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Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure

  1. Feng J He1,*,
  2. Jiafu Li2,
  3. Graham A MacGregor1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Hypertension Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 28 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004937.pub2


How to Cite

He FJ, Li J, MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004937. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004937.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Queen Mary University of London, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, UK

  2. 2

    Affiliated Hospital of LuZhou Medical College, Department of Cardiology, Luzhou, Sichuan, China

*Feng J He, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK. f.he@qmul.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
ANHMRC 1989 (P) {published data only}
  • Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Dietary Salt Study Management Committee. Fall in blood pressure with modest reduction in dietary salt intake in mild hypertension. Lancet 1989;1:399-402.
ANHMRC 1989 (X) {published data only}
  • Australian National Health and Medical Rresearch Council Dietary Salt Study Management Committee. Effects of replacing sodium intake in subjects on a low sodium diet: a crossover study. Clin Exp Hypertens 1989;A11:1011-24.
Benetos 1992 {published data only}
  • Benetos A, Yang Yan X, Cuche JL, Hannaert P, Safar M. Arterial effects of salt restriction in hypertensive patients. A 9-week, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Hypertens 1992;10:355-60.
Cappuccio 1997 {published and unpublished data}
Cappuccio 1997 (H) {published and unpublished data}
Cappuccio 1997 (N) {published and unpublished data}
Chalmers 1986 {published data only}
  • Chalmers J, Morgan T, Doyle A, Dickson B, Hopper J, Mathews J, Matthews G, Moulds R, Myers J, Nowson C, Scoggins B, Stebbing M. Australian National Health and Medical Rresearch Council dietary salt study in mild hypertension. J Hypertens 1986;4(suppl 6):S629-37.
Cobiac 1992 {published data only}
Erwteman 1984 {published data only}
  • Erwteman TM, Nagelkerke N, Lubsen J, Koster M, Dunning AJ. Beta-blockade, diuretics, and salt restriction for the management of mild hypertension: a randomised double blind trial. BMJ 1984;289:406-9.
Fotherby 1993 {published data only}
Gates 2004 {published and unpublished data}
Grobbee 1987 {published data only}
  • Grobbee DE, Hofman A, Roelandt JT, Boomsma F, Schalekamp MA, Valkenburg HA. Sodium restriction and potassium supplementation in young people with mildly elevated blood pressure. J Hypertens 1987;5:115-9.
Harsha 2004 {published data only}
  • Harsha, D. W.Sacks, F. M.Obarzanek, E.Svetkey, L. P.Lin, P. H.Bray, G. A.Aickin, M.Conlin, P. R.Miller, E. R, 3rd, Appel, L. J. Effect of dietary sodium intake on blood lipids: results from the DASH-sodium trial. Hypertension 2004;43:393-8.
He 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • He FJ, Marciniak M, Visagie E, Markandu ND, Anand V, Dalton RN, MacGregor GA. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives. Hypertension 2009;54:482-8.
MacGregor 1982 {published and unpublished data}
  • MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Best FE, Elder DM, Cam JM, Sagnella GA, Squires M. Double-blind randomised crossover trial of moderate sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1982;1:351-5.
MacGregor 1989 {published and unpublished data}
  • MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, Singer D, Cappuccio FP. Double-blind study of three sodium intakes and long-term effects of sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1989;2:1244-7.
Mascioli 1991 {published data only}
  • Mascioli S, Grimm RH, Launer C, Svendsen K, Flack J, Gonzalez N, Elmer P, Neaton J. Sodium chloride raises blood pressure in normotensive subjects: the study of sodium and blood pressure. Hypertension 1991;17(suppl I):I21-6.
Meland 1997 {published and unpublished data}
Melander 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Melander O, von Wowern F, Frandsen E, Burri P, Willsteen G, Aurell M, Hulthén UL. Moderate salt restriction effectively lowers blood pressure and degree of salt sensitivity is related to baseline concentration of renin and N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide in plasma. J Hypertens 2007;25:619-27.
Melander 2007 (H) {published and unpublished data}
  • Melander O, von Wowern F, Frandsen E, Burri P, Willsteen G, Aurell M, Hulthén UL. Moderate salt restriction effectively lowers blood pressure and degree of salt sensitivity is related to baseline concentration of renin and N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide in plasma. J Hypertens 2007;25:619-27.
Melander 2007 (N) {published and unpublished data}
  • Melander O, von Wowern F, Frandsen E, Burri P, Willsteen G, Aurell M, Hulthén UL. Moderate salt restriction effectively lowers blood pressure and degree of salt sensitivity is related to baseline concentration of renin and N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide in plasma. J Hypertens 2007;25:619-27.
Morgan 1981 (F) {published data only}
Morgan 1981 (M) {published data only}
Nestel 1993 (F) {published data only}
  • Nestel PJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M, McArthur R, Howe PR. Enhanced blood pressure response to dietary salt in elderly women, especially those with small waist:hip ratio. J Hypertens 1993;11:1387-94.
Nestel 1993 (M) {published data only}
  • Nestel PJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M, McArthur R, Howe PR. Enhanced blood pressure response to dietary salt in elderly women, especially those with small waist:hip ratio. J Hypertens 1993;11:1387-94.
Parijs 1973 {published data only}
Puska 1983 (H) {published data only}
  • Puska P, Iacono JM, Nissinen A, Korhonen HJ, Vartiainen E, Pietinen P, Dougherty R, Leino U, Mutanen M, Moisio S, Huttunen J. Controlled, randomised trial of the effect of dietary fat on blood pressure. Lancet 1983;1:1-5.
Puska 1983 (N) {published data only}
  • Puska P, Iacono JM, Nissinen A, Korhonen HJ, Vartiainen E, Pietinen P, Dougherty R, Leino U, Mutanen M, Moisio S, Huttunen J. Controlled, randomised trial of the effect of dietary fat on blood pressure. Lancet 1983;1:1-5.
Richards 1984 {published data only}
  • Richards AM, Nicholls MG, Espiner EA, Ikram H, Maslowski AH, Hamilton EJ, Wells JE. Blood-pressure response to moderate sodium restriction and to potassium supplementation in mild essential hypertension. Lancet 1984;1:757-61.
Ruppert 1993 {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Overlack A, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Gobel B, Stumpe KO. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of severe and moderate salt restriction in non-obese normotensive adults. J Hypertens 1993;117:743-9.
Sacks 2001 (H) {published and unpublished data}
  • Sacks FM, Svetkey LR, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PH. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 2001;344:3-10.
Sacks 2001 (N) {published and unpublished data}
  • Sacks FM, Svetkey LR, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PH. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 2001;323:42-46.
Schorr 1996 {published data only}
  • Schorr U, Distler A, Sharma AM. Effect of sodium chloride- and sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water on blood pressure and metabolic parameters in elderly normotensive individuals: a randomized double-blind crossover trial. J Hypertens 1996;14:131-5.
Silman 1983 {published data only}
  • Silman AJ, Locke C, Mitchell P, Humpherson P. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a low sodium diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Lancet 1983;1:1179-82.
Swift 2005 {published and unpublished data}
TOHP I 1992 {published and unpublished data}
  • The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase I. JAMA 1992;267:1213-20.
TOHP II 1997 {published data only}
  • The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effect of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase II. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:657-67.
Watt 1983 {published data only}
  • Watt GCM, Edward C, Hart JT, Heart M, Walton P, Foy CJW. Dietary sodium restriction for mild hypertension in general practice. BMJ 1983;286:432-6.
Watt 1985 (HH) {published data only}
  • Watt GC, Foy CJ, Hart JT, Bingham G, Edwards C, Hart M, Thomas E, Walton P. Dietary sodium and arterial blood pressure: evidence against genetic susceptibility. BMJ 1985;291:1525-8.
Watt 1985 (LL) {published data only}
  • Watt GC, Foy CJ, Hart JT, Bingham G, Edwards C, Hart M, Thomas E, Walton P. Dietary sodium and arterial blood pressure: evidence against genetic susceptibility. BMJ 1985;291:1525-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Akita 2003 {published data only}
  • Akita S, Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Conlin PR, Kimura G, DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group. Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Hypertension 2003;42(1):8-13.
Alam 1999 {published data only}
  • Alam S, Purdie DM, Johnson AG. Evaluation of the potential interaction between NaCl and prostaglandin inhibition in elderly individuals with isolated systolic hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 1999;17(8):1195-202.
Alli 1992 {published data only}
  • Alli C, Avanzini F, Bettelli G, Bonati M, Colombo F, Corso R, Di Tullio M, Gentile MG, Sangalli L, Taioli E, Tognoni, G. Feasibility of a long-term low-sodium diet in mild hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension 1992;6(4):281-286.
Ambrosioni 1982 {published data only}
  • Ambrosioni E, Costa FV, Borghi C, Montebugnoli L, Giordani MF, Magnani B. Effects of moderate salt restriction on intralymphocytic sodium and pressor response to stress in borderline hypertension. Hypertension 1982;4:789-94.
Ames 2001 {published data only}
Andersson 1984 {published data only}
  • Andersson OK, Fagerberg B, Hedner T. Importance of dietary salt in the hemodynamic adjustment to weight reduction in obese hypertensive men. Hypertension 1984;6:814-9.
Andersson 1986 {published data only}
  • Andersson OK, Persson B, Hedner T, Aurell M, Berglund G, Fagerberg B. Central haemodynamics, baroreceptor sensitivity and alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular reactivity during weight-stable sodium restriction in obese men with hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 1986;4(1):101-7.
Appel 2001 {published data only}
  • Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Easter L, Wilson AC, Folmar S, Lacy CR. Effects of reduced sodium intake on hypertension control in older individuals: results from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Archives of Internal Medicine 2001;161(5):685-93.
Appel 2003 {published data only}
  • Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, Cooper LS, Obarzanek E, Elmer PJ, Stevens VJ, Vollmer WM, Lin PH, Svetkey LP, Stedman SW, Young DR, Writing Group of the PREMIER Collaborative Research Group. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. JAMA 2003;289:2083-93.
Applegate 1992 {published data only}
  • Applegate WB, Miller ST, Elam JT, Cushman WC, el Derwi D, Brewer A, Graney MJ. Nonpharmacologic intervention to reduce blood pressure in older patients with mild hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:1162-6.
Arroll 1995 {published data only}
Barba 2000 {published data only}
  • Barba G, Vallance PJ, Strazzullo P, MacAllister RJ. Effects of sodium intake on the pressor and renal responses to nitric oxide synthesis inhibition in normotensive individuals with different sodium sensitivity. J Hypertens 2000;18:615-21.
Beard 1982 {published data only}
  • Beard TC, Cooke HM, Gray WR, Barge R. Randomised controlled trial of a no-added-sodium diet for mild hypertension. Lancet 1982;2:455-8.
Beckmann 1995 {published data only}
  • Beckmann SL, Os I, Kjeldsen SE, Eide IK, Westheim AS, Hjermann I. Effect of dietary counselling on blood pressure and arterial plasma catecholamines in primary hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1995;8:704-11.
Berglund 1989 {published data only}
  • Berglund A, Andersson OK, Berglund G, Fagerberg B. Antihypertensive effect of diet compared with drug treatment in obese men with mild hypertension. BMJ 1989;299(6697):480-5.
Boero 2000 {published data only}
  • Boero R, Pignataro A, Bancale E, Campo A, Morelli E, Nigra M, Novarese M, Possamai D, Prodi E, Quarello F. Metabolic effects of changes in dietary sodium intake in patients with essential hypertension. Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2000;52(1):13-6.
Bompiani 1988 {published data only}
  • Bompiani GD, Cerasola G, Morici ML, Condorelli M, Trimarco B, De Luca N, Leonetti G, Sampieri L, Cuspidi C, Cottone S, et al. Effects of moderate low sodium/high potassium diet on essential hypertension: results of a comparative study. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy, & Toxicology 1988;26(3):129-32.
Bray 2004 {published data only}
  • Bray GA, Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Obarzanek E, Svetkey LP, Appel LJ, DASH Collaborative Research Group. A further subgroup analysis of the effects of the DASH diet and three dietary sodium levels on blood pressure: results of the DASH-Sodium Trial. The American journal of cardiology 2004;94(2):222-7.
Bruun 1990 {published data only}
  • Bruun NE, Skott P, Damkjaer Nielsen M, Rasmussen S, Schutten HJ, Leth A, Pedersen EB, Giese J. Normal renal tubular response to changes of sodium intake in hypertensive man. J Hypertens 1990;8:219-27.
Buckley 1994 {published data only}
  • Buckley MG, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, MacGregor GA. Brain and atrial natriuretic peptides: a dual peptide system of potential importance in sodium balance and blood pressure regulation in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1994;12:809-13.
Bulpitt 1984 {published data only}
  • Bulpitt CJ, Daymond M, Bulpitt PF, Ferrier G, Harrison R, Lewis PJ, Dollery CT. Is low salt dietary advice a useful therapy in hypertensive patients with poorly controlled blood pressure?. Annals of Clinical Research 1984;16(Suppl 43):143-9.
Burke 2005 {published data only}
  • Burke V, Beilin LJ, Cutt HE, Mansour J, Wilson A, Mori TA. Effects of a lifestyle programme on ambulatory blood pressure and drug dosage in treated hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Hypertens 2005;23(6):1241-9.
Burke 2007 {published data only}
  • Burke V, Beilin LJ, Cutt HE, Mansour J, Williams A, Mori TA. A lifestyle program for treated hypertensives improved health-related behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors, a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60(2):133-41.
Burnier 1993 {published data only}
  • Burnier M, Rutschmann B, Nussberger J, Versaggi J, Shahinfar S, Waeber B, Brunner HR. Salt-dependent renal effects of an angiotensin II antagonist in healthy subjects. Hypertension 1993;22:339-47.
Buyck 2009 {published data only}
  • Buyck JF, Blacher J, Kesse-Guyot E, Castetbon K, Galan P, Safar M, Hercberg S, Czernichow S. Differential associations of dietary sodium and potassium intake with blood pressure: a focus on pulse pressure. Journal of Hypertension 2009;27(6):1158-64.
Calabrese 1985 {published data only}
  • Calabrese EJ, Tuthill RW. The Massachusetts Blood Pressure Study, Part 3. Experimental reduction of sodium in drinking water: effects on blood pressure. Toxicology and industrial health 1985;1(1):19-34.
Cappuccio 2006 {published data only}
  • Cappuccio, F. P.Kerry, S. M.Micah, F. B.Plange, R. J.Eastwood, J. B. A community programme to reduce salt intake and blood pressure in Ghana. BMC Public Health 2006;6:doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-13.
Carney 1991 {published data only}
Charlton 2008 {published data only}
  • Charlton KE, Steyn K, Levitt NS, Peer N, Jonathan D, Gogela T, Rossouw K, Gwebushe N, Lombard CJ. A food-based dietary strategy lowers blood pressure in a low socio-economic setting: A randomised study in South Africa. Public Health Nutrition 2008;11(12):1397-1406.
Chen 2008 {published data only}
  • Chen J, Gu D, Jaquish CE, Chen CS, Rao DC, Liu D, Hixson JE, Hamm LL, Gu CC, Whelton PK, He J, GenSalt Collaborative Research Group. Association between blood pressure responses to the cold pressor test and dietary sodium intervention in a Chinese population. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008;168(16):1740-1746.
Chrysant 2000 {published data only}
  • Chrysant SG, Weder AB, McCarron DA, Canossa-Terris M, Cohen JD, Gunter PA, Hamilton BP, Lewin AJ, Mennella RF, Kirkegaard LW, Weir MR, Weinberger MH. Effects of isradipine or enalapril on blood pressure in salt-sensitive hypertensives during low and high dietary salt intake. MIST II Trial Investigators. Am J Hypertens 2000;13(11):1180-8.
Cook 2005 {published data only}
  • Cook NR, Kumanyika SK, Cutler JA, Whelton PK. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Dose-response of sodium excretion and blood pressure change among overweight, nonhypertensive adults in a 3-year dietary intervention study. Journal of Human Hypertension 2005;19(1):47-54.
Cook 2007 {published data only}
  • Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E, Buring JE, Rexrode KM, Kumanyika SK, Appel LJ, Whelton PK. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: Observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). British Medical Journal 2007;334(7599):885-888.
Cook 2009 {published data only}
  • Cook NR, Obarzanek E, Cutler JA, Buring JE, Rexrode KM, Kumanyika SK, Appel LJ, Whelton PK, Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on subsequent cardiovascular disease: The trials of hypertension prevention follow-up study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009;169(1):32-40.
Cooper 1984 {published data only}
  • Cooper R, Van Horn L, Liu K, Trevisan M, Nanas S, Ueshima H, Larbi E, Yu CS, Sempos C, LeGrady D, Stamler J. A randomized trial on the effect of decreased dietary sodium intake on blood pressure in adolescents. J Hypertens 1984;2:361-6.
Costa 1981 {published data only}
  • Costa FV, Ambrosioni E, Montebugnoli L, Paccaloni L, Vasconi L, Magnani B. Effects of a low-salt diet and of acute salt loading on blood pressure and intralymphocytic sodium concentration in young subjects with borderline hypertension. Clin Sci 1981;61 (Suppl 7):21s-23s.
CSSS 2007 {published data only}
  • The China Salt Substitute Study Collaborative Group. Salt substitution: a low-cost strategy for blood pressure control among rural Chinese. A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Hypertension 2007;25(10):2011-8.
Cuzzola 2001 {published data only}
  • Cuzzola F, Mallamaci F, Tripepi G, Parlongo S, Cutrupi S, Cataliotti A, Stancanelli B, Malatino L, Bellanuova I, Ferri C, Galletti F, Filigheddu F, Glorioso N, Strazzullo P, Zoccali C. Urinary adrenomedullin is related to ET-1 and salt intake in patients with mild essential hypertension. Salt Sensitivity Group of Italian Society of Hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2001;14:224-30.
Damasceno 1999 {published data only}
  • Damasceno A, Santos A, Serrao P, Caupers P, Soares-da-Silva P, Polonia J. Deficiency of renal dopaminergic-dependent natriuretic response to acute sodium load in black salt-sensitive subjects in contrast to salt-resistant subjects. J Hypertens 1999;17:1995-2001.
Damasceno 2000 {published data only}
  • Damasceno A, Caupers P, Santos A, Lobo E, Sevene E, Bicho M, Polonia J. Influence of salt intake on the daytime-nighttime blood pressure variation in normotensive and hypertensive black subjects. Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia 2000;19(3):315-29.
Davis 1994 {published data only}
  • Davis BR, Oberman A, Blaufox MD, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Zimbaldi N, Kirchner K, Wylie-Rosett J, Langford HG. Lack of effectiveness of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet in reducing antihypertensive medication requirements in overweight persons with mild hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1994;7(10 Pt 1):926-32.
Davrath 1999 {published data only}
  • Davrath LR, Gotshall RW, Tucker A, Sadeh WZ, Luckasen GJ, Downes TR, Coonts CC. Moderate sodium restriction does not alter lower body negative pressure tolerance. Aviat Space Environ Med 1999;70:577-82.
Delemarre 2000 {published data only}
Del Rio 1990 {published data only}
  • Del Rio A, Rodriguez-Villamil JL, Lopez-Campos JM, Carrera F. [Effect of moderate salt restriction on the antihypertensive action of nifedipine: a double blind study]. Revista Clinica Espanola 1990;186(1):5-10.
Del Rio 1993 {published data only}
  • Del Rio A, Rodriguez-Villamil JL. Metabolic effects of strict salt restriction in essential hypertensive patients. J Intern Med 1993;233:409-14.
Dickinson 2009 {published data only}
Dimsdale 1990 {published data only}
  • Dimsdale JE, Ziegler M, Mills P, Berry C. Prediction of salt sensitivity. Am J Hypertens 1990;3:429-35.
Dodson 1984 {published data only}
  • Dodson PM, Pacy PJ, Bal P, Kubicki AJ, Fletcher RF, Taylor KG. A controlled trial of a high fibre, low fat and low sodium diet for mild hypertension in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 1984;27(5):522-6.
Dodson 1989 {published data only}
  • Dodson PM, Beevers M, Hallworth R, Webberley MJ, Fletcher RF, Taylor KG. Sodium restriction and blood pressure in hypertensive type II diabetics: randomised blind controlled and crossover studies of moderate sodium restriction and sodium supplementation. BMJ 1989;298:227-30.
Donovan 1993 {published data only}
Dubbert 1995 {published data only}
  • Dubbert PM, Cushman WC, Meydrech EF, Rowland AK, Maury P. Effects of dietary instruction and sodium excretion feedback in hypertension clinic patients. Behav Ther 1995;26:721-732.
Egan 1991 {published data only}
  • Egan BM, Weder AB, Petrin J, Hoffman RG. Neurohumoral and metabolic effects of short-term dietary NaCl restriction in men. Relationship to salt-sensitivity status. Am J Hypertens 1991;4:416-21.
Egan 1991(b) {published data only}
  • Egan BM, Petrin J, Hoffmann RG. NaCl induces differential changes of regional vascular reactivity in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant men. Am J Hypertens 1991;4(12 Pt 1):924-31.
Ekinci 2009 {published data only}
  • Ekinci EI, Thomas G, Thomas D, Johnson C, Macisaac RJ, Houlihan CA, Finch S, Panagiotopoulos S, O'Callaghan C, Jerums G. Effects of salt supplementation on the albuminuric response to telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes are modulated by habitual dietary salt intake. Diabetes Care 2009;32(8):1398-403.
Ekinci 2010 {published data only}
  • Ekinci EI, Thomas G, MacIsaac RJ, Johnson C, Houlihan C, Panagiotopoulos S, Premaratne E, Hao H, Finch S, O'Callaghan C, Jerums G. Salt supplementation blunts the blood pressure response to telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2010;53(7):1295-303.
el Ashry 1987 {published data only}
  • el Ashry A, Heagerty AM, Alton SM, Bing RF, Swales JD, Thurston H. Effects of manipulation of sodium balance on erythrocyte sodium transport. J Hum Hypertens 1987;1:105-11.
Elmer 1995 {published data only}
  • Elmer PJ, Grimm R Jr, Laing B, Grandits G, Svendsen K, Van Heel N, Betz E, Raines J, Link M, Stamler J, et al. Lifestyle intervention: results of the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Prev Med 1995;24(4):378-88.
Elmer 2006 {published data only}
  • Elmer PJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Simons-Morton D, Stevens VJ, Young DR, Lin PH, Champagne C, Harsha DW, Svetkey LP, Ard J, Brantley PJ, Proschan MA, Erlinger TP, Appel LJ, PREMIER Collaborative Research Group. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on diet, weight, physical fitness, and blood pressure control: 18-month results of a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;144(7):485-95.
Fagerberg 1984 {published data only}
  • Fagerberg B, Andersson OK, Isaksson B, Bjorntorp P. Blood pressure control during weight reduction in obese hypertensive men: separate effects of sodium and energy restriction. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984;288:11-4.
Fagerberg 1985 {published data only}
  • Fagerberg B, Andersson OK, Lindstedt G, Waldenstrom J, Aurell M. The sodium intake modifies the renin-aldosterone and blood pressure changes associated with moderately low energy diets. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1985;218(2):157-64.
Feldman 1996 {published data only}
Ferri 1993 {published data only}
  • Ferri C, Di Francesco L, Baldoncini R, Bellini C, Desideri G, Carlomagno A, De Siati L, Santucci A, Balsano F. [Sodium-modulating hormones and the pressor response to sodium chloride in essential arterial hypertension]. Ann Ital Med Int 1993;8:89-94.
Ferri 1994 {published data only}
Ferri 1996 {published data only}
  • Ferri C, Bellini C, Carlomagno A, Desideri G, Santucci A. Active kallikrein response to changes in sodium-chloride intake in essential hypertensive patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996;7:443-53.
Fliser 1993(a) {published data only}
  • Fliser D, Nowack R, Allendorf-Ostwald N, Kohl B, Hubinger A, Ritz E. Serum lipid changes on low salt diet. Effects of alpha 1-adrenergic blockade. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:320-4.
Fliser 1993(b) {published data only}
  • Fliser D, Nowack R, Wolf G, Ritz E. Differential effects of ACE inhibitors and vasodilators on renal function curve in patients with primary hypertension. Blood Pressure 1993;2(4):296-300.
Forrester 2005 {published data only}
  • Forrester T, Adeyemo A, Soarres-Wynter S, Sargent L, Bennett F, Wilks R, Luke A, Prewitt E, Kramer H, Cooper RS. A randomized trial on sodium reduction in two developing countries. J Hum Hypertens 2005;19:55-60.
Fotherby 1997 {published data only}
Friberg 1990 {published data only}
  • Friberg P, Meredith I, Jennings G, Lambert G, Fazio V, Esler M. Evidence for increased renal norepinephrine overflow during sodium restriction in humans. Hypertension 1990;16:121-30.
Fuchs 1987 {published data only}
  • Fuchs FD, Wannmacher CM, Wannmacher L, Guimaraes FS, Rosito GA, Gastaldo G, Hoeffel CP, Wagner EM. Effect of sodium intake on blood pressure, serum levels and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normotensives with and without familial predisposition to hypertension. Braz J Med Biol Res 1987;20:25-34.
Gillies 1984 {published data only}
Gillum 1981 {published data only}
  • Gillum RF, Elmer PJ, Prineas RJ. Changing sodium intake in children. The Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study. Hypertension 1981;3:698-703.
Gomi 1998 {published data only}
  • Gomi T, Shibuya Y, Sakurai J, Hirawa N, Hasegawa K, Ikeda T. Strict dietary sodium reduction worsens insulin sensitivity by increasing sympathetic nervous activity in patients with primary hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1998;11:1048-55.
Gow 1992 {published data only}
  • Gow IF, Dockrell M, Edwards CR, Elder A, Grieve J, Kane G, Padfield PL, Waugh CJ, Williams BC. The sensitivity of human blood platelets to the aggregating agent ADP during different dietary sodium intakes in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;43:635-8.
Grey 1996 {published data only}
Hargreaves 1989 {published data only}
Haythornthwaite 1992 {published data only}
  • Haythornthwaite JA, Pratley RE, Anderson DE. Behavioral stress potentiates the blood pressure effects of a high sodium intake. Psychosom Med 1992;54:231-9.
He, J 2009 {published data only}
  • He J, Gu D, Chen J, Jaquish CE, Rao DC, Hixson JE, Chen JC, Duan X, Huang JF, Chen CS, Kelly TN, Bazzano LA, Whelton PK, GenSalt Collaborative Research Group. Gender difference in blood pressure responses to dietary sodium intervention in the GenSalt study. Journal of Hypertension 2009;27(1):48-54.
He 2000 {published data only}
  • He J, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Charleston J, Klag MJ. Long-term effects of weight loss and dietary sodium reduction on incidence of hypertension. Hypertension 2000;35(2):544-550.
He 2005(a) {published data only}
He 2005(b) {published data only}
Heagerty 1986 {published data only}
  • Heagerty AM, Alton SM, el-Ashry A, Bing RF, Thurston H, Swales JD. Effects of changes in sodium balance on leucocyte sodium transport: qualitative differences in normotensive offspring of hypertensives and matched controls. J Hypertens 1986;4:333-7.
Herlitz 1998 {published data only}
  • Herlitz H, Dahlof B, Jonsson O, Friberg P. Relationship between salt and blood pressure in hypertensive patients on chronic ACE-inhibition. Blood Pressure 1998;7(1):47-52.
Hofman 1983 {published data only}
  • Hofman A, Hazebroek A, Valkenburg HA. A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. JAMA 1983;250:370-3.
Houlihan 2002(a) {published data only}
  • Houlihan CA, Akdeniz A, Tsalamandris C, Cooper ME, Jerums G, Gilbert RE. Urinary transforming growth factor-beta excretion in patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and elevated albumin excretion rate: effects of angiotensin receptor blockade and sodium restriction. Diabetes Care 2002;25(6):1072-7.
Houlihan 2002(b) {published data only}
  • Houlihan CA, Allen TJ, Baxter AL, Panangiotopoulos S, Casley DJ, Cooper ME, Jerums G. A low-sodium diet potentiates the effects of losartan in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25(4):663-71.
Howe 1991 {published data only}
Howe1994 {published data only}
  • Howe PR, Lungershausen YK, Cobiac L, Dandy G, Nestel PJ. Effect of sodium restriction and fish oil supplementation on BP and thrombotic risk factors in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. J Hum Hypertens 1994;8(1):43-9.
HPTRG 1990 {published data only}
  • Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. The Hypertension Prevention Trial: three-year effects of dietary changes on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:153-62.
Hu 2009 {published data only}
  • Hu J, Jiang X, Li N, Yu X, Perkovic V, Chen B, Zhao L, Neal B, Wu Y. Effects of salt substitute on pulse wave analysis among individuals at high cardiovascular risk in rural China: a randomized controlled trial. Hypertension Research 2009;32(4):282-8.
Inoue 1996 {published data only}
  • Inoue J, Cappuccio FP, Sagnella GA, Markandu ND, Folkerd EJ, Sampson B, Miller MA, Blackwood AM, MacGregor GA. Glucose load and renal sodium handling in mild essential hypertension on different sodium intakes. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10:523-9.
Ireland 2010 {published data only}
  • Ireland DM, Clifton PM, Keogh JB. Achieving the salt intake target of 6 g/day in the current food supply in free-living adults using two dietary education strategies. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010;110(5):763-7.
Ishimitsu 1996 {published data only}
  • Ishimitsu T, Nishikimi T, Matsuoka H, Kangawa K, Kitamura K, Minami J, Matsuo H, Eto T. Behaviour of adrenomedullin during acute and chronic salt loading in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Clinical Science 1996;91:293-8.
Iso 1996 {published data only}
  • Iso H, Shimamoto T, Yokota K, Sankai T, Jacobs DR Jr, Komachi Y. Community-based education classes for hypertension control. A 1.5-year randomized controlled trial. Hypertension 1996;27(4):968-74.
Iwaoka 1994 {published data only}
  • Iwaoka T, Umeda T, Inoue J, Naomi S, Sasaki M, Fujimoto Y, Gui C, Ideguchi Y, Sato T. Dietary NaCl restriction deteriorates oral glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients with impairment of glucose tolerance. Am J Hypertens 1994;7:460-3.
Jessani 2008 {published data only}
  • Jessani S, Hatcher J, Chaturvedi N, Jafar TH. Effect of low vs. high dietary sodium on blood pressure levels in a normotensive Indo-Asian population. American Journal of Hypertension 2008;21(11):1238-44.
Johnson 2001 {published data only}
  • Johnson AG, NguyenTV, Davis D. Blood pressure is linked to salt intake and modulated by the angiotensinogen gene in normotensive and hypertensive elderly subjects. Journal of Hypertension 2001;19(6):1053-60.
Jula 1990 {published data only}
  • Jula A, Ronnemaa T, Rastas M, Karvetti RL, Maki J. Long-term nopharmacological treatment for mild to moderate hypertension. J Intern Med 1990;227:413-21.
Jula 1992(a) {published data only}
Jula 1992(b) {published data only}
Kawasaki 1998 {published data only}
  • Kawasaki T, Itoh K, Kawasaki M. Reduction in blood pressure with a sodium-reduced, potassium- and magnesium-enriched mineral salt in subjects with mild essential hypertension. Hypertens Res 1998;21(4):235-43.
Keven 2006 {published data only}
  • Keven K, YalÇin S, Canbakan B, Kutlay S, Sengül S, Erturk S, Erbay B. The impact of daily sodium intake on posttransplant hypertension in kidney allograft recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 2006;38(5):1323-6.
Kirpizidis 2005 {published data only}
  • Kirpizidis H, Stavrati A, Geleris P. Assessment of quality of life in a randomized clinical trial of candesartan only or in combination with DASH diet for hypertensive patients. Journal of Cardiology 2005;46(5):177-82.
Kojuri 2007 {published data only}
  • Kojuri J, Rahimi R. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2007;7:34.
Koolen 1984 (a) {published data only}
  • Koolen MI, van Brummelen P. Sodium sensitivity in essential hypertension: role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and predictive value of an intravenous frusemide test. J Hypertens 1984;2:55-9.
Koolen 1984 (b) {published data only}
  • Koolen MI, van Brummelen P. Adrenergic activity and peripheral hemodynamics in relation to sodium sensitivity in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 1984;6:820-5.
Koopman 1990 (a) {published data only}
  • Koopman H, Spreeuwenberg C, Westerman RF, Donker AJ. Dietary treatment of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in a general practice: a pilot intervention study (1). The first three months. J Hum Hypertens 1990;4:368-71.
Koopman 1990 (b) {published data only}
  • Koopman H, Spreeuwenberg C, Westerman RF, Donker AJ. Dietary treatment of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in a general practice: a pilot intervention study (2). Beyond three months. J Hum Hypertens 1990;4:372-4.
Koopman 1997 {published data only}
  • Koopman H, Devillė W, van Eijk JT, Donker AJ, Spreeuwenberg C. Diet or diuretic? Treatment of newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertension in the elderly. J Hum Hypertens 1997;11(12):807-12.
Kostis 2002 {published data only}
  • Kostis JB, Wilson AC, Shindler DM, Cosgrove NM, Lacy CR. Persistence of normotension after discontinuation of lifestyle intervention in the trial of TONE. Am J Hypertens 2002;15(8):732-734.
Kristinsson 1988 {published data only}
  • Kristinsson A, Hardarson T, Palsson K, Petursson MK, Snorrason SP, Thorgeirsson G. Additive effects of moderate dietary salt reduction and captopril in hypertension. Acta Med Scand 1988;223(2):133-7.
Kumanyika 1993 {published data only}
  • Kumanyika SK, Hebert PR, Cutler JA, Lasser VI, Sugars CP, Steffen-Batey L, Brewer AA, Cameron M, Shepek LD, Cook NR, et al. Feasibility and efficacy of sodium reduction in the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase I. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Hypertension 1993;22(4):502-512.
Kumanyika 2005 {published data only}
  • Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, Cutler JA, Belden L, Brewer A, Cohen JD, Hebert PR, Lasser VI, Raines J, Raczynski J, Shepek L, Diller L, Whelton PK, Yamamoto M, Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction for hypertension prevention in overweight adults: further results from the Trials of Hypertension Prevention Phase II. Journal of Human Hypertension 2005;19(1):33-45.
Kurtz 1987 {published data only}
Lawton 1988 {published data only}
  • Lawton WJ, Sinkey CA, Fitz AE, Mark AL. Dietary salt produces abnormal renal vasoconstrictor responses to upright posture in borderline hypertensive subjects. Hypertension 1988;11:529-36.
Logan 1986 {published data only}
  • Logan AG. Sodium manipulation in the management of hypertension. The view against its general use. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1986;64:793-802.
Luft 1990 {published data only}
  • Luft FC, Zemel MB, Sowers JA, Fineberg NS, Weinberger MH. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride: effects on blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis in normal and hypertensive man. J Hypertens 1990;8:663-70.
Macgregor 1982 {published data only}
  • Macgregor GA, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA. Dietary sodium restriction in normotensive subjects and patients with essential hypertension. Clin-Sci 1982;63:399s-402s.
MacGregor 1987 {published data only}
  • MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Singer DR, Cappuccio FP, Shore AC, Sagnella GA. Moderate sodium restriction with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in essential hypertension: a double blind study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;294:531-4.
Mallamaci 1996 {published data only}
  • Mallamaci F, Leonardis D, Bellizzi V, Zoccali C. Does high salt intake cause hyperfiltration in patients with essential hypertension?. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10:157-61.
Manunta 2001 {published data only}
  • Manunta P, Messaggio E, Ballabeni C, Sciarrone MT, Lanzani C, Ferrandi M, Hamlyn JM, Cusi D, Galletti F, Bianchi G. Salt Sensitivity Study Group of the Italian Society of Hypertension. Plasma ouabain-like factor during acute and chronic changes in sodium balance in essential hypertension. Hypertension 2001;38:198-203.
Mark 1975 {published data only}
  • Mark AL, Lawton WJ, Abboud FM, Fitz AE, Connor WE, Heistad DD. Effects of high and low sodium intake on arterial pressure and forearm vasular resistance in borderline hypertension. A preliminary report. Circ Res 1975;36 (6 Suppl 1):194-8.
Mattila 2003 {published data only}
  • Mattila R, Malmivaara A, Kastarinen M, Kivela SL, Nissinen A. Effectiveness of multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention for hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. J Hum Hypertens 2003;17:199-205.
Maxwell 1984 {published data only}
  • Maxwell MH, Kushiro T, Dornfeld LP, Tuck ML, Waks AU. BP changes in obese hypertensive subjects during rapid weight loss. Comparison of restricted v unchanged salt intake. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:1581-4.
McCarron 1997 {published data only}
  • McCarron DA, Weder AB, Egan BM, Krishna GG, Morris CD, Cohen M, Oparil S. Blood pressure and metabolic responses to moderate sodium restriction in isradipine-treated hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 1997;10:68-76.
Meland 2009 {published data only}
  • Meland E, Aamland A. Salt restriction among hypertensive patients: modest blood pressure effect and no adverse effects. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 2009;27(2):97-103.
Miller 1988 {published data only}
  • Miller JZ, Weinberger MH, Daugherty SA, Fineberg NS, Christian JC, Grim CE. Blood pressure response to dietary sodium restriction in healthy normotensive children. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47:113-9.
Miller 1997 {published data only}
Morgan 1978 {published data only}
  • Morgan T, Adam W, Gillies A, Wilson M, Morgan G, Carney S. Hypertension treated by salt restriction. Lancet 1978;1:227-30.
Morgan 1988 {published data only}
  • Morgan T, Anderson A. Interaction in hypertensive man between sodium intake, converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril), plasma renin and blood pressure control. J Hum Hypertens 1988;1:311-5.
Mtabaji 1990 {published data only}
Mu 2009 {published data only}
  • Mu J, Liu Z, Liu F, Xu X, Liang Y, Zhu D. Family-based randomized trial to detect effects on blood pressure of a salt substitute containing potassium and calcium in hypertensive adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2009;22(9):943-7.
Mufunda 1992 {published data only}
Muhlhauser 1996 {published data only}
Mülhauser 1996 {published data only}
  • Mülhauser I, Prange K, Sawicki PT, Bender R, Dworschak A, Schaden W, Berger M. Effects of dietary sodium on blood pressure in IDDM patients with nephropathy. Diabetologia 1996;39(2):212-9.
Myers 1983 {published data only}
Nakamura 2003 {published data only}
  • Nakamura M, Aoki N, Yamada T, Kubo N. Feasibility and effect on blood pressure of 6-week trial of low sodium soy sauce and miso (fermented soybean paste). Circ J 2003;67:530-4.
Nowson 1988 {published data only}
Nowson 2003 {published data only}
  • Nowson CA, Morgan TO, Gibbons C. Decreasing dietary sodium while following a self-selected potassium-rich diet reduces blood pressure. J Nutr 2003;133:4118-23.
Nowson 2004 {published data only}
  • Nowson CA, Worsley A, Margerison C, Jorna MK, Frame AG, Torres SJ, Godfrey SJ. Blood pressure response to dietary modifications in free-living individuals. J Nutr 2004;134:2322-9.
Nowson 2009 {published data only}
  • Nowson CA, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Pachett A. Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res 2009;29:8-18.
Omland 2001 {published data only}
  • Omland T, Johnson W, Gordon MB, Creager MA. Endothelial function during stimulation of renin-angiotensin system by low-sodium diet in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001;280(5):H2248-54.
Omvik 1995 {published data only}
  • Omvik P, Myking OL. Unchanged central hemodynamics after six months of moderate sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement in essential hypertension. Blood Pressure 1995;4(1):32-41.
Overlack 1993 {published data only}
  • Overlack A, Ruppert M, Kolloch R, Gobel B, Kraft K, Diehl J, Schmitt W, Stumpe KO. Divergent hemodynamic and hormonal responses to varying salt intake in normotensive subjects. Hypertension 1993;22:331-8.
Overlack 1995 {published data only}
  • Overlack A, Ruppert M, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Stumpe KO. Age is a major determinant of the divergent blood pressure responses to varying salt intake in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1995;8:829-36.
Palacios 2004 {published data only}
  • Palacios C, Wigertz K, Martin BR, Jackman L, Pratt JH, Peacock M, McCabe G, Weaver CM. Sodium retention in black and white female adolescents in response to salt intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1858-63.
Palmer 1989 {published data only}
  • Palmer RM, Osterweil D, Loon-Lustig G, Stern N. The effect of dietary salt ingestion on blood pressure of old-old subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989;37:931-6.
Parfrey 1981 {published data only}
  • Parfrey PS, Condon K, Wright P, Vandenburg MJ, Holly JM, Goodwin FJ, Evans SJ, Ledingham JM. Blood pressure and hormonal changes following alteration in dietary sodium and potassium in young men with and without a familial predisposition to hypertension. Lancet 1981;1(8212):113-7.
Parker 1990 {published data only}
  • Parker M, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R. Two-way factorial study of alcohol and salt restriction in treated hypertensive men. Hypertension 1990;16:398-406.
Pechere-Bertschi 2008 {published data only}
  • Pechere-Bertschi A, Maillard M, Bischof P, Fathi M, Burnier M. Hemodynamic effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade in postmenopausal women on a high-sodium diet: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and Experimental 2008;69(6):467-479.
Pedersen 1986 {published data only}
  • Pedersen KE, Jest P, Klitgaard NA, Rokkedal Nielsen J, Johansen T. Effect of oral salt loading on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium metabolism in borderline hypertension. Acta Med Scand 1986;714 (Suppl):81-5.
Perry 2003 {published data only}
  • Perry CG, Palmer T, Cleland SJ, Morton IJ, Salt IP, Petrie JR, Gould GW, Connell JM. Decreased insulin sensitivity during dietary sodium restriction is not mediated by effects of angiotensin II on insulin action. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003;105(2):187-94.
Petrie 1998 {published data only}
  • Petrie JR, Morris AD, Minamisawa K, Hilditch TE, Elliott HL, Small M, McConnell J. Dietary sodium restriction impairs insulin sensitivity in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1552-7.
Pimenta 2009 {published data only}
  • Pimenta E, Gaddam KK, Oparil S, Aban I, Husain S, Dell'Italia LJ, Calhoun DA. Effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension: results from a randomized trial. Hypertension 2009;54(3):475-81.
Pogson 2009 {published data only}
  • Pogson ZE, McKeever TM, Lewis SA, Pacey SJ, Antoniak MD, Britton JR, Fogarty AW. Does a low sodium diet modify heart rate variability? A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. International Journal of Cardiology 2009;135(3):390-3.
Pomeranz 2002 {published data only}
Redon 1995 {published data only}
  • Reódn J, Lozano JV, de la Figuera M, Rodriguez JC, Garrido J, Alés-Marítnez JE, Alvarez-Cantalapiedra I, Velasco-Quintana J. Do changes in dietary salt influence blood pressure of hypertensive patients pharmacologically controlled with verapamil? The Salt-Switching-Study (SSS). J Hum Hypertens 1995;9(2):143-7.
Redon-Mas 1993 {published data only}
  • Redon-Mas J, Abellan-Aleman J, Aranda-Lara P, de la Figuera-von Wichmann M, Luque-Otero M, Rodicio-Diaz JL, Ruilope-Urioste LM, Velasco-Quintana J. The VERSAL Study Group. Antihypertensive activity of verapamil: impact of dietary sodium. J Hypertens 1993;11:665-71.
Richards 1986 {published data only}
  • Richards AM, Tonolo G, Cleland JG, Leckie BJ, McIntyre GD, Ingram M, Dargie HJ, Ball SG, Robertson JI. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide: responses to modest and severe sodium restriction. J Hypertens (Suppl) 1986;4:S559-63.
Ruilope 1992 {published data only}
  • Ruilope LM, Casal MC, Guerrero L, Alcázar JM, Férnandez ML, Lahera V, Rodicio JL. Sodium intake does not influence the effect of verapamil in hypertensive patients with mild renal insufficiency. Drugs 1992;44(Suppl 1):94-8.
Ruilope 1993 {published data only}
Ruppert 1991 {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Diehl J, Kolloch R, Overlack A, Kraft K, Gobel B, Hittel N, Stumpe KO. Short-term dietary sodium restriction increases serum lipids and insulin in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant normotensive adults. Klin Wochenschr 1991;69 (Suppl 25):51-7.
Ruppert 1994 {published data only}
  • Ruppert M, Overlack A, Kolloch R, Kraft K, Lennarz M, Stumpe KO. Effects of severe and moderate salt restriction on serum lipids in nonobese normotensive adults. Am J Med Sci 1994;307 (Suppl 1):S87-90.
Salvetti 1988 {published data only}
  • Salvetti A, Bichisao E, Caiazza A, Bartolomei G, Cagianelli MA, Federighi G, Innocenti P, Loni C, Ferrari E, Saba G, et al. The combination of a low-Na/high-K salt with metoprolol in the treatment of mild-moderate hypertension. A multicenter study. Am J Hypertens 1988;3 Pt 3:201S-205S.
Santello 1997 {published data only}
Saptharishi 2009 {published data only}
  • Saptharishi L, Soudarssanane M, Thiruselvakumar D, Navasakthi D, Mathanraj S, Karthigeyan M, Sahai A. Community-based Randomized Controlled Trial of Non-pharmacological Interventions in Prevention and Control of Hypertension among Young Adults. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2009;34(4):329-34.
Schmid 1990 {published data only}
  • Schmid M, Mann JF, Stein G, Herter M, Nussberger J, Klingbeil A, Ritz E. Natriuresis-pressure relationship in polycystic kidney disease. J Hypertens 1990;8:277-83.
Schorr 1997(a) {published data only}
  • Schorr U, Beige J, Ringel J, Turan S, Kreutz R, Distler A, Sharma AM. Hpa II polymorphism of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene and the blood pressure response to salt intake in normotensive men. J Hypertens 1997;15:715-8.
Schorr 1997(b) {published data only}
  • Schorr U, Turan S, Distler A, Sharma AM. Relationship between ambulatory and resting blood pressure responses to dietary salt restriction in normotensive men. Journal of Hypertension 1997;15(8):845-9.
Sciarrone 1990 {published data only}
Sciarrone 1992 {published data only}
Sharma 1990 {published data only}
Sharma 1991 {published data only}
Sharma 1993 {published data only}
  • Sharma AM, Schorr U, Distler A. Insulin resistance in young salt-sensitive normotensive subjects. Hypertension 1993;21:273-9.
Shore 1988 {published data only}
  • Shore AC, Markandu ND, MacGregor GA. A randomized crossover study to compare the blood pressure response to sodium loading with and without chloride in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1988;6:613-7.
Sinaiko 1993 {published data only}
  • Sinaiko AR, Gomez-Marin O, Prineas RJ. Effect of low sodium diet or potassium supplementation on adolescent blood pressure. Hypertension 1993;21:989-94.
Singer 1991 {published data only}
  • Singer DR, Markandu ND, Sugden AL, Miller MA, MacGregor GA. Sodium restriction in hypertensive patients treated with a converting enzyme inhibitor and a thiazide. Hypertension 1991;17:798-803.
Singer 1994 {published data only}
  • Singer DR, Markandu ND, Buckley MG, Miller MA, Sagnella GA, Lachno DR, Cappuccio FP, Murday A, Yacoub MH, MacGregor GA. Blood pressure and endocrine responses to changes in dietary sodium intake in cardiac transplant recipients. Implications for the control of sodium balance. Circulation 1994;89(3):1153-9.
Singer 1995 {published data only}
  • Singer DR, Markandu ND, Cappuccio FP, Miller MA, Sagnella GA, MacGregor GA. Reduction of salt intake during converting enzyme inhibitor treatment compared with addition of a thiazid. Hypertension 1995;25(5):1042-4.
Skrabal 1980 {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Aubock J, Hortnagl H, Braunsteiner H. Effect of moderate salt restriction and high potassium intake on pressor hormones, response to noradrenaline and baroreceptor function in man. Clinical Science 1980;59 Suppl 6:157s-160s.
Skrabal 1981 {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Aubock J, Hortnagl H. Low sodium/high potassium diet for prevention of hypertension: probable mechanisms of action. Lancet 1981;2:895-900.
Skrabal 1984(a) {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Herholz H, Neumayr M, Hamberger L, Ledochowski M, Sporer H, Hortnagl H, Schwarz S, Schonitzer D. Salt sensitivity in humans is linked to enhanced sympathetic responsiveness and to enhanced proximal tubular reabsorption. Hypertension 1984;6:152-8.
Skrabal 1984(b) {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Gasser RW, Finkenstedt G, Rhomberg HP, Lochs, A. Low-sodium diet versus low-sodium/high-potassium diet for treatment of hypertension. Klinische Wochenschrift 1984;62(3):124-8.
Skrabal 1985 {published data only}
  • Skrabal F, Hamberger L, Cerny E. Salt sensitivity in normotensives with and salt resistance in normotensives without heredity of hypertension. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1985;176 (Suppl):47-57.
Staessen 1988 {published data only}
  • Staessen J, Bulpitt CJ, Fagard R, Joossens JV, Lijnen P, Amery A. Salt intake and blood pressure in the general population: a controlled intervention trial in two towns. J Hypertens 1988;6(12):965-73.
Starmans-Kool 2011 {published data only}
  • Starmans-Kool MJ, Stanton AV, Xu YY, Mc GTSA, Parker KH, Hughes AD. High dietary salt intake increases carotid blood pressure and wave reflection in normotensive healthy young men. J Appl Physiol 2011;110:468-471.
Steegers 1991 {published data only}
Sullivan 1980 {published data only}
  • Sullivan JM, Ratts TE, Taylor JC, Kraus DH, Barton BR, Patrick DR, Reed SW. Hemodynamic effects of dietary sodium in man: a preliminary report. Hypertension 1980;2:506-14.
Suppa 1988 {published data only}
  • Suppa G, Pollavini G, Alberti D, Savonitto S. Effects of a low-sodium high-potassium salt in hypertensive patients treated with metoprolol: a multicentre study. J Hypertens 1988;6(10):787-90.
Suzuki 2000 {published data only}
  • Suzuki M, Kimura Y, Tsushima M, Harano Y. Association of insulin resistance with salt sensitivity and nocturnal fall of blood pressure. Hypertension 2000;35:864-8.
Takahashi 2006 {published data only}
Takashashi 2003 {published data only}
  • Takashashi Y, Sasaki S, Takahashi M, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Tsugane S. A population-based dietary intervention trial in a high-risk area for stomach cancer and stroke: changes in intakes and related biomarkers. Prev Med 2003;37(5):432-41.
Teow 1985 {published data only}
  • Teow BH, Di Nicolantonio R, Morgan TO. Sodium chloride preference and recognition threshold in normotensive subjects on high and low salt diet. Clin Exp Hypertens 1985-86;A7:1681-95.
Thaler 1982 {published data only}
TMHRG 1991 {published data only}
  • TMHRG. The Treatment of Mild Hypertension Research Group. The treatment of mild hypertension study. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a nutritional-hygienic regimen along with various drug monotherapies. Archives of Internal Medicine 1991;151(7):1413-1423.
Todd 2010 {published data only}
  • Todd AS, Macginley RJ, Schollum JB, Johnson RJ, Williams SM, Sutherland WH, Mann JI, Walker RJ. Dietary salt loading impairs arterial vascular reactivity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(3):557-64.
Todd 2012 {published data only}
Townsend 2007 {published data only}
Tzemos 2008 {published data only}
Uusitupa 1996 {published data only}
  • Uusitupa M, Korhonen M, Litmanen H, Niskanen L, Vaisanen S, Rauramaa R. Effects of moderate salt restriction alone and in combination with cilazapril on office and ambulatory blood pressure. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10(5):319-326.
Uzu 1999 {published data only}
  • Uzu T, Fujii T, Nishimura M, Kuroda S, Nakamura S, Inenaga T, Kimura G. Determinants of circadian blood pressure rhythm in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1999;12(1 Pt 1):35-39.
Uzu 2009 {published data only}
  • Uzu T, Sakaguchi M, Yokomaku Y, Kume S, Kanasaki M, Isshiki K, Araki S, Sugiomoto T, Koya D, Haneda M, Kashiwagi A. Effects of high sodium intake and diuretics on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients treated with an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 2009;13(4):300-306.
Vaidya 2009 {published data only}
  • Vaidya A, Bentley-Lewis R, Jeunemaitre X, Adler GK, Williams JS. Dietary sodium alters the prevalence of electrocardiogram determined left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension 2009;22(6):669-73.
van BergeLandry 2004 {published data only}
  • van Berge-Landry H, James GD. Serum electrolyte, serum protein, serum fat and renal responses to a dietary sodium challenge: allostasis and allostatic load. Ann Hum Biol 2004;31:477-87.
van Paassen 1996 {published data only}
  • van Paassen P, de Zeeuw D, Navis G, de Jong PE. Does the renin-angiotensin system determine the renal and systemic hemodynamic response to sodium in patients with essential hypertension?. Hypertension 1996;27:202-8.
Vedovato 2004 {published data only}
  • Vedovato M, Lepore G, Coracina A, Dodesini AR, Jori E, Tiengo A, Del Prato S, Trevisan R. Effect of sodium intake on blood pressure and albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients: the role of insulin resistance. Diabetologia 2004;47(2):300-3.
Visser 2008 {published data only}
  • Visser FW, Boonstra AH, Titia Lely A, Boomsma F, Navis G. Renal response to angiotensin II is blunted in sodium-sensitive normotensive men. American Journal of Hypertension 2008;21(3):323-8.
Vollmer 2001 {published data only}
  • Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Simons-Morton DG, Conlin PR, Svetkey LP, Erlinger TP, Moore TJ, Karanja N, DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(12):1019-1028.
Weder 1991 {published data only}
Wedler 1992 {published data only}
  • Wedler B, Brier ME, Wiersbitzky M, Gruska S, Wolf E, Kallwellis R, Aronoff GR, Luft FC. Sodium kinetics in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant normotensive and hypertensive subjects. J Hypertens 1992;10:663-9.
Weir 1995 {published data only}
  • Weir MR, Dengel DR, Behrens MT, Goldberg AP. Salt-induced increases in systolic blood pressure affect renal hemodynamics and proteinuria. Hypertension 1995;25:1339-44.
Weir 1997 {published data only}
  • Weir MR, Hall PS, Behrens MT, Flack JM. Salt and blood pressure responses to calcium antagonism in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1997;30:422-7.
Weir 1998 {published data only}
  • Weir MR, Chrysant SG, McCarron DA, Canossa-Terris M, Cohen JD, Gunter PA, Lewin AJ, Mennella RF, Kirkegaard LW, Hamilton JH, Weinberger MH, Weder AB. Influence of race and dietary salt on the antihypertensive efficacy of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a calcium channel antagonist in salt-sensitive hypertensives. Hypertension 1998;31(5):1088-96.
Weir 2001 {published data only}
  • Weir MR, Smith DH, Neutel JM, Bedigian MP. Valsartan alone or with a diuretic or ACE inhibitor as treatment for African American hypertensives: relation to salt intake. Am J Hypertens 2001;14(7 Pt 1):665-71.
Weir 2010 {published data only}
  • Weir MR, Yadao AM, Purkayastha D, Charney AN. Effects of high- and low-sodium diets on ambulatory blood pressure in patients with hypertension receiving aliskiren. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2010;15:356-363.
Whelton 1998 {published data only}
  • Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH Jr, Kostis JB, Kumanyika S, Lacy CR, Johnson KC, Folmar S, Cutler JA. TONE Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). JAMA 1998;279:839-46.
Whitten 1980 {published data only}
  • Whitten CF, Stewart RA. The effect of dietary sodium in infancy on blood pressure and related factors. Studies of infants fed salted and unsalted diets for five months at eight months and eight years of age. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1980;279:1-17.
Wing 1984 {published data only}
  • Wing RR, Caggiula AW, Nowalk MP, Koeske R, Lee S, Langford H. Dietary approaches to the reduction of blood pressure: the independence of weight and sodium/potassium interventions. Prev Med 1984;13(3):233-44.
Wing 1998 {published data only}
  • Wing LM, Arnolda LF, Harvey PJ, Upton J, Molloy D, Gabb GM, Bune AJ, Chalmers JP. Low-dose diuretic and/or dietary sodium restriction when blood pressure is resistant to ACE inhibitor. Blood Pressure 1998;7(5-6):299-307.
Yamakoshi 2006 {published data only}
  • Yamakoshi J, Shimojo R, Nakagawa S, Izui N, Ogihara T. Hypotensive effects and safety of less-sodium soy sauce containing -aminobutyric acid (GABA) on high-normal blood pressure and mild hypertensive subjects. [Japanese]. Japanese Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2006;34(6):691-709.
Yamamoto 1997 {published data only}
  • Yamamoto, Hiroshi. Randomized controlled trial of salt-restriction program for primary prevention of hypertension in the community. Journal of the Osaka City Medical Center 1997;46(3-4):255-67.
Yazici 2009 {published data only}
Zhao 2009 {published data only}
  • Zhao Q, Gu D, Chen J, Bazzano LA, Rao DC, Hixson JE, Jaquish CE, Cao J, Chen J, Li J, Rice T, He J. Correlation between blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intervention in a Chinese population. American Journal of Hypertension 2009;22(12):1281-1286.
Zoccali 1993 {published data only}
  • Zoccali C, Mallamaci F, Leonardis D, Romeo M. Randomly allocated crossover study of various levels of sodium intake in patients with mild hypertension. J Hypertens 1993;11 (Suppl 5):S326-7.
Zoccali 1994(a) {published data only}
  • Zoccali C, Mallamaci F, Parlongo S. The influence of salt intake on plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide in subjects with mild essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1994;12:1249-53.
Zoccali 1994(b) {published data only}
  • Zoccali C, Mallamaci F, Leonardis D. Assessment of the salt-arterial pressure relationship in mild hypertensive subjects by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Clinical Science 1994;87(6):635-9.
Zoccali 1996 {published data only}

Additional references

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ALLHAT 2002
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Graudal 2011
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Paterna 2008
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Poulter 1990
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PSC 2002
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Riley 2010
SACN 2003
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Smith-Spangler 2010
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Sterne 2001
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Whelton 2002
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WHO 2003
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
He 2002
He 2013
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