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Pre-emptive treatment for cytomegalovirus viraemia to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients

  1. Daniel S Owers1,
  2. Angela C Webster2,3,4,
  3. Giovanni FM Strippoli2,4,5,6,7,
  4. Kathy Kable8,
  5. Elisabeth M Hodson2,9,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 16 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005133.pub3


How to Cite

Owers DS, Webster AC, Strippoli GFM, Kable K, Hodson EM. Pre-emptive treatment for cytomegalovirus viraemia to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005133. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005133.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Australian National University, Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia

  3. 3

    The University of Sydney at Westmead, Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW, Australia

  4. 4

    The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Cochrane Renal Group, Centre for Kidney Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia

  5. 5

    University of Bari, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Bari, Italy

  6. 6

    Mario Negri Sud Consortium, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Santa Maria Imbaro, Italy

  7. 7

    Diaverum, Medical-Scientific Office, Lund, Sweden

  8. 8

    Westmead Hospital, Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Westmead, NSW, Australia

  9. 9

    The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Centre for Kidney Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia

*Elisabeth M Hodson, Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia. elisabeth.hodson@health.nsw.gov.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Brennan 1997a Kidney {published data only}
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Lippmann BA, Buller RS, Gaudreault-Keener M, Lowell JA, et al. Control of cytomegalovirus-associated morbidity in renal transplant patients using intensive monitoring and either preemptive or deferred therapy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1997;8(1):118-25. [MEDLINE: 9013456]
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, Gaudreault-Keener M, Lowell JA, et al. Polymerase chain reaction-triggered preemptive or deferred therapy to control cytomegalovirus-associated morbidity and costs in renal transplant patients. Transplantation Proceedings 1997;29(1-2):809-11. [MEDLINE: 9123536]
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, Gaudreault-Keener M, Lowell JA, et al. The prevalence of human herpesvirus-7 in renal transplant recipients is unaffected by oral or intravenous ganciclovir. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000;18(5):1557-61. [MEDLINE: 10823753]
Gerna 2008 Liver {published data only}
  • Gerna G, Lilleri D, Callegaro A, Goglio A, Cortese S, Stroppa P, et al. Prophylaxis followed by preemptive therapy versus preemptive therapy for prevention of human cytomegalovirus disease in pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation. Transplantation 2008;86(1):163-6. [MEDLINE: 18622294]
Jung 2001 Kidney {published and unpublished data}
  • Jung C, Engelmann E, Borner K, Offermann G. Preemptive oral ganciclovir therapy versus prophylaxis to prevent symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 2001;33(7-8):3621-3. [MEDLINE: 11750538]
  • Offermann G, Jung C. Preemptive oral ganciclovir therapy versus prophylaxis to prevent symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation [abstract no: 1094]. A Transplant Odyssey; 2001 Aug 20-23; Istanbul, Turkey. 2001.
Khoury 2006 Kidney {published data only}
  • Brennan DC, Hardinger KL, Bohl DL, Lockwood M, Torrence S, Schuessler R, et al. Preemptive vs prophylactic valganciclovir for CMV in renal transplantation: early results from a randomized, prospective trial. [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2004;15(Oct):23A.
  • Khoury JA, Storch GA, Bohl DL, Schuessler RM, Torrence SM, Lockwood M, et al. Prophylactic versus preemptive oral valganciclovir for the management of cytomegalovirus infection in adult renal transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2006;6(9):2134-43. [MEDLINE: 16780548]
  • Spinner ML, Saab G, Casabar E, Bowman LJ, Storch GA, Brennan DC. Impact of prophylactic versus preemptive valganciclovir on long-term renal allograft outcomes. Transplantation 2010;90(4):412-8. [MEDLINE: 20555305]
Kliem 2008 Kidney {published data only}
  • Kliem V, Fricke L, Wollbrink T, Burg M, Radermacher J, Rohde F. Improvement in long-term renal graft survival due to CMV prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir: results of a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Transplantation 2008;8(5):975-83. [MEDLINE: 18261177]
  • Radermacher J, Fricke L, Burg M, Mischak H, Rohde F, Kliem V. Influence of prophylactic compared with early ganciclovir treatment on graft survival in renal allograft recipients. [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2006;17(Abstracts):111A.
Koetz 2001 Kidney {published data only}
  • Koetz AC, Delbruch R, Furtwangler A, Hufert FT, Neumann-Haefelin D, Kirste G, et al. Cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen-guided preemptive therapy with ganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients: a prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Transplantation 2001;72(7):1325-7. [MEDLINE: 11602864]
Paya 2002 Liver {published data only}
  • Paya CV, Wilson JA, Espy MJ, Sia IG, DeBernardi MJ, Smith TF, et al. Preemptive use of oral ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplant patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002;185(7):854-60. [MEDLINE: 11920308]
Queiroga 2003 Kidney {published data only}
  • Queiroga M, Castro MC, Araujo LM, Alves CF, Kakehashi E, Panutti C, et al. A prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing oral ganciclovir with weekly-monitored CMV-antigenemia in renal transplant patients with a high-risk for CMV infection. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2003;3(Suppl 5):511.
Rayes 2001 Liver {published data only}
  • Rayes N, Seehofer D, Oettle H, Schmidt CA, Neuhaus R, Steinmuller T, et al. Prospective randomised trial to assess the value of preemptive oral therapy for CMV-infection after OLT. [abstract]. XVIII International Congress of the Transplantation Society; 2000 Aug 27-Sep 1; Rome, Italy. 2000.
  • Rayes N, Seehofer D, Schmidt CA, Oettle H, Muller AR, Steinmuller T, et al. Prospective randomized trial to assess the value of preemptive oral therapy for CMV infection following liver transplantation. Transplantation 2001;72(5):881-5. [MEDLINE: 11571454]
Reischig 2008 Kidney {published data only}
  • Reischig T, Hribova P, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, Treska V, et al. Improved long-term renal allograft survival in preemptive valganciclovir therapy compared to valacyclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus: results of randomized controlled trial [abstract no: O-145]. Transplant International 2011;24(Suppl 2).
  • Reischig T, Hribova P, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, Treska V, et al. Long-term outcomes of pre-emptive valganciclovir compared with valacyclovir prophylaxis for the prevention of cytomegalovirus in renal transplantation. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2012;23(9):1588-97. [MEDLINE: 22917575]
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Hes O, Svecova M, Klaboch J, Treska V. Valacyclovir prophylaxis versus preemptive valganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2008;8(1):69-77. [MEDLINE: 17973956]
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Klaboch J, Svecova M, Hes O, Treska V. Valacyclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced risk of acute renal allograft rejection compared to preemptive valganciclovir therapy. [abstract]. Transplant International 2007;20(Suppl 2):185.
  • Reischig T, Kielberger L, Jindra P. The economic impact of different regimens to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. Transplant International 2009;22(Suppl 2):279.
  • Reischig T, Nemcova J, Vanecek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Cytomegalovirus DNA in renal allograft biopsy specimens in transplant recipients managed by preemptive valganciclovir therapy or valacyclovir prophylaxis [abstract no: SA708]. World Congress of Nephrology; 2009 May 22-26; Milan, Italy. 2009.
  • Reischig T, Nemcova J, Vanecek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Intragraft cytomegalovirus infection: a randomized trial of valacyclovir prophylaxis versus pre-emptive therapy in renal transplant recipients. Antiviral Therapy 2010;15(1):23-30. [MEDLINE: 20167988]
  • Reischig T, Nemcova J, Vanecek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Preemptive valganciclovir therapy is not associated with increase in cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in renal allograft biopsy specimens compared with valacyclovir prophylaxis. [abstract]. Transplantation 2008;86(2S):131.
  • Reischig T, Nmcov J, Vanek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in the graft: Results of a randomised study comparing valacyclovir prophylaxis and preemptive treatment after renal transplantation [abstract]. Kidney & Blood Pressure Research 2010;33(4):324. [EMBASE: 70448142]
  • Reischig T, Nmcov J, Vanek T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in the graft: Results of a randomised study comparing valacyclovir prophylaxis and preemptive treatment after renal transplantation [abstract]. Kidney & Blood Pressure Research 2010;33(4):324. [EMBASE: 70448142]
Sagedal 2003 Kidney {published data only}
  • Sagedal S, Nordal KP, Hartmann A, Midvedt K, Foss A, Asberg A, et al. Pre-emptive therapy of CMVpp65 antigen positive renal transplant recipients with oral ganciclovir: a randomized, comparative study. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2003;18(9):1899-908. [MEDLINE: 12937241]
Singh 1994 Liver {published data only}
  • Singh N, Yu VL, Mieles L, Wagener MM, Miner RC, Gayowsky T. High-dose acyclovir compared with short-course preemptive ganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994;120(5):375-81. [MEDLINE: 8304654]
Singh 2000 Liver {published data only}
  • Singh N, Paterson DL, Gayowsky T, Wagener MM, Marino IR. Cytomegalovirus antigenemia directed pre-emptive prophylaxis with oral versus I.V. ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;70(5):717-22. [MEDLINE: 11003347]
  • Singh N, Yu VL, Gayowski T, Marino IR. CMV antigenemia directed preemptive prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir for the prevention of CMV disease in liver transplant recipients: a prospective, randomised, controlled trial. [abstract]. Transplantation 1998;65(12):S113.
Witzke 2012 Kidney {published data only}
  • Witzke O, Hauser IA, Bartels M, Wolf G, Wolters H, Nitschke M, et al. Valganciclovir prophylaxis versus preemptive therapy in cytomegalovirus-positive renal allograft recipients: 1-year results of a randomized clinical trial. Transplantation 2012;93(1):61-8. [MEDLINE: 22094954]
  • Witzke O, Nitschke M, Bartels M, Ott U, Hauser IA. CMV valganciclovir prophylaxis versus preemptive therapy after renal transplantation: one year results of a randomized clinical trial. [abstract]. Transplantation 2010;90(Suppl 2):186.
Yang 1998 Kidney {published data only}
  • Yang CW, An HJ, Kim YO, Shin YS, Chang YS, Bang BK. Indication of ganciclovir treatment during early cytomegalovirus (cmv) viremia in CMV seropositive recipients. a longitudinal study of CMV pp65 antigenemia (Ag) assay. [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(9):1928.
  • Yang CW, Kim YO, Kin YS, Kin SY, Moon IS, Ahn HJ, et al. Clinical course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia with and without ganciclovir treatment in CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients. American Journal of Nephrology 1998;18(5):373-8. [MEDLINE: 9730559]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Ahsan 1997 Kidney {published data only}
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Dhilon S, Ream L, Yang HC. Oral ganciclovir (CytoveneR) effectively prevents cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in renal transplant patients [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(9):1929.
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Yang HC. Efficacy of oral ganciclovir in prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in post-kidney transplant patients. Clinical Transplantation 1997;11(6):633-9. [MEDLINE: 9408699]
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Yang HC. Oral ganciclovir is effective in preventing CMV infection in renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. Nephrology 1997;3(Suppl 1):S70.
Ahsan 1998 {published data only}
  • Ahsan N, Holman MJ, Sonderbye L, Langhoff E, Yang HC. Oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in post kidney transplant "CMV at risk" recipients: a controlled, comparative study of two regimens (750 mg Bid and 500 mg Bid). Transplantation Proceedings 1998;30(4):1383-5. [MEDLINE: 9636560]
Arbo 2000 {published data only}
Badley 1997 Liver {published data only}
  • Badley AD, Seaberg EC, Porayko MK, Wiesner RH, Keating MR, Wilhelm MP, et al. Prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplantation: A randomized trial comparing a combination of ganciclovir and acyclovir to acyclovir. Transplantation 1997;64(1):66-73. [MEDLINE: 9233703]
  • Paya CV, Marin E, Keating M, Dickson R, Porayko M, Wiesner R. Solid organ transplantation: results and implications of acyclovir use in liver transplants. Journal of Medical Virology 1993;Suppl 1:123-7. [MEDLINE: 8245877]
Balfour 1989 Kidney {published data only}
  • Balfour HH. Prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases - Supplement 1991;80:88-93. [MEDLINE: 1725064]
  • Balfour HH, Chace BA, Stapleton JT, Simmons RL, Fryd DS. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of renal allografts. New England Journal of Medicine 1989;320(21):1381-7. [MEDLINE: 2541335]
  • Balfour HH, Fletcher CV, Dunn D. Prevention of cytomegalovirus disease with oral acyclovir. Transplantation Proceedings 1991;23(2 Suppl 1):17-9. [MEDLINE: 1647558]
  • Balfour Jr HH, Bean B, Mitchell CD. Acyclovir in immunocompromised patients with cytomegalovirus disease. A controlled trial at one institution. American Journal of Medicine 1982;73(1A):241-8. [MEDLINE: 6285715]
  • Fletcher CV, Englund JA, Edelman CK, Gross CR, Dunn DL, Balfour HH. Pharmacologic basis for high-dose oral acyclovir prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1991;35(5):938-43. [MEDLINE: 1649575]
Barkholt 1999 Liver {published data only}
  • Barkholt L, Lewensohn-Fuchs I, Ericzon BG, Tyden G, Andersson J. High-dose acyclovir prophylaxis reduces cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant patients. Transplant Infectious Disease 1999;1(2):89-97. [MEDLINE: 11428976]
Brennan 1997b Kidney {published data only}
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Singer GG, Schnitzler MA, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, et al. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir compared with deferred therapy for control of cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1997;64(12):1843-6. [MEDLINE: 9422429]
  • Brennan DC, Garlock KA, Singer GG, Schnizler MA, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, et al. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir prevents cytomegalovirus infection and disease in renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. 16th Annual Meeting. American Society of Transplant Physicians (ASTP); 1997 May 10-14; Chicago (IL). 1997:87.
  • Brennan DC, Singer GG, Garlock KA, Schnitzler MA, Storch GA. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir prevents cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. Nephrology 1997;3(Suppl 1):S197.
  • Brennan DC, Storch GA, Singer GG, Lee L, Rueda J, Schnitzler MA. The prevalence of human herpesvirus-7 in renal transplant recipients is unaffected by oral or intravenous ganciclovir. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000;181(5):1557-61. [MEDLINE: 10823753]
  • Singer GG, Storch GA, Burton KG, Lippmann BJ, Buller RS, Gaudreault-Keener M, et al. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir prevents cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(9):1941.
Cohen 1993 Liver {published data only}
Conti 1995 Kidney {published data only}
  • Conti DJ, Freed BM, Singh TP, Gallichio M, Gruber SA, Lempert N, et al. Preemptive ganciclovir therapy in cytomegalovirus-seropositive renal transplants recipients. Archives of Surgery 1995;130(11):1217-22. [MEDLINE: 7487465]
Denny 2002 {published data only}
  • Denny RR, Asolati M, Dunn DL, Sutherland D, Gillingham KJ, Matas AJ. Potent immunosuppression, CMV prophylaxis, and CMV risk. [abstract]. Transplant 2002 - American Transplant Congress; 2002 Apr 26- May 1; Washington DC. 2002.
Devolder 2010 {published data only}
  • Devolder I. The influence of intensive education and coaching on compliance for oral ganciclovir in the prophylaxis of CMCV: an open randomised trial. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00566072 (accessed 10 January 2013).
Dickinson 1996 {published data only}
  • Dickinson BI, Gora-Harper ML, McCraney SA, Gosland M. Studies evaluating high-dose acyclovir, intravenous immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus in kidney transplant recipients. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1996;30(12):1452-64. [MEDLINE: 8968459]
Duncan 1993 Lung {published data only}
  • Duncan SR, Grgurich WF, Iacono AT, Burckart GJ, Yousem SA, Paradis IL, et al. A comparison of ganciclovir and acyclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 1994;150(1):146-52. [MEDLINE: 8025741]
Egan 2002 Heart {published data only}
  • Egan JJ, Carroll KB, Yonan N, Woodcock A, Crisp A. Valacyclovir prevention of cytomegalovirus reactivation after heart transplantation: a randomized trial. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 2002;21(4):460-6. [MEDLINE: 11927223]
Euro-SPK 2005 {published data only}
  • Kuypers D, Malaise J, Saudek F, Steurer W, Arbogast H, EUROSPK Study Group. CMV infections in primary simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: results at 1 year of a large multicenter trial. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2003;3(Suppl 5):293.
  • Langrehr J, Malaise J, Tyden G. CMV infections in primary simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: results at 1 year of a large multicenter trial. [abstract]. XIXth International Congress of the Transplantation Society; 2002 Aug 25-30; Miami (FL). 2002.
  • Malaise J, Kuypers D, Arbogast H, EUROSPK Study Group. CMV infections in primary simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: results at 1 year of a large multicenter trial. [abstract]. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2003;18(Suppl 4):803-4.
  • Malaise J, Ricart MJ, Moreno A, Crespo M, Fernandez-Cruz L, Van OD, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 2005;37(6):2848-50. [MEDLINE: 16182830]
  • Ricart MJ, Malaise J, Moreno A, Crespo M, Fernandez-Cruz L, Euro-SPK Study Group. Cytomegalovirus: occurrence, severity, and effect on graft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2005;20(Suppl 2):ii25-32. [MEDLINE: 15814546]
Falagas 1997 {published data only}
  • Falagas ME, Snydman DR, Ruthazer R, Griffith J, Werner BG, Freeman R, et al. Cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMVIG) prophylaxis is associated with increased survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. The Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG Study Group. Clinical Transplantation 1997;11(5 Pt 1):432-7. [MEDLINE: 9361936]
  • Falagas ME, Snydman DR, Werner B, Griffith J, Ruthazer R, Rohrer R, et al. Cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMVIG) prophylaxis is associated with increased survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. [abstract]. 16th Annual Meeting. American Society of Transplant Physicians (ASTP); 1997 May 10-14; Chicago (IL). 1997:148.
Fehir 1989 {published data only}
  • Fehir KM, Decker WA, Samo T, Young JB, Lederer E, Lawrence EC. Immune globulin (GAMMAGARD) prophylaxis of CMV infections in patients undergoing organ transplantation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 1989;21(1 Pt 3):3107-9. [MEDLINE: 2539691]
Ferreira 2004 {published data only}
  • Ferreira A, Felipe CR, Motegi SA, Hosaka BA, Tamura MK, Kamura LA, et al. Relationship between immunosuppression and subsequent development of CMV disease. [abstract]. 3rd International Congress on Immunosuppression; 2004 Dec 8-11; San Diego, (CA). 2004.
Fishman 2000 {published data only}
  • Fishman JA, Doran MT, Volpicelli SA, Cosimi AB, Flood JG, Rubin RH. Dosing of intravenous ganciclovir for the prophylaxis and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;69(3):389-94. [MEDLINE: 10706048]
Flechner 1998 Kidney {published data only}
  • Flechner SM, Avery RK, Fisher R, Mastroianni BA, Papajcik DA, O'Malley KJ, et al. A randomized prospective controlled trial of oral acyclovir versus oral, ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in high-risk kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 1998;66(12):1682-8. [MEDLINE: 9884259]
  • Flechner SM, O'Malley K, Fisher R, Mastroianni B, Papajcik D, Avery R, et al. A randomized prospective trial of oral acyclovir vs oral ganciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in high risk kidney transplant recipients. [abstract]. Transplantation 1998;65(12):S187.
Gane 1997 Liver {published data only}
  • Gane E, Saliba F, Valdecasas GJ, O'Grady J, Pescovitz MD, Lyman S, et al. Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver-transplant recipients. The Oral Ganciclovir International Transplantation Study Group. Lancet 1997;350(9093):1729-33. [MEDLINE: 9413463]
  • Saliba F, Bismuth H, Gane E, Valdecasas G, O'Grady J, Behrend M, et al. A randomized double blind versus placebo multicenter study of efficacy and tolerance of oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in hepatic transplanted patients. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 1997;21(2 bis):A157.
Gavalda 1997 Liver {published data only}
Gerna 2003 {published data only}
  • Gerna G, Baldanti F, Lilleri D, Parea M, Torsellini M, Castiglioni B, et al. Human cytomegalovirus pp67 mRNAemia versus pp65 antigenemia for guiding preemptive therapy in heart and lung transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label trial. Transplantation 2003;75(7):1012-9. [MEDLINE: 12698090]
Gerna 2007 {published data only}
  • Gerna G, Baldanti F, Torsellini M, Minoli L, Vigano M, Oggionnis T, et al. Evaluation of cytomegalovirus DNAaemia versus pp65-antigenaemia cutoff for guiding preemptive therapy in transplant recipients: a randomized study. Antiviral Therapy 2007;12(1):63-72. [MEDLINE: 17503749]
Green 1997 Liver {published data only}
  • Green M, Kaufmann M, Wilson J, Reyes J. Comparison of intravenous ganciclovir followed by oral acyclovir with intravenous ganciclovir alone for prevention of cytomegalovirus and Epstein- Barr virus disease after liver transplantation in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997;25(6):1344-9. [MEDLINE: 9431375]
  • Green M, Reyes J, Nour B, Beatty D, Kaufman M, Wilson J, et al. Randomized trial of ganciclovir followed by high-dose oral acyclovir vs ganciclovir alone in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in pediatric liver transplant recipients: preliminary analysis. Transplantation Proceedings 1994;26(1):173-4.
Greger 1988 {published data only}
  • Greger B, Schareck WD, Busing M, Mellert J, Muller GH, Hopt UT, et al. Are the risks of viral infections increased in kidney transplant patients receiving triple-drug therapy?. Transplantation Proceedings 1988;20(1 Suppl 1):466-8. [EMBASE: 1988111944]
Griffiths 2010 {unpublished data only}
  • Griffiths PD. Determining a viral load threshold for treating cytomegalovirus (CMV). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00947141 (accessed 10 January 2013).
Hecht 1988 {published data only}
  • Hecht DW, Snydman DR, Crumpacker CS, Werner BG, Heinze-Lacey B. Ganciclovir for treatment of renal transplant-associated primary cytomegalovirus pneumonia. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1988;157(1):187-90. [MEDLINE: 2826608]
Hertz 1998 Heart/Lung {published data only}
  • Hertz MI, Jordan C, Savik SK, Fox JMK, Park S, Bolman II RM, et al. Randomized trial of daily versus three-times-weekly prophylactic ganciclovir after lung and heart-lung transplantation. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 1988;17(9):913-20. [MEDLINE: 9773865]
Hibberd 1995 Kidney {published data only}
  • Hibberd PL, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Conti D, Stuart F, Thistlethwaite JR, Neylan JF, et al. Preemptive ganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease, in cytomegalovirus antibody-positive renal transplant recipients. A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995;123(1):18-26. [MEDLINE: 7762909]
IMPACT Study 2010 TX {published data only}
  • Blumberg E, Hauser I, Gahlemann CG, Berenson KL, Jardine A, Humar A. Cost-effectiveness model to evaluate 200-day vs 100-day valganciclovir (Valcyte®) prophylaxis to reduce CMV disease incidence post-transplant. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(Suppl 4):126.
  • Chou S, Marousek G, Boivin G, Goyette N, Farhan M, Ives JA, et al. Recombinant phenotyping of cytomegalovirus sequence variants detected after 200 or 100 days of valganciclovir prophylaxis. Transplantation 2010;90(12):1409-13. [MEDLINE: 21030903]
  • Elston R, Bovin G, Goyette N, Voulgari A, Ives J, Farhan M. The IMPACT Study: genotypic analysis of cytomegalovirus UL54 and UL97 genes derived from patients receiving 100 or 200 days of valganciclovir (Valcyte®) prophylaxis. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(Suppl 4):208.
  • Humar A, IMPACT ISC, Peeters P, Abramowicz D, Humar A, Lebranchu Y, et al. Response to questions regarding the design and results of the IMPACT trial. American Journal of Transplantation 2011;11(1):177-8. [MEDLINE: 21199360]
  • Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, Blumberg E, Punch J, Limaye A, et al. Long term results of the IMPACT study: 200 vs 100 days of valganciclovir prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(Suppl 4):143.
  • Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, Blumberg EA, Punch JD, Limaye AP, et al. The efficacy and safety of 200 days valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in high-risk kidney transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(5):1228-37. [MEDLINE: 20353469]
  • Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, Punch J, Abramowicz D, Blumberg E, et al. The Impact Study: Valganciclovir prophylaxis for until 200 days post-transplant in high risk kidney recipients substantially reduces the incidence of CMV disease. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9(Suppl 2):248.
  • Humar A, Limaye AP, Blumberg EA, Hauser IA, Vincenti F, Jardine AG, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis in D+/R- kidney transplant recipients is associated with long-term reduction in cytomegalovirus disease: two-year results of the IMPACT study. Transplantation 2010;90(12):1427-31. [MEDLINE: 21197713]
  • Humar A, Peeters P, Abramowicz D, Humar A, Lebranchu Y, IMPACT Investigators Study Group. Response to questions regarding the design and results of the IMPACT trial. American Journal of Transplantation 2011;11(2):177-8. [MEDLINE: 21199360]
  • Kalil AC, Sun J, Florescu DF. IMPACT trial results should not change current standard of care of 100 days for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis. American Journal of Transplantation 2011;11(1):18-21. [MEDLINE: 21199346]
  • Kalil AC, Sun J, Florescu DF. IMPACT trial results should not change current standard of care of 100 days for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis. American Journal of Transplantation 2011;11(1):18-21. [MEDLINE: 21199346]
  • Welker H, Farhan M, Humar A, Washington C. Ganciclovir pharmacokinetic parameters do not change when extending valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis from 100 to 200 days. Transplantation 2010;90(12):1414-9. [MEDLINE: 21076372]
Jurim 1996 {published data only}
  • Jurim O, Martin P, Winston DJ, Shackleton C, Holt C, Feller J, et al. Failure of ganciclovir prophylaxis to prevent allograft reinfection following orthotopic liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver Transplantation & Surgery 1996;2(5):370-4. [MEDLINE: 9346678]
Kim 2000 {published data only}
King 1999 {published data only}
Kletzmayr 1996 Kidney {published data only}
  • Kletzmayr J, Kotzmann H, Popow-Kraupp T, Kovarik J, Klauser R. Impact of high-dose oral acyclovir prophylaxis on cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in CMV high-risk renal transplant recipients. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(2):325-30. [MEDLINE: 8785404]
  • Kletzmayr J, Kotzmann H, Popow-Kraupp T, Kovarik J, Klauser R. Oral acyclovir in prevention of CMV disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. ISN XIII International Congress of Nephrology; 1995 Jul 2-6; Madrid, Spain. 1995:375.
Kletzmayr 2000 {published data only}
  • Kletzmayr J, Kreuzwieser E, Watkins-Riedel T, Berlakovich G, Kovarik J, Klauser R. Long-term oral ganciclovir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in cytomegalovirus high-risk renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000;70(8):1174-80. [MEDLINE: 11063336]
Leray 1995 Kidney {published data only}
  • Leray H, Mourad G, Chong G, Segondy M, Mion C. Prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus primary infection with ganciclovir in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1995;27(4):2448. [MEDLINE: 7652875]
Lowance 1999 Kidney {published data only}
  • Legendre CM, Norman DJ, Keating MR, Maclaine GD, Grant DM. Valaciclovir prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in renal transplantation: an economic evaluation. Transplantation 2000;70(10):1463-8. [MEDLINE: 11118091]
  • Lowance D, Legendre C, Neumayer H, Norman D, Coggon G, Lee I, et al. Valaciclovir reduces the incidence of cytomegalovirus disease and acute graft rejection in CMV-seronegative recipients of a seropositive cadaveric renal allograft. [abstract]. Transplantation 1998;65(12):S18.
  • Lowance D, Neumayer HH, Legendre CM, Squifflet JP, Kovarik J, Brennan PJ, et al. Valacyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. International Valacyclovir Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Transplantation Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;340(19):1462-70. [MEDLINE: 10320384]
  • Squifflet J, Mendez R. Valaciclovir reduces the incidence of cytomegalovirus disease in CMV-seropositive renal allograft recipients. [abstract]. 16th Annual Meeting. American Society of Transplant Physicians (ASTP); 1997 May 10-14; Chicago (IL). 1997:87.
Lumbreras 1993 {published data only}
  • Lumbreras C, Otero JR, Herrero JA, Gomez R, Lizasoain M, Aguado JM, et al. Ganciclovir prophylaxis decreases frequency and severity of cytomegalovirus disease in seropositive liver transplant recipients treated with OKT3 monoclonal antibodies. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1993;37(11):2490-2. [MEDLINE: 8285641]
MacDonald 1991 {published data only}
  • MacDonald AS, Belitsky P, Cohen A, Lee S. Cytomegalovirus disease prophylaxis in seronegative recipients of kidneys from seropositive donors by combination of cytomegalovirus-hyperimmune globulin and low-dose acyclovir. Transplantation Proceedings 1991;23(1 Pt 2):1355-6. [MEDLINE: 1846463]
Macdonald 1995 Heart {published data only}
  • Macdonald PS, Keogh AM, Marshman D, Richens D, Harvison A, Kaan AM, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of low-dose ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease after heart transplantation. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 1995;14(1):32-8. [MEDLINE: 7727473]
Marker 1980 {published data only}
Mattes 2004 {published data only}
  • Mattes FM, Hainsworth EG, Geretti AM, Nebbia G, Prentice G, Potter M, et al. A randomized, controlled trial comparing ganciclovir to ganciclovir plus foscarnet (each at half dose) for preemptive therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;189(8):1355-61. [MEDLINE: 15073671]
Merigan 1992 Heart {published data only}
  • Merigan TC, Renlund DG, Keay S, Bristow MR, Starnes V, O'Connell JB, et al. A controlled trial of ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease after heart transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine 1992;326(18):1182-6. [MEDLINE: 1313549]
Moreno 1999 {published data only}
  • Moreno J, Montero JL, Gavilan F, Costan G, Herrero C, Cardenas M, et al. Open clinical trial with oral acyclovir for the prophylaxis of disease by Cytomegalovirus in low risk liver transplant recipients. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica 1999;17(8):382-5. [MEDLINE: 10563084]
Mullen 1998 {published data only}
  • Mullen GM, Silver MA, Malinowska K, Lawless CE, Lichtenberg RC, Barath PC, et al. Effective oral ganciclovir prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus disease in heart transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1998;30(8):4110-2. [MEDLINE: 9865316]
Murray 1997 {published data only}
  • Murray BM, Blas S. Cost comparison of two approaches to the management of CMV infection in renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1997;8(Program & Abstracts):695A.
Nakazato 1993 Liver {published data only}
  • Nakazato PZ, Burns W, Moore P, Garcia-Kennedy R, Cox K, Esquivel C. Viral prophylaxis in hepatic transplantation: Preliminary report of a randomized trial of acyclovir and ganciclovir. Transplantation Proceedings 1993;25(2):1935-7. [MEDLINE: 7682357]
Palmer 2010 {published data only}
  • Finlen Copeland CA, Davis WA, Snyder LD, Banks M, Avery R, Palmer SM. Reduced lifetime incidence of cytomegalovirus with extended prophylaxis: Long-term follow up from a randomized controlled trial. [abstract]. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 2011;30(4 Suppl 1):S42. [EMBASE: 70383484]
  • Palmer SM, Limaye AP, Banks M, Gallup D, Chapman J, Lawrence EC, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010;152(12):761-9. [MEDLINE: 20547904]
Paya 2004 All {published data only}
  • Boivin G, Goyette N, Gilbert C, Roberts N, Macey K, Paya C, et al. Absence of cytomegalovirus-resistance mutations after valganciclovir prophylaxis, in a prospective multicenter study of solid-organ transplant recipients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004;189(9):1615-8. [MEDLINE: 15116297]
  • Freeman RB, Macey K, Paya C, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, Dominquez E, et al. Risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease: results from a multicenter randomized trial of valganciclovir (VGC). [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2003;3(Suppl 5):391.
  • Humar A, Mazzulli T, Moussa G, Razonable RR, Paya CV, Pescovitz MD, et al. Clinical utility of cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology testing in high-risk CMV D+/R- transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2005;5(5):1065-70. [MEDLINE: 15816887]
  • Paya C, Humar A, Dominguez E, Washburn K, Blumberg E, Alexander B, et al. Efficacy and safety of valganciclovir vs. oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2004;4(4):611-20. [MEDLINE: 15023154]
  • Pescovitz M, Paya C, Humar A, Dominguez E, Washburn K, Blumberg E, et al. Valganciclovir for prevention of CMV disease: 12 month follow up of a randomized trial of 364 D+/R- transplant recipients. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2003;3(Suppl 5):299. [CENTRAL: CN-00465838]
  • Wiltshire H, Hirankarn S, Farrell C, Paya C, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, et al. Pharmacokinetic profile of ganciclovir after its oral administration and from its prodrug, valganciclovir, in solid organ transplant recipients. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 2005;44(5):495-507. [MEDLINE: 15871635]
  • Wiltshire H, Paya CV, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, Dominguez E, Washburn K, et al. Pharmacodynamics of oral ganciclovir and valganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 2005;79(11):1477-83. [MEDLINE: 15940035]
Pescovitz 2009 {published data only}
Pouteil 1991 {published data only}
  • Pouteil-Noble C, Betuel H, Raffaele P, Megri K, Louvier C, Lefrancois N, et al. Influence of HLA compatibility on cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplantation. Presse Medicale 1991;20(40):2022-4. [MEDLINE: 1662376]
Pouteil-Noble 1996 Kidney {published data only}
  • Pouteil-Noble C, Megas F, Chapuis F, Bosshard S, Colin C, Hadj-Aissa A, et al. Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis by ganciclovir followed by high-dose acyclovir in renal transplantation: A randomized, controlled trial. Transplantation Proceedings 1996;28(5):2811. [MEDLINE: 8908072]
  • Pouteil-Noble C, Megas F, Chapuis F, Colul C, Bosshard S, Hadj-Aissa A, et al. Is CMV prophylaxis by ganciclovir-high dose acyclovir worthwhile in renal transplantation? A randomized, controlled, clinical and economical trial. [abstract]. ISN XIII International Congress of Nephrology; 1995 Jul 2-6; Madrid, Spain. 1995:343.
Qiu 2008 Kidney {published data only}
  • Qiu J, Chen L-Z, Li J, et al. Prospective study of preemptive prophylaxis strategy combined with recipient’ risk-factors to prevent CMV disease after kidney transplantation. China Journal of Organ Transplantation 2008;29(5):294-7.
Reischig 2005 Kidney {published data only}
  • Reischig T, Bouda M, Opatrny K Jr, Treska V, Jindra P, Svecova M. Oral ganciclovir versus valacyclovir for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. XIXth International Congress of the Transplantation Society; 2002 Aug 25-30; Miami (FL). 2002.
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Mares J, Cechura M, Svecova M, Hes O, et al. Valacyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis reduces the risk of acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 2005;79(3):317-24. [MEDLINE: 15699762]
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Mares J, Cechura M, Svecova M, Opatrny K Jr, et al. Valacyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis reduces the risk of acute renal allograft rejection: a randomized comparison with oral ganciclovir and deferred therapy. [abstract]. Transplantation 2004;78(2 Suppl):483.
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Mares J, Opatrny K, Jr, Treska V, Cechura M, et al. Valacyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis reduces the risk of acute renal allograft rejection: a randomized comparison of oral ganciclovir and valacyclovir. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2004;4(Suppl 8):493.
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Svecova M, Kormunda S, Opatrny K, Treska V. The impact of cytomegalovirus disease and asymptomatic infection on acute renal allograft rejection. Journal of Clinical Virology 2006 Jun;36(2):146-51. [MEDLINE: 16531113]
  • Reischig T, Jindra P, Svecova M, Opatrny K, Treska V. The impact of cytomegalovirus disease and asymptomatic infection on acute renal allograft infection. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2005;5(Suppl 11):382.
  • Reischig T, Kielberger L, Jindra P. The economic impact of different regimens to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients. [abstract]. Transplant International 2009;22(Suppl 2):279.
  • Reischig T, Opatrny JK, Treska V, Mares J, Jindra P, Svecova M. Prospective comparison of valacyclovir and oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. Kidney & Blood Pressure Research 2005;28(4):218-25. [MEDLINE: 16043964]
  • Reischig T, Opatrny K, Jr, Bouda M, Treska V, Jindra P, Svecova MT, et al. A randomized prospective controlled trial of oral ganciclovir versus oral valacyclovir for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. Transplant International 2002;15(12):615-22. [MEDLINE: 12478408]
Rondeau 1993 Kidney {published data only}
  • Rondeau E, Bourgeon B, Peraldi MN, Lang P, Buisson C, Schulte KM, et al. Effect of prophylactic ganciclovir on cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant recipients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 1993;8(9):858-62. [MEDLINE: 8255520]
  • Rondeau E, Bourgeon B, Peraldi MN, Lang P, Buisson C, Schulte KM, et al. Prophylaxis of CMV disease by ganciclovir (DHPG) in seronegative recipients of renal allograft from seropositive donors. Transplant International 1992;5(Suppl 1):S30-1. [MEDLINE: 14621725]
  • Rondeau E, Bourgeon B, Peraldi MN, Lang P, Buisson C, Schulte KM, et al. Prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infections with ganciclovir in kidney transplant recipients. Presse Medicale 1992;21(41):1979-80. [MEDLINE: 1338225]
Rostaing 1994 Kidney {published data only}
  • Rostaing L, Crespin A, Icart J, Lloveras JJ, Durand D, Martinet O, et al. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis by acyclovir in pre-transplant CMV-positive renal transplant recipients. Transplant International 1994;7 Suppl 1:331-5. [MEDLINE: 11271244]
Rubin 2002 All {published data only}
  • Rubin RH, Kemmerly SA, Conti D, Doran M, Murray BM, Neylan JF, et al. Prevention of primary cytomegalovirus disease in organ transplant recipients with oral ganciclovir or oral acyclovir prophylaxis. Transplant Infectious Disease 2000;2(3):112-7. [MEDLINE: 11429021]
Saliba 1993 Liver {published data only}
  • Saliba F, Eyraud D, Samuel D, David MF, Arulnaden JL, Dussaix E, et al. Randomized controlled trial of acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1993;25(1 Pt 2):1444-5. [MEDLINE: 8382876]
Schnitzler 2000 {published data only}
  • Schnitzler MA, Metheney TG, Rueda JF, Woodward RS, Lowell JA, Singer GG, et al. A 3-year follow-up of pre-emptive vs deferred treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplantation. Clinical Drug Investigation 2000;19(5):367-74. [EMBASE: 2000190076]
Singh 1995 {published data only}
Singh 2002 {published data only}
  • Singh N. Delayed occurrence of cytomegalovirus disease in organ transplant recipients receiving antiviral prophylaxis: are we winning the battle only to lose the war?. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2002;21(9):643-6. [MEDLINE: 12373496]
Speich 1999 {published data only}
  • Speich R, Thurnheer R, Gaspert A, Weder W, Boehler A. Efficacy and cost effectiveness of oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after lung transplantation. Transplantation 1999;67(2):315-20. [MEDLINE: 10075601]
Tian 2005 Kidney {published data only}
  • Tian X-H, XueW-J, Ding X-M, et al. Preemptive therapy for prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. Journal of the Fourth Military Medical University 2005;26(18):1695-7.
Tong 2002 {published data only}
Turgeon 1998 {published data only}
  • Turgeon N, Fishman JA, Basgoz N, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Doran M, Cosimi AB, et al. Effect of oral acyclovir or ganciclovir therapy after preemptive intravenous ganciclovir therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in cytomegalovirus seropositive renal and liver transplant recipients receiving antilymphocyte antibody therapy. Transplantation 1998;66(12):1780-6. [MEDLINE: 9884276]
Valantine 1999 {published data only}
  • Valantine HA, Gao S-Z, Menon SG, Renlund DG, Hunt SA, Oyer P, et al. Impact of prophylactic immediate posttransplant ganciclovir on development of transplant atherosclerosis: A post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Circulation 1999;100(1):61-6. [MEDLINE: 10393682]
VICTOR Study 2007 {published data only}
  • Asberg A, Humar A, Jardine AG, Rollag H, Pescovitz MD, Mouas H, et al. Long-term outcomes of CMV disease treatment with valganciclovir versus IV ganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9(5):1205-13. [MEDLINE: 19422345]
  • Asberg A, Humar A, Rollag H, Jardine AG, Mouas H, Pescovitz MD, et al. Oral valganciclovir is noninferior to intravenous ganciclovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2007;7(9):2106-13. [MEDLINE: 17640310]
  • Asberg A, Jardine AG, Bignamini AA, Rollag H, Pescovitz MD, Gahlemann CC, et al. Effects of the intensity of immunosuppressive therapy on outcome of treatment for CMV disease in organ transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2010;10(8):1881-8. [MEDLINE: 20486914]
  • Asberg A, Pescovitz MD, Humar A, Jardine AG, Rollag H, Mouas H, et al. Oral valganciclovir and intravenous ganciclovir results in comparable long-term outcomes in transplant recipients with CMV disease: the VICTOR study. [abstract]. Transplantation 2008;86(2S):222.
  • Boivin G, Goyette N, Rollag H, Jardine AG, Pescovitz MD, Asberg A, et al. Cytomegalovirus resistance in solid organ transplant recipients treated with intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir. Antiviral Therapy 2009;14(5):697-704. [MEDLINE: 19704173]
  • Humar A, Asberg A, Kumar D, Hartmann A, Moussa G, Jardine A, et al. An assessment of herpesvirus co-infections in patients with CMV disease: correlation with clinical and virologic outcomes. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9(2):374-81. [MEDLINE: 19120074]
  • Manual O, Emery V, Asberg A, Hartmann A, Pescovitz M, Pang X, et al. A prospective study of viral genetic polymorphisms in CMV glycoprotein B and their association with clinical and virologic outcomes in patients with CMV disease: results from the VICTOR Study. [abstract]. Transplantation 2008;86(2S):221.
  • Manuel O, Asberg A, Pang X, Rollag H, Emery VC, Preiksaitis JK, et al. Impact of genetic polymorphisms in cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on outcomes in solid-organ transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009;49(8):1160-6. [MEDLINE: 19751151]
  • Pescovitz M, Hartmann A, Humar A, Rollag H, Jardine AG, Bignamini AA, et al. Management of post transplant CMV disease: lessons learned from the VICTOR trial. [abstract]. American Journal of Transplantation 2008;8(Suppl 2):183.
Villano 2010 {unpublished data only}
  • Villano SA. Maribavir versus oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in liver transplant recipients. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00497796 (accessed 10 January 2013).
Winston 1995 Liver {published data only}
Winston 2003 Liver {published data only}
  • Winston DJ, Busuttil RW. Randomized controlled trial of oral ganciclovir versus oral acyclovir after induction with intravenous ganciclovir for long-term prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in cytomegalovirus-seropositive liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2003;75(2):229-33. [MEDLINE: 12548129]
Winston 2004 Liver {published data only}
  • Winston DJ, Busuttil RW. Randomized controlled trial of sequential intravenous and oral ganciclovir versus prolonged intravenous ganciclovir for long-term prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk cytomegalovirus-seronegative liver transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus-seropositive donors. Transplantation 2004;77(2):305-8. [MEDLINE: 14742998]
Yang 1999 {published data only}
  • Yang HC, Holman MJ, Langhoff E, Dellock CA, Gupta M, Ulsh PJ, et al. A comparative study of 500 mg BID and 250 mg BID of prophylactic oral ganciclovir in post-kidney transplant 'CMV at risk' recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 1999;31(1-2):1125-6. [MEDLINE: 10083502]

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Scott 2011 Liver {published data only}
  • Scott GM, Naing Z, Pavlovic J, Iwasenko JM, Angus P, Jones R, et al. Viral factors influencing the outcome of human cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplant recipients. Journal of Clinical Virology 2011;51(4):229-33. [MEDLINE: 21641274]

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
NCT00372229 {unpublished data only}
  • Hoffmann-La Roche. A study of Valcyte (valganciclovir) CMV prophylaxis after renal transplantation. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00372229 (accessed 10 January 2013).
NCT00966836 {unpublished data only}
  • Potena L, Grigioni F. Prevention of Transplant Atherosclerosis With Everolimus and Anti-cytomegalovirus Therapy (PROTECT). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00966836 (accessed 10 January 2013).
NCT01552369 {unpublished data only}
  • Singh N. Prophylaxis Versus Preemptive Therapy for the Prevention of CMV in Liver Transplant Recipients (CAPSIL). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01552369 (accessed 10 Janaury 2013).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Arthurs 2007
Arthurs 2008
  • Arthurs SK, Eid AJ, Pedersen RA, Kremers WK, Cosio FG, Patel R, et al. Delayed-onset primary cytomegalovirus disease and the risk of allograft failure and mortality after kidney transplantation. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008;46(6):840-6. [MEDLINE: 18260785]
BTS 2011
  • British Transplantation Society. Guidelines for the prevention and management of cytomegalovirus disease after solid organ transplantation. 3rd Edition. London: British Transplantation Society, 2011.
CARI 2010
  • Pillmore H. Pre-emptive treatment of cytomegalovirus. http://www.cari.org.au/TRANS_cmv_published/Pre-emptive_treatment_CMV_Oct_2011.pdf (accessed 10 January 2013).
EBPG 2000
  • European Best Practice Guidelines Expert Group on Renal Transplantation. Section III: The transplant recipient from initial transplant hospitalization to 1 year post transplant. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2000;15(Suppl 7):52-85.
Eid 2010
Emery 2001
Fishman 2007
Hart 2001
Hewitt 2005
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JP, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hodson 2005
  • Hodson EM, Jones C, Webster AC, Strippoli GFM, Barclay PC, Kable K, et al. Antiviral medications to prevent cytomegalovirus disease and early death in recipients of solid-organ transplants: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2005;365(9477):2105-15. [MEDLINE: 15964447]
Hodson 2013
  • Hodson EM, Ladhani M, Webster AC, Strippoli GF, Craig JC. Antiviral medications for preventing cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003774.pub4]
Humar 2009
KDIGO 2009
  • Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Transplant Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the care of kidney transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 2009;9 Suppl 3:S44-58. [MEDLINE: 19845597]
Kotton 2010
Limaye 2000
Ljungman 2002
Pescovitz 2007
Singh 1998
  • Singh N, Yu VL, Gayowski T, Marino IR. CMV antigenemia directed preemptive prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir for the prevention of CMV disease in liver transplant recipients: a prospective, randomised, controlled trial. [abstract]. Transplantation 1998;65(12):S113.
Waiser 1998
  • Waiser J, Budde K, Schreiber M, Korn K, Stenglein S, Drenckhahn JT, et al. Effectiveness of deferred therapy with ganciclovir in renal allograft recipients with cytomegalovirus disease. Transplantation Proceedings 1998;30(5):2083-5. [MEDLINE: 9723399]
Yang 1996
  • Yang CW, An HJ, Kim YO, Shin YS, Chang YS, Bang BK. Indication of ganciclovir treatment during early cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in CMV seropositive recipients. a longitudinal study of CMV pp65 antigenemia (Ag) assay. [abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1996;7(9):1928.
Zhang 2011

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Strippoli 2005
  • Strippoli GF, Craig JC, Hodson EM, Jones C. Pre-emptive treatment for cytomegalovirus viraemia to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005133]
Strippoli 2006a
Strippoli 2006b
  • Strippoli GF, Hodson EM, Jones C, Craig JC. Preemptive treatment for cytomegalovirus viremia to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 2006;81(2):139-45. [MEDLINE: 16436954]