Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed in between 3% and 7% of school-age children and consists of the core symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Children are often treated with medication, usually stimulant medication such as methylphenidate. Stimulant medication has been found to be effective for alleviating ADHD symptoms, at least in the short term. ADHD is also treated with a variety of psychosocial and psychoeducational interventions for parents, children, and with multicomponent interventions combined with medication management. However, many patients (10 to 13% of patients) cannot or prefer not to take medication. Family therapy without medication may help to develop structure in the family, help to manage children's behaviour, and may help families cope with distress from the presence of the disorder.