {published data only}
  • Sandrini MC, Pregliasco F, Mensi C, Giardini G, Lucchi T, Santambrogio D, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy field evaluation (1994-1995 season) of influenza vaccine in a noninstitutionalized elderly population. Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita 1997;9(5):373-9.
Saslaw 1966 {published data only}
  • Saslaw S, Carlisle HN, Perkins RL. Effect of dosage and influenza vaccine content on antibody response in an aged population. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 1966;251(2):195-206.
Satsuta 1985 {published data only}
  • Satsuta K, Ogawa M, Makabe A, Ichinose T. On death due to influenza. Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi 1985;52(3):347-51.
Schoenbaum 1969 {published data only}
  • Schoenbaum SC, Mostow SR, Dowdle WR, Coleman MT, Kaye HS. Studies with inactivated influenza vaccines purified by zonal centrifugation. 2. Efficacy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1969;41(3):531-5.
Schwartz 1995 {published data only}
  • Schwartz K. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in the elderly. Journal of Family Practice 1995;40(3):298-9.
Selvaraj 1998 {published data only}
Serie 1977 {published data only}
  • Serie C, Barme M, Hannoun C, Thibon M, Beck H, Aquino JP. Effects of vaccination on an influenza epidemic in a geriatric hospital. Developments in Biological Standardization 1977;39:317-21.
Sethi 2002 {published data only}
Sharbaugh 1997 {published data only}
  • Sharbaugh RJ. Influenza--it's that time again. Home Care Provider 1997;2(5):227-8.
Shinkawa 2002 {published data only}
Shoji 2003 {published data only}
Siewert 1988 {published data only}
Simonsen 2005 {published data only}
  • Simonsen L, Reichert TA, Viboud C, Blackwelder WC, Taylor RJ, Miller MA. Impact of influenza vaccination on seasonal mortality in the US elderly population. Archive of Internal Medicine 2005;165(3):265-72.
Skowronski 2003 {published data only}
  • Skowronski DM, De Serres G, Scheifele D, Russell ML, Warrington R, Davies HD, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the rate of recurrence of oculorespiratory syndrome following influenza vaccination among persons previously affected. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;37(8):1059-66.
Skull 2009 {published data only}
  • Skull SA, Andrews RM, Byrnes GB, Campbell DA, Kelly HA, Brown GV, et al. Hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: an Australian case-cohort study. Epidemiology & Infection 2009;137(2):194-202.
Slepuskin 1967 {published data only}
  • Slepuskin AN, Bobyleva TK, Russina AE, Vitkina BS, Ellengorn NS, Zdanov VM. Evaluation of the effectiveness of large-scale vaccination against influenza in the USSR. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1967;36(3):385-95.
Sloan 1993 {published data only}
Socan 2004 {published data only}
Solomon 1984 {published data only}
  • Solomon R, Morlino J, Martucci M, Ney D. Adverse drug reaction after administration of influenza vaccine. Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey 1984;81(7):573-4.
Solomon 1996 {published data only}
Solomon 1999 {published data only}
Spencer 1979 {published data only}
  • Spencer MJ, Cherry JD, Powell KR, Sumaya CV. A clinical trial with Alice/R-75 strain, live attenuated serum inhibitor-resistant intranasal bivalent influenza A/B vaccine. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 1979;167(1):1-9.
Sprenger 1990 {published data only}
Squarcione 2003 {published data only}
  • Squarcione S, Sgricia S, Biasio LR, Perinetti E. Comparison of the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a split and a subunit-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in elderly subjects. Vaccine 2003;21(11-2):1268-74.
Stamboulian 1999 {published data only}
  • Stamboulian D, Bonvehi PE, Nacinovich FM, Ruttimann RW. Immunization against influenza in the elderly: the Argentinian experience, 1993-1997. Vaccine 1999;17(Suppl 1):53-6.
Stott 2001 {published data only}
Tamblyn 1997 {published data only}
Thompson 1988 {published data only}
  • Thompson MP. Is routine influenza immunization indicated for people over 65 years of age? An affirmative view. Journal of Family Practice 1988;26(2):211-4.
Treanor 1992 {published data only}
  • Treanor JJ, Mattison HR, Dumyati G, Yinnon A, Erb S, O'Brien D, et al. Protective efficacy of combined live intranasal and inactivated influenza A virus vaccines in the elderly. Annals of Internal Medicine 1992;117(8):625-33.
Treanor 1998 {published data only}
Tsai 2007 {published data only}
Upshur 2000 {published data only}
  • Upshur RE, Goel V. Measuring the impact of influenza on the hospital admission rates of the elderly in Ontario: a five-year admission rate analysis, 1988-1993. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2000;91(2):144-7.
Urquhart 1974 {published data only}
Uyeki 2003 {published data only}
  • Uyeki TM, Zane SB, Bodnar UR, Fielding KL, Buxton JA, Miller JM, et al. Large summertime influenza A outbreak among tourists in Alaska and the Yukon Territory. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;36(9):1095-102.
Vallee 2000 {published data only}
Van Horren 1976 {published data only}
van Vuuren 2009 {published data only}
Verde 1973 {published data only}
  • Verde F, Frezza G, Russo V, Visconti M. Antibody response to anti-influenza vaccination with vaccine purified by differential ultracentrifugation and with vaccine purified by zonal ultracentrifugation. Bollettino della Societa Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1973;49(4):178-81.
Verweij 2002 {published data only}
Vila-Corcoles 2005 {published data only}
  • Vila-Corcoles A, Ochoa-Gondar O, Ansa-Echeverria X, Gomez-Sorribes A, Espelt-Aluja P, Pascual-Moron I. Influenza vaccination and mortality in the elderly [see comment]. Medicina Clinica 2005;125(18):689-91.
Visconti 1973 {published data only}
  • Visconti M, Verde F, Frezza G, Russo V. Persistence of antibodies inhibiting hemagglutination by influenza viruses in aged vaccinated women. Changes in antibody titer after re-vaccination. Bollettino della Societa Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 1973;49(4):173-7.
Voordouw 2004 {published data only}
  • Voordouw AC, Sturkenboom MC, Dieleman JP, Stijnen T, Smith DJ, van der Lei J, et al. Annual revaccination against influenza and mortality risk in community-dwelling elderly persons. JAMA 2004;292(17):2089-95.
Voordouw 2006 {published data only}
  • Voordouw BC, Sturkenboom MC, Dieleman JP, Stijnen T, van der Lei J, Stricker BH. Annual influenza vaccination in community-dwelling elderly individuals and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections or pneumonia. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166(18):1980-5.
Vu 2002 {published data only}
Wagner 1993 {published data only}
  • Wagner TA, Skiba R. Tolerance of preventive influenza vaccination with a subunit vaccine. Bevolkerung und Kultur. Reihe 7: Gesundheitswesen 1993;55(11):587-8.
Wagner 1994 {published data only}
Wakefield 1990 {published data only}
Wang 1986 {published data only}
  • Wang A, Hannoun C, Cadiot P. Theoretical and practical prospects of influenza vaccination in aged persons [Perspectives theoriques et pratiques de la vaccination antigrippale chez la personne agee]. Medecine et Hygiene 1986;44(1656):1373-6.
Wang 2002 {published data only}
  • Wang CS, Wang ST, Chou P. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination of the elderly in a densely populated and unvaccinated community. Vaccine 2002;20(19-20):2494-9.
Warburton 1972 {published data only}
  • Warburton MF, Jacobs DS, Langsford WA, White GE. Herd immunity following subunit influenza vaccine administration. Medical Journal of Australia 1972;2(2):67-70.
Wareing 2001 {published data only}
Watson 1997 {published data only}
Weaver 2001 {published data only}
Wiehl 2001 {published data only}
  • Wiehl M. Influenza vaccination. Even colleagues try and avoid it. MMW Fortschritte der Medizin 2001;143(43):14.
Williams 1980 {published data only}
Wilson 1994 {published data only}
Winer 1984 {published data only}
Wise 1977 {published data only}
  • Wise TG, Dolin R, Mazur MH, Top FH Jr, Edelman R, Ennis FA. Serologic responses and systemic reactions in adults after vaccination with bivalent A/Victoria/75-A/New Jersey/76 and monovalent B/Hong Kong/72 influenza vaccines. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1977;136(Suppl):507-17.
Wood 2000 {published data only}
  • Wood SC, Nguyen VH, Schmidt C. Economic evaluations of influenza vaccination in the elderly: impact on public health policy (for bibl. only). Disease Management and Health Outcomes 2000;8(5):273-85.
Woratz 1984 {published data only}
  • Woratz C, Sinnecker H, Woratz G, Giard W, Muller D, Hajduk F, et al. Use of excess mortality as a criterion of effectiveness in vaccination for the prevention of influenza. Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete 1984;30(9):488-90.
Yassi 1993 {published data only}
  • Yassi A, Mcgill M, Holton C, Nicolle L. Morbidity, cost and role of health care worker transmission in an outbreak in a tertiary care hospital. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993;4(1):52-6.
Zambon 2001 {published data only}
  • Zambon M, Hays J, Webster A, Newman R, Keene O. Diagnosis of influenza in the community: relationship of clinical diagnosis to confirmed virological, serologic, or molecular detection of influenza. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001;161(17):2116-22.
Zimmerman 2004 {published data only}
  • Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Bardella IJ, Fine MJ, Janosky JE, Santibanez TA, et al. Physician and practice factors related to influenza vaccination among the elderly. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004;26(1):1-10.
Zoffmann 1977 {published data only}
  • Zoffmann H, Von Magnus H. Swine influenza. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1977;139(5):259-61.
Zourbas 1973 {published data only}
  • Zourbas J, Barme M, Paillard R, Reynaud R, Morvan A, Megret P. New advance in influenza vaccination. 2. Clinical and immunologic study, in Rennes, of a Pasteur 30-c strain. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1973;2(29):1939-43.
Zuckerman 1990 {published data only}
Zuckerman 1992 {published data only}
Zuckerman 1993 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
ACIP 2005
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DerSimonian 1986
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Eurich 2008
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Fukushima 2008
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Greenland 1987
Groenwold 2008
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Groenwold 2009
Hak 2006
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Hirota 2008
Jackson 2006a
  • Jackson LA, Jackson ML, Nelson JC, Neuzil KM, Weiss NS. Evidence of bias in estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in seniors. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35(2):337-44. [doi:10.1093/ije/dyi274]
Jackson 2006b
  • Jackson LA, Nelson JC, Benson P, Neuzil KM, Reid RJ, Psaty BM, et al. Functional status is a confounder of the association of influenza vaccine and risk of all cause mortality in seniors. International Journal of Epidemiology 2005;35(2):345-52. [doi:10.1093/ije/dyi275]
Jackson 2006c
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Jackson 2006d
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Jackson 2006e
  • Jackson LA, Jackson ML, Nelson JC, Neuzil KM, Weiss NS. Evidence of bias in estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in seniors [see comment]. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35(2):337-44.
Jefferson 2009
  • Jefferson T, Di Pietrantonj C, Debalini MG, Rivetti A, Demicheli V. Study  quality, concordance, take home message, funding and impact: their relationship in influenza vaccines studies. BMJ (available http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/338/feb12_2/b354?ct=ct) 2009;338:354.
Lefebvre 2008
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Nichol 2008
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Thomas 2010
van Essen 2003
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WHO 2005
  • WHO global influenza programme. Number of influenza vaccine doses distributed in various regions. http: // www.who.int/cst/diseases/influenz/fluenumber2005_02_25.JPG (accessed 18 August 2005) 2005.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Jefferson 2005
  • Jefferson T, Rivetti D, Rivetti A, Rudin M, Di Pietrantonj C, Demicheli V. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people: a systematic review. Lancet 2005;366(9492):1165-74.
Rivetti 2006