Intervention Review

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Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg

  1. Marcello Di Nisio1,2,*,
  2. Iris M Wichers3,
  3. Saskia Middeldorp2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 23 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004982.pub5

How to Cite

Di Nisio M, Wichers IM, Middeldorp S. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004982. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004982.pub5.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University "G. D'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Chieti, Italy

  2. 2

    Academic Medical Center, Department of Vascular Medicine, Amsterdam, Netherlands

  3. 3

    Healthcare Center Borgerstraat, Amsterdam, Netherlands

*Marcello Di Nisio, mdinisio@unich.it.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. Risk of bias summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 1 Pulmonary embolism.
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 2 Deep vein thrombosis.
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 3 Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 4 Extension of ST.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 5 Recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 6 Mortality.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 7 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 8 Clinically relevant non-major bleeding.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 9 Minor bleeding.
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 10 Arterial thromboembolic complication.
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 11 Any adverse event.
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Fondaparinux versus placebo, Outcome 12 Non-fatal serious adverse event.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Prophylactic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Prophylactic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 2 Venous thromboembolism 3-month follow up.
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Prophylactic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 3 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Prophylactic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 4 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Prophylactic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 5 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Therapeutic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 Therapeutic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 2 Venous thromboembolism 3-month follow up.
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 Therapeutic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 3 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 3.4]
Analysis 3.4. Comparison 3 Therapeutic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 4 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 3.5]
Analysis 3.5. Comparison 3 Therapeutic LMWH versus placebo, Outcome 5 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 30-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 30-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 2 Venous thromboembolism 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 30-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 3 Symptomatic DVT end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 30-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 4 Symptomatic DVT 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 30-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 5 Extension of ST 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 30-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 6 Recurrence of ST 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 2 Venous thromboembolism 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 5.3]
Analysis 5.3. Comparison 5 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 3 Symptomatic DVT end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 5.4]
Analysis 5.4. Comparison 5 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 4 Symptomatic DVT 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 5.5]
Analysis 5.5. Comparison 5 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 5 Extension of ST 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 5.6]
Analysis 5.6. Comparison 5 Thirty-day prophylactic LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 6 Recurrence of ST 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Thirty-day intermediate LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 6.2]
Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 Thirty-day intermediate LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 2 Venous thromboembolism 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 6.3]
Analysis 6.3. Comparison 6 Thirty-day intermediate LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 3 Symptomatic DVT end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 6.4]
Analysis 6.4. Comparison 6 Thirty-day intermediate LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 4 Symptomatic DVT 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 6.5]
Analysis 6.5. Comparison 6 Thirty-day intermediate LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 5 Extension of ST 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 6.6]
Analysis 6.6. Comparison 6 Thirty-day intermediate LMWH versus 10-day intermediate LMWH, Outcome 6 Recurrence of ST 3-month follow-up.
[Analysis 7.1]
Analysis 7.1. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 1 ST or venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 7.2]
Analysis 7.2. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 2 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 7.3]
Analysis 7.3. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 3 Superficial thrombophlebitis.
[Analysis 7.4]
Analysis 7.4. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 4 Swelling disappearance.
[Analysis 7.5]
Analysis 7.5. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 5 Tenderness disappearance.
[Analysis 7.6]
Analysis 7.6. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 6 Pain disappearance.
[Analysis 7.7]
Analysis 7.7. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 7 Pitting oedema disappearance.
[Analysis 7.8]
Analysis 7.8. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 8 Collateral veins disappearance.
[Analysis 7.9]
Analysis 7.9. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 9 Redness disappearance.
[Analysis 7.10]
Analysis 7.10. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 10 Palpable cord disappearance.
[Analysis 7.11]
Analysis 7.11. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 11 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 7.12]
Analysis 7.12. Comparison 7 Fixed-dose LMWH versus weight-adjusted LMWH, Outcome 12 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 8.1]
Analysis 8.1. Comparison 8 Therapeutic LMWH versus saphenofemoral disconnection, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 8.2]
Analysis 8.2. Comparison 8 Therapeutic LMWH versus saphenofemoral disconnection, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 8.3]
Analysis 8.3. Comparison 8 Therapeutic LMWH versus saphenofemoral disconnection, Outcome 3 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 8.4]
Analysis 8.4. Comparison 8 Therapeutic LMWH versus saphenofemoral disconnection, Outcome 4 Complications.
[Analysis 9.1]
Analysis 9.1. Comparison 9 Fixed-dose LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 9.2]
Analysis 9.2. Comparison 9 Fixed-dose LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 9.3]
Analysis 9.3. Comparison 9 Fixed-dose LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 3 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 9.4]
Analysis 9.4. Comparison 9 Fixed-dose LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 4 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 10.1]
Analysis 10.1. Comparison 10 Weight-adjusted LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 10.2]
Analysis 10.2. Comparison 10 Weight-adjusted LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 10.3]
Analysis 10.3. Comparison 10 Weight-adjusted LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 3 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 10.4]
Analysis 10.4. Comparison 10 Weight-adjusted LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 4 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 11.1]
Analysis 11.1. Comparison 11 Prophylactic LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism end-of-treatment.
[Analysis 11.2]
Analysis 11.2. Comparison 11 Prophylactic LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 2 Venous thromboembolism 3-month follow up.
[Analysis 11.3]
Analysis 11.3. Comparison 11 Prophylactic LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 3 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 11.4]
Analysis 11.4. Comparison 11 Prophylactic LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 4 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 11.5]
Analysis 11.5. Comparison 11 Prophylactic LMWH versus NSAIDs, Outcome 5 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 12.1]
Analysis 12.1. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 1 Pulmonary embolism.
[Analysis 12.2]
Analysis 12.2. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 2 Deep vein thrombosis.
[Analysis 12.3]
Analysis 12.3. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 3 Extension of ST.
[Analysis 12.4]
Analysis 12.4. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 4 Pain reduction.
[Analysis 12.5]
Analysis 12.5. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 5 Hyperaemia reduction.
[Analysis 12.6]
Analysis 12.6. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 6 Tenderness reduction.
[Analysis 12.7]
Analysis 12.7. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 7 Palpable cord reduction.
[Analysis 12.8]
Analysis 12.8. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 8 Mortality.
[Analysis 12.9]
Analysis 12.9. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 9 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 12.10]
Analysis 12.10. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 10 Minor bleeding.
[Analysis 12.11]
Analysis 12.11. Comparison 12 LMWH versus LMWH + acemetacin, Outcome 11 Adverse event.
[Analysis 13.1]
Analysis 13.1. Comparison 13 Prophylactic LMWH + elastic compression stockings (ECS) versus elastic stockings alone, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 13.2]
Analysis 13.2. Comparison 13 Prophylactic LMWH + elastic compression stockings (ECS) versus elastic stockings alone, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 14.1]
Analysis 14.1. Comparison 14 LMWH versus heparin spray gel, Outcome 1 Deep-venous thrombosis.
[Analysis 14.2]
Analysis 14.2. Comparison 14 LMWH versus heparin spray gel, Outcome 2 Patients with thrombus at 21 days.
[Analysis 14.3]
Analysis 14.3. Comparison 14 LMWH versus heparin spray gel, Outcome 3 Allergic reaction or elevated sedimentation rate.
[Analysis 15.1]
Analysis 15.1. Comparison 15 High-dose UFH versus low-dose UFH, Outcome 1 Incidence of venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 15.2]
Analysis 15.2. Comparison 15 High-dose UFH versus low-dose UFH, Outcome 2 ST recurrence or extension.
[Analysis 15.3]
Analysis 15.3. Comparison 15 High-dose UFH versus low-dose UFH, Outcome 3 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 15.4]
Analysis 15.4. Comparison 15 High-dose UFH versus low-dose UFH, Outcome 4 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 16.1]
Analysis 16.1. Comparison 16 Calcium heparin + elastic compression bandage versus elastic compression bandage alone, Outcome 1 Deep venous thrombosis.
[Analysis 17.1]
Analysis 17.1. Comparison 17 Heparin sc versus defibrotide, Outcome 1 Decrease in the analogue score.
[Analysis 17.2]
Analysis 17.2. Comparison 17 Heparin sc versus defibrotide, Outcome 2 Treatment side effects.
[Analysis 18.1]
Analysis 18.1. Comparison 18 NSAIDs versus placebo, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 18.2]
Analysis 18.2. Comparison 18 NSAIDs versus placebo, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 18.3]
Analysis 18.3. Comparison 18 NSAIDs versus placebo, Outcome 3 Major bleeding.
[Analysis 18.4]
Analysis 18.4. Comparison 18 NSAIDs versus placebo, Outcome 4 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
[Analysis 19.1]
Analysis 19.1. Comparison 19 Indomethacin versus placebo, Outcome 1 Side effects.
[Analysis 20.1]
Analysis 20.1. Comparison 20 Nimesulide versus diclofenac sodium, Outcome 1 Gastric pain.
[Analysis 21.1]
Analysis 21.1. Comparison 21 Essaven gel versus placebo, Outcome 1 Intolerance.
[Analysis 22.1]
Analysis 22.1. Comparison 22 Thrombectomy + venoruton + elastic compression bandage versus elastic compression bandage alone, Outcome 1 Deep venous thrombosis.
[Analysis 23.1]
Analysis 23.1. Comparison 23 Thrombectomy + elastic compression bandage versus elastic compression bandage alone, Outcome 1 Deep venous thrombosis.
[Analysis 24.1]
Analysis 24.1. Comparison 24 Ligation + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 24.2]
Analysis 24.2. Comparison 24 Ligation + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 25.1]
Analysis 25.1. Comparison 25 Prophylactic UFH + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 25.2]
Analysis 25.2. Comparison 25 Prophylactic UFH + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 26.1]
Analysis 26.1. Comparison 26 Oral vasotonin versus placebo, Outcome 1 Cured or substantially better.
[Analysis 26.2]
Analysis 26.2. Comparison 26 Oral vasotonin versus placebo, Outcome 2 Poor tolerability.
[Analysis 27.1]
Analysis 27.1. Comparison 27 Elastic compression bandage + venoruton versus elastic compression bandage alone, Outcome 1 Deep venous thrombosis.
[Analysis 28.1]
Analysis 28.1. Comparison 28 Oral heparan sulphate versus oral sulodexide, Outcome 1 Redness disappearance.
[Analysis 28.2]
Analysis 28.2. Comparison 28 Oral heparan sulphate versus oral sulodexide, Outcome 2 Pain disappearance.
[Analysis 28.3]
Analysis 28.3. Comparison 28 Oral heparan sulphate versus oral sulodexide, Outcome 3 Disappearance of itching.
[Analysis 28.4]
Analysis 28.4. Comparison 28 Oral heparan sulphate versus oral sulodexide, Outcome 4 Oedema improvement.
[Analysis 28.5]
Analysis 28.5. Comparison 28 Oral heparan sulphate versus oral sulodexide, Outcome 5 Trophism improvement.
[Analysis 29.1]
Analysis 29.1. Comparison 29 Oxyphenbutazone versus placebo, Outcome 1 Tenderness improvement.
[Analysis 30.1]
Analysis 30.1. Comparison 30 VKA + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 30.2]
Analysis 30.2. Comparison 30 VKA + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 31.1]
Analysis 31.1. Comparison 31 Stripping + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 1 Venous thromboembolism.
[Analysis 31.2]
Analysis 31.2. Comparison 31 Stripping + elastic compression stockings versus elastic compression stockings alone, Outcome 2 Extension and/or recurrence of ST.
[Analysis 32.1]
Analysis 32.1. Comparison 32 Enzyme therapy versus placebo, Outcome 1 Pain reduction.
[Analysis 32.2]
Analysis 32.2. Comparison 32 Enzyme therapy versus placebo, Outcome 2 Responders.
[Analysis 33.1]
Analysis 33.1. Comparison 33 Desmin im 200 versus desmin 100, Outcome 1 Adverse events.
[Analysis 33.2]
Analysis 33.2. Comparison 33 Desmin im 200 versus desmin 100, Outcome 2 Adverse drug reactions.
[Analysis 34.1]
Analysis 34.1. Comparison 34 Desmin sc 2 x 100 versus desmin 100, Outcome 1 Adverse events.
[Analysis 34.2]
Analysis 34.2. Comparison 34 Desmin sc 2 x 100 versus desmin 100, Outcome 2 Adverse drug reactions.