Intervention Review

Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders

  1. Thawatchai Krisanaprakornkit1,*,
  2. Wimonrat Sriraj2,
  3. Nawanant Piyavhatkul1,
  4. Malinee Laopaiboon3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group

Published Online: 25 JAN 2006

Assessed as up-to-date: 24 AUG 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004998.pub2


How to Cite

Krisanaprakornkit T, Sriraj W, Piyavhatkul N, Laopaiboon M. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004998. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004998.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, KhonKaen, Thailand

  2. 2

    Khon Kaen University, Department of Anaesthesiology, Khon Kaen, Thailand

  3. 3

    Khon Kaen University, Department of Biostatistics and Demography, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen, Thailand

*Thawatchai Krisanaprakornkit, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, KhonKaen University, KhonKaen, 40002, Thailand. drthawatchai@yahoo.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 25 JAN 2006

SEARCH

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Anxiety disorders are characterised by long term worry, tension, nervousness, fidgeting and symptoms of autonomic system hyperactivity. Meditation is an age-old self regulatory strategy which is gaining more interest in mental health and psychiatry. Meditation can reduce arousal state and may ameliorate anxiety symptoms in various anxiety conditions.

Objectives

To investigate the effectiveness of meditation therapy in treating anxiety disorders

Search methods

Electronic databases searched include CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References, complementary and alternative medicine specific databases, Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, and grey literature databases. Conference proceedings, book chapters and references were checked. Study authors and experts from religious/spiritual organisations were contacted.

Selection criteria

Types of studies: Randomised controlled trials.
Types of participants: patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders, with or without another comorbid psychiatric condition.
Types of interventions: concentrative meditation or mindfulness meditation.
Comparison conditions: one or combination of 1) pharmacological therapy 2) other psychological treatment 3) other methods of meditation 4) no intervention or waiting list.
Types of outcome: 1) improvement in clinical anxiety scale 2) improvement in anxiety level specified by triallists, or global improvement 3) acceptability of treatment, adverse effects 4) dropout.

Data collection and analysis

Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer, and the authors of the studies were contacted for further information.

Main results

Two randomised controlled studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Both studies were of moderate quality and used active control comparisons (another type of meditation, relaxation, biofeedback). Anti-anxiety drugs were used as standard treatment. The duration of trials ranged from 3 months (12 weeks) to 18 weeks. In one study transcendental meditation showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms and electromyography score comparable with electromyography-biofeedback and relaxation therapy. Another study compared Kundalini Yoga (KY), with Relaxation/Mindfulness Meditation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The overall dropout rate in both studies was high (33-44%). Neither study reported on adverse effects of meditation.

Authors' conclusions

The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders

Although meditation therapy is widely used in many anxiety-related conditions there is still a lack of studies in anxiety disorder patients. The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

焦慮疾患的冥想治療

焦慮疾患的特徵是長期的擔憂、緊繃、緊張不安、慌張與自律神經系統過度激發的症狀。冥想是一種古老的自我調節策略,目前在心理健康與精神醫學界獲得越來越多的關注。冥想可以降低生理的激發狀態,緩和許多焦慮情境下的焦慮症狀。

目標

調查以冥想治療來治療焦慮疾患的效果。

搜尋策略

電子資料庫的搜尋包括CCDANCTRStudies 與 CCDANCTRReferences, 補充的及替代的醫學特定資料庫, Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, 與灰色文學資料庫。確認研討會的程序,書中的章節與文獻。與研究作者以及宗教/靈性組織的專家聯繫。

選擇標準

研究的種類:隨機控制試驗。參與者的種類:有焦慮疾病診斷的病人,不管有沒有其他精神疾病的共病情形。治療種類:專心冥想或內觀冥想。比較情形:單獨或合併以下治療1)藥物治療2)其他心理治療3)其他冥想方法4)沒有治療或等候名單。結果種類:1)在臨床焦慮量表上的進步2)試驗名單上焦慮程度的改善或整體進步3)對治療的接受度與副作用4)退出率。

資料收集與分析

兩位進行回顧的作者使用事先設計好的資料收集表格,獨立地擷取資料。有不一致的意見時則與第三位回顧者討論,並聯絡此研究的作者來得到更多的資訊。

主要結論

兩個隨機控制研究符合回顧的納入標準。兩個研究都有中度的品質,皆使用主動的控制比較(另一種冥想、放鬆、生理回饋)。標準的治療是給予抗焦慮劑。試驗的期間從3個月(12週)到18週。在一個研究中顯示出冥思靜坐對於降低焦慮症狀與肌電位的效果,與肌電位生理回饋及放鬆治療的效果相當。另一個研究比較Kundalini瑜珈(KY)與放鬆/內觀冥想。各組在YaleBrown Obsessive Compulsive Scale上並沒有統計上顯著的差異。兩個研究中的整體退出率皆高(33 – 44%)。兩個研究都沒有報告有冥想的副作用。

作者結論

這篇回顧所納入的研究數目少,因此無法下結論說冥想治療對於焦慮疾患的治療有多少效果。冥想靜坐在降低焦慮上的效果與其他種類的放鬆治療之效果相當,而Kundalini瑜珈在治療強迫症上與放鬆/冥想相比,並沒有顯示出顯著的效果。退出率看起來是高的,也沒有報告說有冥想的副作用。將來還需要更多的研究。

翻譯人

本摘要由彰化基督教醫院陳美雀翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。

總結

雖然冥想治療在許多焦慮相關的情況下被廣泛使用,但是並沒有對焦慮疾患患者的相關研究。這篇回顧所包含的研究數目少,因此無法下結論說冥想治療對於焦慮疾患的治療有多少效果。冥想靜坐在降低焦慮上的效果與其他種類的放鬆治療之效果相當,而Kundalini瑜珈在治療強迫症上與放鬆/冥想相比,並沒有顯示出顯著的效果。退出率看起來是高的,也沒有報告說有冥想的副作用。將來還需要更多的研究。