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Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth in women considered to be at risk of preterm birth

  1. Jodie M Dodd1,*,
  2. Leanne Jones2,
  3. Vicki Flenady3,
  4. Robert Cincotta4,
  5. Caroline A Crowther5,6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 31 JUL 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004947.pub3

How to Cite

Dodd JM, Jones L, Flenady V, Cincotta R, Crowther CA. Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth in women considered to be at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD004947. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004947.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Adelaide, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Liverpool, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

  3. 3

    Mater Health Services, Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) Centre - Mater Medical Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia

  4. 4

    Mater Mothers' Hospital, Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

  5. 5

    The University of Adelaide, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, The Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  6. 6

    The University of Auckland, Liggins Institute, Auckland, New Zealand

*Jodie M Dodd, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Road, Adelaide, South Australia, 5006, Australia. jodie.dodd@adelaide.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 31 JUL 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. 'Risk of bias' graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. 'Risk of bias' summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
[Figure 3]
Figure 3. Funnel plot of comparison: 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth, outcome: 1.3 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 1 Perinatal mortality.
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 34 weeks.
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 3 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 4 Threatened preterm labour.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 5 Spontaneous vaginal delivery.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 6 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 7 Antenatal corticosteroids.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 8 Antenatal tocolysis.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 9 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 10 Respiratory distress syndrome.
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 11 Use of assisted ventilation.
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 12 Intraventricular haemorrhage - all grades.
[Analysis 1.13]
Analysis 1.13. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 13 Intraventricular haemorrhage - grade III or IV.
[Analysis 1.14]
Analysis 1.14. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 14 Periventricular leucomalacia.
[Analysis 1.15]
Analysis 1.15. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 15 Retinopathy of prematurity.
[Analysis 1.16]
Analysis 1.16. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 16 Necrotising enterocolitis.
[Analysis 1.17]
Analysis 1.17. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 17 Neonatal sepsis.
[Analysis 1.18]
Analysis 1.18. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 18 Patent ductus arteriosus.
[Analysis 1.19]
Analysis 1.19. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 19 Intrauterine fetal death.
[Analysis 1.20]
Analysis 1.20. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 20 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 1.21]
Analysis 1.21. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 21 Developmental delay.
[Analysis 1.22]
Analysis 1.22. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 22 Intellectual impairment.
[Analysis 1.23]
Analysis 1.23. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 23 Motor Impairment.
[Analysis 1.24]
Analysis 1.24. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 24 Visual Impairment.
[Analysis 1.25]
Analysis 1.25. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 25 Hearing Impairment.
[Analysis 1.26]
Analysis 1.26. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 26 Cerebral palsy.
[Analysis 1.27]
Analysis 1.27. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 27 Learning difficulties.
[Analysis 1.28]
Analysis 1.28. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 28 Height less than 5th centile.
[Analysis 1.29]
Analysis 1.29. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 29 Weight less than 5th centile.
[Analysis 1.30]
Analysis 1.30. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 30 Adverse drug reaction.
[Analysis 1.31]
Analysis 1.31. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 31 Pregnancy prolongation (weeks).
[Analysis 1.32]
Analysis 1.32. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 32 Apgar score < 7.
[Analysis 1.33]
Analysis 1.33. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 33 Admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 1.34]
Analysis 1.34. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 34 Neonatal length of hospital stay (days).
[Analysis 1.35]
Analysis 1.35. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 35 Infant weight at 6 months follow-up (g).
[Analysis 1.36]
Analysis 1.36. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 36 Infant weight at 12 months follow-up (g).
[Analysis 1.37]
Analysis 1.37. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 37 Infant weight at 24 months follow-up (g).
[Analysis 1.38]
Analysis 1.38. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 38 Infant length at 6 months follow-up (cm).
[Analysis 1.39]
Analysis 1.39. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 39 Infant length at 12 months follow-up (cm).
[Analysis 1.40]
Analysis 1.40. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 40 Infant length at 24 months follow-up (cm).
[Analysis 1.41]
Analysis 1.41. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 41 Infant head circumference at 6 months follow-up (cm).
[Analysis 1.42]
Analysis 1.42. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 42 Infant head circumference at 12 months follow-up (cm).
[Analysis 1.43]
Analysis 1.43. Comparison 1 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth (singletons), Outcome 43 Infant head circumference at 24 months follow-up (cm).
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth, by timing of commencement (< 20 wk v > 20 wk, singletons), Outcome 1 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 1 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 3 Threatened preterm labour.
[Analysis 3.4]
Analysis 3.4. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 4 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 3.5]
Analysis 3.5. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 5 Antenatal corticosteroids.
[Analysis 3.6]
Analysis 3.6. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 6 Need for tocolysis.
[Analysis 3.7]
Analysis 3.7. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 7 Respiratory distress syndrome.
[Analysis 3.8]
Analysis 3.8. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 8 Intraventricular haemorrhage - all grades.
[Analysis 3.9]
Analysis 3.9. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 9 Intraventricular haemorrhage - grade III or IV.
[Analysis 3.10]
Analysis 3.10. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 10 Necrotising enterocolitis.
[Analysis 3.11]
Analysis 3.11. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 11 Intrauterine fetal death.
[Analysis 3.12]
Analysis 3.12. Comparison 3 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: previous history spontaneous preterm birth by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg, singletons), Outcome 12 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 1 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 34 weeks.
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 3 Preterm labour.
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 4 Prelabour spontaneous rupture of membranes.
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 5 Side effects (any).
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 6 Side effects (injection site).
[Analysis 4.7]
Analysis 4.7. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 7 Side effects (urticaria).
[Analysis 4.8]
Analysis 4.8. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 8 Side effects (nausea).
[Analysis 4.9]
Analysis 4.9. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 9 Pregnancy prolongation (days).
[Analysis 4.10]
Analysis 4.10. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 10 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 4.11]
Analysis 4.11. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 11 Antenatal tocolysis.
[Analysis 4.12]
Analysis 4.12. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 12 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 4.13]
Analysis 4.13. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 13 Preterm birth less than 28 weeks.
[Analysis 4.14]
Analysis 4.14. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 14 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.
[Analysis 4.15]
Analysis 4.15. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 15 Respiratory distress syndrome.
[Analysis 4.16]
Analysis 4.16. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 16 Apgar score < 7.
[Analysis 4.17]
Analysis 4.17. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 17 Need for assisted ventilation.
[Analysis 4.18]
Analysis 4.18. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 18 Intraventricular haemorrhage - all grades.
[Analysis 4.19]
Analysis 4.19. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 19 Intraventricular haemorrhage - grades III or IV.
[Analysis 4.20]
Analysis 4.20. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 20 Periventricular leucomalacia.
[Analysis 4.21]
Analysis 4.21. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 21 Retinopathy of prematurity.
[Analysis 4.22]
Analysis 4.22. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 22 Necrotising enterocolitis.
[Analysis 4.23]
Analysis 4.23. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 23 Neonatal sepsis.
[Analysis 4.24]
Analysis 4.24. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 24 Intrauterine fetal death.
[Analysis 4.25]
Analysis 4.25. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 25 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 4.26]
Analysis 4.26. Comparison 4 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons, Outcome 26 Admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons by cumulative weekly dose (<500 mg v >=500 mg), Outcome 1 Periventricular leucomalacia.
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 Progesterone versus placebo: ultrasound identified short cervix, singletons by cumulative weekly dose (<500 mg v >=500 mg), Outcome 2 Admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 1 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 6.2]
Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 34 weeks.
[Analysis 6.3]
Analysis 6.3. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 3 Preterm PROM.
[Analysis 6.4]
Analysis 6.4. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 4 Adverse drug reaction.
[Analysis 6.5]
Analysis 6.5. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 5 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 6.6]
Analysis 6.6. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 6 Spontaneous birth.
[Analysis 6.7]
Analysis 6.7. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 7 Assisted birth.
[Analysis 6.8]
Analysis 6.8. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 8 Satisfaction with therapy.
[Analysis 6.9]
Analysis 6.9. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 9 Antenatal tocolysis.
[Analysis 6.10]
Analysis 6.10. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 10 Antenatal corticosteroids.
[Analysis 6.11]
Analysis 6.11. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 11 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 6.12]
Analysis 6.12. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 12 Preterm birth less than 28 weeks.
[Analysis 6.13]
Analysis 6.13. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 13 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.
[Analysis 6.14]
Analysis 6.14. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 14 Apgar score < 7 at 5 minutes.
[Analysis 6.15]
Analysis 6.15. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 15 Respiratory distress syndrome.
[Analysis 6.16]
Analysis 6.16. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 16 Use of assisted ventilation.
[Analysis 6.17]
Analysis 6.17. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 17 Intraventricular haemorrhage - grades III or IV.
[Analysis 6.18]
Analysis 6.18. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 18 Intraventricular haemorrhage - all grades.
[Analysis 6.19]
Analysis 6.19. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 19 Periventricular leucomalacia.
[Analysis 6.20]
Analysis 6.20. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 20 Retinopathy of prematurity.
[Analysis 6.21]
Analysis 6.21. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 21 Chronic lung disease.
[Analysis 6.22]
Analysis 6.22. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 22 Necrotising enterocolitis.
[Analysis 6.23]
Analysis 6.23. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 23 Neonatal sepsis.
[Analysis 6.24]
Analysis 6.24. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 24 Fetal death.
[Analysis 6.25]
Analysis 6.25. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 25 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 6.26]
Analysis 6.26. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 26 Admission to NICU.
[Analysis 6.27]
Analysis 6.27. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 27 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 6.28]
Analysis 6.28. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 28 Preterm birth less than 34 weeks.
[Analysis 6.29]
Analysis 6.29. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 29 Preterm PROM.
[Analysis 6.30]
Analysis 6.30. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 30 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 6.31]
Analysis 6.31. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 31 Antenatal tocolysis.
[Analysis 6.32]
Analysis 6.32. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 32 Antenatal corticosteroids.
[Analysis 6.33]
Analysis 6.33. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 33 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 6.34]
Analysis 6.34. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 34 Preterm birth less than 28 weeks.
[Analysis 6.35]
Analysis 6.35. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 35 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.
[Analysis 6.36]
Analysis 6.36. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 36 Apgar score < 7 at 5 minutes.
[Analysis 6.37]
Analysis 6.37. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 37 Use of assisted ventilation.
[Analysis 6.38]
Analysis 6.38. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 38 Fetal death.
[Analysis 6.39]
Analysis 6.39. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 39 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 6.40]
Analysis 6.40. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 40 Admission to NICU.
[Analysis 6.41]
Analysis 6.41. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 41 Sensitivity analysis for perinatal death (assuming total non-independence).
[Analysis 6.42]
Analysis 6.42. Comparison 6 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, Outcome 42 Sensitivity analysis for perinatal death (assuming 1% non-independence).
[Analysis 7.1]
Analysis 7.1. Comparison 7 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, by timing of commencement (< 20 wk v > 20 wk), Outcome 1 Preterm birth < 37 weeks.
[Analysis 7.2]
Analysis 7.2. Comparison 7 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, by timing of commencement (< 20 wk v > 20 wk), Outcome 2 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 7.3]
Analysis 7.3. Comparison 7 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy, by timing of commencement (< 20 wk v > 20 wk), Outcome 3 Admission to NICU.
[Analysis 8.1]
Analysis 8.1. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 1 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 8.2]
Analysis 8.2. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 34 weeks.
[Analysis 8.3]
Analysis 8.3. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 3 Antenatal tocolysis.
[Analysis 8.4]
Analysis 8.4. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 4 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 8.5]
Analysis 8.5. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 5 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.
[Analysis 8.6]
Analysis 8.6. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 6 Respiratory distress syndrome.
[Analysis 8.7]
Analysis 8.7. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 7 Fetal death.
[Analysis 8.8]
Analysis 8.8. Comparison 8 Progesterone versus placebo: multiple pregnancy by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 8 Admission to NICU.
[Analysis 9.1]
Analysis 9.1. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 1 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 9.2]
Analysis 9.2. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 34 weeks' gestation.
[Analysis 9.3]
Analysis 9.3. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 3 Pregnancy prolongation (days).
[Analysis 9.4]
Analysis 9.4. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 4 Pregnancy prolongation - less than 1 week.
[Analysis 9.5]
Analysis 9.5. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 5 Pregnancy prolongation - 1.0 to 1.9 weeks.
[Analysis 9.6]
Analysis 9.6. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 6 Pregnancy prolongation - 2 weeks or more.
[Analysis 9.7]
Analysis 9.7. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 7 Spontaneous birth.
[Analysis 9.8]
Analysis 9.8. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 8 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 9.9]
Analysis 9.9. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 9 Use of tocolysis.
[Analysis 9.10]
Analysis 9.10. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 10 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation.
[Analysis 9.11]
Analysis 9.11. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 11 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.
[Analysis 9.12]
Analysis 9.12. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 12 Respiratory distress syndrome.
[Analysis 9.13]
Analysis 9.13. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 13 Intraventricular haemorrhage grade III or IV.
[Analysis 9.14]
Analysis 9.14. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 14 Periventricular leucomalacia.
[Analysis 9.15]
Analysis 9.15. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 15 Use of assisted ventilation.
[Analysis 9.16]
Analysis 9.16. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 16 Necrotizing enterocolitis.
[Analysis 9.17]
Analysis 9.17. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 17 Neonatal sepsis.
[Analysis 9.18]
Analysis 9.18. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 18 Fetal death.
[Analysis 9.19]
Analysis 9.19. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 19 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 9.20]
Analysis 9.20. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 20 Neonatal length of hospital stay (days).
[Analysis 9.21]
Analysis 9.21. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 21 Apgar score less than seven at five minutes.
[Analysis 9.22]
Analysis 9.22. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 22 Prelabour spontaneous rupture of membranes.
[Analysis 9.23]
Analysis 9.23. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 23 Preterm birth less than 28 weeks' gestation.
[Analysis 9.24]
Analysis 9.24. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 24 Apgar score less than seven at five minutes.
[Analysis 9.25]
Analysis 9.25. Comparison 9 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, Outcome 25 Admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 10.1]
Analysis 10.1. Comparison 10 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 1 Pregnancy prolongation (days).
[Analysis 10.2]
Analysis 10.2. Comparison 10 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation.
[Analysis 10.3]
Analysis 10.3. Comparison 10 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 3 Respiratory distress syndrome.
[Analysis 10.4]
Analysis 10.4. Comparison 10 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 4 Neonatal sepsis.
[Analysis 10.5]
Analysis 10.5. Comparison 10 Progesterone versus placebo/no treatment: prior threatened preterm labour, singletons, by cumulative weekly dose (< 500 mg v >= 500 mg), Outcome 5 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 11.1]
Analysis 11.1. Comparison 11 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, singletons, Outcome 1 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 11.2]
Analysis 11.2. Comparison 11 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, singletons, Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 34 weeks.
[Analysis 11.3]
Analysis 11.3. Comparison 11 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, singletons, Outcome 3 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 11.4]
Analysis 11.4. Comparison 11 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, singletons, Outcome 4 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.
[Analysis 11.5]
Analysis 11.5. Comparison 11 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, singletons, Outcome 5 Intrauterine fetal death.
[Analysis 11.6]
Analysis 11.6. Comparison 11 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, singletons, Outcome 6 Neonatal death.
[Analysis 11.7]
Analysis 11.7. Comparison 11 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, singletons, Outcome 7 Admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
[Analysis 12.1]
Analysis 12.1. Comparison 12 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, by timing of commencement (< 20 wk v > 20 wk, singletons), Outcome 1 Perinatal death.
[Analysis 12.2]
Analysis 12.2. Comparison 12 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, by timing of commencement (< 20 wk v > 20 wk, singletons), Outcome 2 Preterm birth less than 37 weeks.
[Analysis 12.3]
Analysis 12.3. Comparison 12 Progesterone versus placebo: other reason at risk of preterm birth, by timing of commencement (< 20 wk v > 20 wk, singletons), Outcome 3 Infant birthweight less than 2500 g.