Intervention Review

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Training to recognise the early signs of recurrence in schizophrenia

  1. Richard Morriss1,
  2. Indira Vinjamuri2,*,
  3. Mohammad Amir Faizal3,
  4. Catherine A Bolton4,
  5. James P McCarthy5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 24 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005147.pub2


How to Cite

Morriss R, Vinjamuri I, Faizal MA, Bolton CA, McCarthy JP. Training to recognise the early signs of recurrence in schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005147. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005147.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Nottingham, Psychiatry, Nottingham, UK

  2. 2

    Mersey Care NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK

  3. 3

    Mersey Care NHS Trust, Psychiatry, Liverpool, UK

  4. 4

    Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

  5. 5

    Merseycare NHS Trust, Ferndale Unit, Liverpool, UK

*Indira Vinjamuri, Mersey Care NHS Trust, Broadoak Unit, Liverpool, L14 3PJ, UK. indira.vinjamuri@merseycare.nhs.uk. vinjamuriindira@hotmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Anzai 2002 {published data only}
  • Anzai N, Yoneda S, Kumagai N, Nakamura Y, Ikebuchi E, Liberman R. Training persons with schizophrenia in illness self-management: A randomised controlled trial in Japan. Psychiatric services 2002;53:545-7.
Bauml 2007 {published data only}
  • Bauml J, Pitschel-Walz G, Volz A, Engel R, Kissling W. Psychoeducation in schizophrenia: 7 year follow up concerning rehospitalization and days in hospital in the Munich psychosis information project study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2007;68(6):854-61.
  • Pitschel-Walz G, Bauml J, Bender W, Engel R, Wagner M, Kissling W. Psychoeducation and compliance in the treatment of schizophrenia: results of the Munich Psychosis Information Project study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2006;67(3):443-52.
Bradley 2006 {published data only}
  • Bradley GM, Couchman GM, Perlesz A, Nguyen AT, Singh B, Reiss C. Multiple-family group treatment for English and Vietnamese-speaking families living with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services 2006;57(4):521-30.
Buchkremer 1997 {published data only}
  • Buchkremer G, Klingberg S, Holle R, Schulze Monking H, Hornung WP. Psychoeducational psychotherapy for schizophrenic patients and their key relatives or care-givers: results of a 2-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1997;96:483-91.
  • Hornung P, Feldman R, Klingberg S, Buchkremer G, Reker T. Long-term effects of a psychoeducational psychotherapeutic intervention for schizophrenic outpatients and their key-persons - results of a five-year follow-up. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1999;249:162-7.
  • Hornung WP, Feldmann R, Schonauer K, Schafer A, Schulze Monking H, Klingberg S, et al. Psychoeducational psychotherapeutic treatment of schizophrenic patients and their caregivers. II. Supplementary findings at a 2 year follow up. Nervenarzt 1999;70(5):444-9.
  • Hornung WP, Holle R, Schulze Monking H, Klingberg S, Buchkremer G. Psychoeducational-psychotherapeutic treatment of schizophrenic patients and their caregivers. Results of a 1-year catamnestic study. Nervenarzt 1995;66(11):828-34.
  • Hornung WP, Kieserg A, Feldmann R, Buchkremer G. Psychoeducational training for schizophrenic patients: background, procedure and empirical findings. Patient Education and Counseling 1996;29:257-68.
  • Hornung WP, Klingberg S. Feldmann R, Schonauer K, Schulze Monking H. Collaboration with drug treatment by schizophrenic patients with and without psychoeducational training: results of a 1-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1998;97:213-9.
  • Klingberg S, Buchkremer G, Holle R, Monking HS, Hornung WP. Differential therapy effects of psychoeducational psychotherapy for schizophrenic patients- results of a 2-year follow-up. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1999;249:66-72.
Chan 2007 {published data only}
  • Chan SHW, Lee SWK, Chan IWM. TRIP: a psycho-educational programme in Hong Kong for people with schizophrenia. Occupational Therapy International 2007;14(2):86-98.
Chen 2003 {published data only}
  • Chen H, Chang Y, Xiang Y. Efficacy of the rehabilitation strategy for inpatients with schizophrenia. Chinese Mental Health Journal 2003;17(12):839-42.
Chien 2004 {published data only}
Drury 1996 {published data only}
Garety 2008 {published data only}
  • Garety PA, Fowler DG, Freeman D, Bebbington P, Dunn G, Kuipers E. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and family intervention for relapse prevention and symptom reduction in psychosis: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2008; Vol. 192, issue 6:412-23.
Granholm 2005 {published data only}
  • Granholm E, McQuaid JR, McClure FS, Auslander LA, Perivoliotis D, Pedrelli P, et al. A randomised, controlled trial of cognitive behavioural social skills training for middle-aged and older outpatients with chronic schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 2005;162:520-9.
  • McQuaid JR, Granholm E, McClure FS, Roepke S, Pedrelli P, Patterson TL, et al. Development of an integrated cognitive behavioral and social skills training intervention for older patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 2000;9:149-56.
Gumley 2003 {published data only}
  • Gumley A, Karatzias A, Power K, Reilly J, McNay L, O'Grady M. Early intervention for relapse in schizophrenia: Impact of cognitive behavioural therapy on negative beliefs about psychosis and self-esteem. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 2006;45:247-60.
  • Gumley A, O'Grady M, McNay L, Reilly J, Power K, Norrie J. Early intervention for relapse in schizophrenia: results of a 12 month randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy. Psychological Medicine 2003;33:419-31.
Harris 2009 {published data only}
  • Harris N, Lovell K, Day J, Roberts C. An evaluation of a medication management training programme for community mental health professionals; service user level outcomes: a cluster randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2009; Vol. 46, issue 5:645-52.
Herz 2000 {published data only}
  • Herz MI, Lamberti JS, Mintz J, Scott R, O'Dell SP, McCartan L, Nix G. A program for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry 2000;57:277-83.
  • Herz MI, Lamberti S. Prodromal symptoms and early intervention in Schizophrenia. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research 1998;6:37-44.
Hogarty 1997a {published data only}
  • Hogarty GE, Greenwald D, Ulrich RF, Kornblith SJ, DiBarry AL, Cooley S, et al. Three-year trials of personal therapy among schizophrenic patients living with or independent of family, II: Effects on adjustment of patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 1997;154:1514-24.
  • Hogarty GE, Kornblith SJ, Greenwald D, DiBarry AL, Cooley S, Ulrich RF, et al. Three-year trials of personal therapy among schizophrenic patients living with or independent of family, I: Description of study and effects on relapse rates. American Journal of Psychiatry 1997;154(11):1504-13.
Horan 2009 {published data only}
  • Horan WP, Kern RS, Shokat-Fadai K, Sergi MJ, Wynn JK, Green MF. Social cognitive skills training in schizophrenia: an initial efficacy study of stabilized outpatients. Schizophrenia Research 2009; Vol. 107, issue 1:47-54.
Kopelowicz 1998a {published data only}
  • Kopelowicz A, Wallace CJ, Zarate R. Teaching psychiatric inpatients to re-enter the community: A brief method of improving the continuity of care. Psychiatric Services 1998;49(10):1313-6.
Kopelowicz 2003 {published data only}
  • Kopelowicz A, Zarate R, Smith VG, Mintz J, Liberman RP. Disease management in Latinos with schizophrenia: A family-assisted, skills training approach. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2003;29(2):211-27.
Kuipers 1997 {published data only}
  • Garety P, Fowler D, Kuipers E, Freeman G, Dunn P, Bebbington C, et al. London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis II: Predictors of outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry 1997;171:420-6.
  • Kuipers E, Garety P, Fowler D, Dunn G, Bebbington P, Freeman D, et al. London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis I: Effects of the treatment phase. British Journal of Psychiatry 1997;171:319-27.
Li 2003 {published data only}
  • Li Z. The effect of a nurse-initiated patient/family education strategy on people with schizophrenia in Beijing [PhD thesis]. Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2003.
Liberman 1998 {published data only}
  • Liberman RP, Wallace CJ, Blackwell G, Kopelowicz A, Vaccaro JV, Mintz J. Skills training versus psychosocial occupational therapy for persons with persistent schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 1998;155(8):1087-91.
McDonell 2006 {published data only}
Merinder 1999 {published data only}
  • Merinder LB. Impact of Patient and Relative Education on Knowledge, Satisfaction with Services and Clinical Outcome in Schizophrenia. Aarhus, Denmark: Univ. of Aarhus, 2000.
  • Merinder L-B, Viuff AG, Laugesen HD, Clemmensen K, Misfelt S, Espensen B. Patient and relative education in community psychiatry: a randomized controlled trial regarding its effectiveness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 1994;34:287-94.
Norman 2002 {published data only}
  • Norman RMG, Malla AK, McLean TS, McIntosh EM, Neufeld RWJ, Voruganti LP, et al. An evaluation of a stress management program for individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2002;58:293-303.
Shin 2002 {published data only}
Shon 2002 {published data only}
  • Shon K-H, Park S-S. Medication and symptom management education program for the rehabilitation of psychiatric patients in Korea: The effects of promoting schedule on self-efficacy theory. Yonsei Medical Journal 2002;43(5):579-89.
Tait 2002 {published data only}
  • Tait A, McNay L, Gumley A, O'Grady M. The development and implementation of an individualised early signs monitoring system in the prediction of relapse in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Health 2002;11(2):141-53.
Turkington 2006 {published data only}
  • Kingdon DG, Turkington D. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy of Schizophrenia. New York: Guilford Publications, 1994.
  • Turkington D, Kingdon D, Rathod S, Hammond K, Pelton J, Mehta R. Outcomes of an effectiveness trial of cognitive-behavioural intervention by mental health nurses in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 2006;189:36-40.
  • Turkington D, Kingdon D, Turner T. Effectiveness of a brief cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 2002;180:523-7.
  • Turkington D, Kingdon DG, Turner T. Improving insight in schizophrenia: the effects of cognitive-behaviour therapy and psychoeducation. Proceedings of the 155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2002 May 18-23; Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2002.
Van Meijel 2006 {published data only}
Vreeland 2006 {published data only}
  • Vreeland B, Minsky S, Yanos PT, Menza M, Gara M, Kim E, et al. Efficacy of the team solutions program for educating patients about illness management and treatment. Psychiatric Services 2006;57(6):822-8.
Weng 2005 {published data only}
Xiang 2001 {published data only}
  • Xiang Y, Weng Y, Hou Y. A preliminary study of medication management and symptom management skills training for preventing schizophrenics' relapse. Chinese Journal of Psychiatry 2001;34(3):153-6.
Xiong 1994 {published data only}
  • Xiong W, Phillips MR, Hu X, Wang R, Dai Q, Kleinman J, et al. Family-based intervention for schizophrenic patients in China. A randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 1994;165:239-47.
Zhan 2003 {published data only}
  • Zhan L, Zhang L, Sun X. Study on skill-training for preventing relapse of schizophrenics. Journal of Nursing Science 2003;18(4):243-5.
Zhang 2004 {published data only}
  • Zhang Y, Li S, Feng J. A study of preventing recurrence through social and independent living skill in patients with schizophrenia. Chinese Journal of Nursing 2004;39(8):573-5.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Armstrong 1991 {published data only}
  • Armstrong H, Cox G, Short B, Allmon D. A comparative evaluation of two day treatment programs. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1991;14(4):53-67.
Beebe 2004 {published data only}
  • Beebe LH, Tian L. TIPS: telephone intervention-problem solving for persons with schizophrenia. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 2004;25(3):317-29.
Birchwood 2003 {published data only}
  • Birchwood M. Early signs project. National Research Register 2003.
Buchkremer 1991 {published data only}
Carra 2007 {published data only}
  • Carra G, Montomoli C, Clerici M, Cazzullo CL. Family interventions for schizophrenia in Italy: randomized controlled trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 2007;257(1):23-30.
Cerniglia 1978 {published data only}
Collins 2007 {published data only}
  • Collins LM, Granholm E, McQuaid JR. Clinical insight moderates treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral social skills training for chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):426.
Craig Thomas 2000 {published data only}
  • Craig Thomas KJ. Brixton early psychosis project. National Research Register 2000.
Deng 2007 {published data only}
  • Deng HY, Shao YF, Xu XP. The effect of comprehensive social skills training on chronic inpatients of schizophrenia [社交综合技能训练对住院慢性精神分裂症患者的疗效]. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science [中国行为医学科学] 2007;16(3):227-9.
Dong 2008 {published data only}
  • Dong R, Lin Q, Wang S. Effect of social function training on rehabilitation outcome of male hospitalized schizophrenics [社会功能训练对住院男性精神分裂症患者康复效果的影响]. Journal of Clinical Psychosomatic Diseases [临床心身疾病杂志] 2008;4(5):407-9.
Druss 2010 {published data only}
  • Druss BG, Zhao L, Von ESA, Bona JR, Fricks L, Jenkins-Tucker S, et al. The health and recovery peer (harp) program: A peer-led intervention to improve medical self-management for persons with serious mental illness. Schizophrenia Research 2010;118(1-3):264-70.
Falloon 1996 {published data only}
  • Falloon I, McGill C, Matthews S, Keith S, Schooler N. Family treatment for schizophrenia- The design and research application of therapist training models. Journal of Psychotherapy practice and Research 1996;5:45-56.
Foster 2008 {published data only}
Gaebel 2002 {published data only}
  • Gaebel W, Janner M, Frommann N, Pietzcker A, Kopcke W, Linden M, et al. First vs multiple episode schizophrenia: two-year outcome of intermittent and maintenance medication strategies. Schizophrenia Research 2002;53:145-59.
Gleeson 2009 {published data only}
  • Alvarez-Jimenez M, Gleeson JF, Cotton S, Wade D, Gee D, Pearce T, et al. Predictors of adherence to cognitive-behavioural therapy in first-episode psychosis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry [Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie] 2009;54(10):710-8.
  • Gleeson J, Cotton S, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Wade D, Gee D, Crisp K, et al. An RCT of relapse prevention therapy for first-episode psychosis patients. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2008;2(Suppl 1):A20.
  • Gleeson J, Wade D, Castle D, Gee D, Crisp K, Pearce T, et al. The EPISODE II trial of cognitive and family therapy for relapse prevention in early psychosis: rationale and sample characteristics. Journal of Mental Health 2008;17(1):19-32.
  • Gleeson JF, Cotton SM, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Wade D, Gee D, Crisp K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of relapse prevention therapy for first-episode psychosis patients: Outcome at 30-month follow-up. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/11/29/schbul.sbr165.full.pdf+html (accessed 05 December 2011).
  • Gleeson JFM, Cotton SM, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Wade D, Crisp K, Newman B, et al. Family outcomes from a randomized control trial of relapse prevention therapy in first-episode psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2010;71(4):475-83.
  • Gleeson JFM, Cotton SM, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Wade D, Gee D, Crisp K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of relapse prevention therapy for first-episode psychosis patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2009;70(4):477-86.
  • Newman B. EPISODE II: Prevention of relapse following early psychosis. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 2003.
Glick 1989 {published data only}
  • Glick I, Jacobs M, Lieberman J, Simpson G, Schooler N. Prediction of short term outcome in schizophrenia: depressive symptoms, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal signs. Psychoparmacology Bulletin 1989;25(3):344-5.
Glick 1990 {published data only}
  • Glick I, Clarkin J, Spencer J, Haas G, Lewis A, Peyser J, et al. A controlled evaluation of inpatient family intervention- I. Preliminary results of the six-month follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry 1985;42:882-6.
  • Glick I, Spencer J, Clarkin J, Haas G, Lewis A, Peyser J, et al. A randomised clinical trial of inpatient family intervention. IV- Followup results for subjects with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 1990;3:187-200.
Glynn 2002 {published data only}
  • Glynn S, Marder S, Liberman R, Blair K, Wirshing W, Wirshing D, et al. Supplementing clinic-based skills training with manual-based community support sessions: Effects on social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 2002;159(5):829-37.
Goldberg 1977 {published data only}
  • Goldberg S, Schooler N, Hogarty G, Roper M. Prediction of relapse in schizophrenic outpatients treated by drug and sociotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry 1977;34:171-84.
Gong 2007 {published data only}
  • Gong CP, Zhang JJ, Zheng G. Three-year follow-up study of family synthetically intervention for community family bed patients with schizophrenia [家庭综合干预对精神分裂症患者临床康复的作用]. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science [中国行为医学科学] 2007;16(10):903-5.
Grawe 1998 {published data only}
  • Grawe RW, Widen JH. Results of two years optimal out-patient treatment of first episode schizophrenia: a controlled study. Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1998;52(41):76.
Gray 2004 {published data only}
  • Gray R, Leese M, Bindman J, Becker T, Burti L, David A, et al. Adherence therapy for people with schizophrenia: European multi-centre randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2006;189:508-14.
  • Gray R, Robson D. Effect of a adherence counselling training package for case managers on relapse for patients with schizophrenia: cluster randomised controlled. European Psychiatry 2005;20:S63.
  • Gray R, Wykes T, Edmonds M, Leese M, Gournay K. Effect of a medication management training package for nurses on clinical outcomes for patients with schizophrenia: cluster randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2004;185:157-62.
Guohui 2003 {published data only}
  • Guohui L, Liping C, Xilin W. Rapid control of excitation and agitation with olanzapine. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry 2003;15(6):344-6.
Hahlweg 1999 {published data only}
  • Hahlweg K, Wiedemann G. Principles and results of family therapy in schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1999;249(Suppl.4):108-15.
Haut 2007 {published data only}
  • Haut KM, Johnson MK, Hegeman BM, Goghari VM, MacDonald AW. Cognitive remediation and changes in prefrontal cortical function in schizophrenia: behavioral vs functional sensitivity to change. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):370.
Hayward 1995 {published data only}
  • Hayward P, Chan N, Kemp R, Youle S, David A. Medication self management: a preliminary report on an intervention to improve medication compliance. Journal of Mental Health 1995;4(5):511-8.
Herz 1989 {published data only}
  • Herz MI, Glazer W, Mirza M, Mostert M, Hafez H. Treating prodromal episodes to prevent relapse in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplementum 1989;155(Suppl 5):123-7.
Herz 1991 {published data only}
  • Herz MI, Glazer WM, Mostert MA, Sheard MA, Szymanski HV, Hafez H, Mirza M, Vana J. Intermittent vs maintenance medication in schizophrenia.Two-year results. Archives of General Psychiatry 1991;48:333-39.
Hogarty 1988 {published data only}
  • Hogarty G, McEvoy J, Munetz M, Dibarry AL, Bartone P, Cather R, et al. Dose of fluphenazine, familial expressed emotion, and outcome in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 1988;45:797-805.
Horan 2011 {published data only}
  • Horan WP, Kern RS, Tripp C, Hellemann G, Wynn JK, Bell M, et al. Efficacy and specificity of social cognitive skills training for outpatients with psychotic disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2011;45(8):1113-22.
Hou 2007 {published data only}
  • Hou DQ, Zeng ZX, Wang HY. Effect of insight education and self-confidence training on the quality of life and well-being rating in first episode schizophrenia. Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice [中国康复理论与实践] 2007;13(5):479-81.
Jolley 1990 {published data only}
  • Jolley AG, Hirsch SR, McRink A, Manchanda R. Trial of brief intermittent neuroleptic prophylaxis for selected schizophrenic outpatients: Clinical outcome at one year. BMJ 1989;298:985-90.
  • Jolley AG, Hirsch SR, Morrison E, McRink A, Wilson L. Trial of brief intermittent neuroleptic prophylaxis for selected schizophrenia outpatients: clinical and social outcome at two years. BMJ 1990;301:837-42.
Jumnoodoo 2008 {published data only}
  • Jumnoodoo R. Relapse prevention among schizophrenia: a multi stage randomised controlled group study. National Research Register 2003; Vol. 4.
Kallert 2004a {published data only}
  • Kallert TW, Schellong J, Kulke C, Kernweiss N, Ripke B. German results on implementation and effectiveness of the psychoedutraining study. Proceedings of the Thematic Conference of the World Psychiatric Association on "Treatments in Psychiatry: An Update"; 2004 Nov 10-13; Florence, Italy. 2004.
Klosterkötter 2007 {published data only}
  • Klosterkötter J. Secondary prevention of schizophrenia: a randomised controlled trial. http://www.controlled-trials.com 2007.
Kopelowicz 1998b {published data only}
Leavey 2004 {published data only}
  • Leavey G, Gulamhussein S, Papadopoulos C, Johnson-Sabine E, Blizard B, King M. A randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention for families of patients with a first episode of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 2004;34:423-31.
Leclerc 2000 {published data only}
Leff 1984 {published data only}
  • Leff J, Kuipers L, Berkowitz R, Eberlein-Fries R, Sturgeon D. Psychosocial relevance and benefit of neuroleptic maintenance: Experience in the United Kingdom. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1984;45(5):43-9.
Leff 2001 {published data only}
  • Leff J, Sharpley M, Chisholm D, Bell R, Gamble C. Training community psychiatric nurses in schizophrenia family work: A study of clinical and economic outcomes for patients and relatives. Journal of Mental Health 2001;10(2):189-97.
Lenior 2001 {published data only}
Liang 2002 {published data only}
  • Liang Q, Liang B. Effect of health education on the effectiveness of patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Nursing Science 2002;17(12):931-2.
Liberman 1986 {published data only}
Liberman 1988 {published data only}
  • Liberman PR, Eclam AT, Marder RS, Wirshing W, Johnston-Cronk K. Symptom management training for schizophrenics. Proceedings of the 141st Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association;1988 May 7-12; Quebec, Canada. 1988.
Linden 2001 {published data only}
  • Linden M, Godemann F, Gaebel W, Kopke W, Muller P, Muller-Spahn F, et al. A prospective study of factors influencing adherence to a continuous neuroleptic treatment program in schizophrenia patients during 2 years. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2001;27(4):585-96.
Linszen 1994 {published data only}
  • Linszen D, Dingemans P, Lenior M. Early intervention and a five year follow up in young adults with a short duration of untreated psychosis: ethical implications. Schizophrenia Research 2001;51(1):55-61.
  • Linszen D, Dingemans P, Van Der Does JW, Nugter A, Scholte P, Lenior R, et al. Treatment, expressed emotion and relapse in recent onset schizophrenic disorders. Psychological Medicine 1996;26(2):333-42.
  • Linszen D, Lenior M, de-Haan L, Dingemans P, Gersons B. Early intervention, untreated psychosis and the course of early schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplementum 1998;172(33):84-9.
  • Linszen DH, Dingemans PM, Lenior ME, Nugter A, Scholte WF, Willem Van Der Does AJ. Relapse criteria in schizophrenic disorders: Different perspectives. Psychiatry Research 1994;54:273-81.
  • Nugter A, Dingemans P, Van Der Does JW, Linszen D, Gersons B. Family treatment, expressed emotion and relapse in recent onset schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 1997;72:23-31.
Linszen 1998 {published data only}
  • Linszen D, Dingemans P, Scholte W, Lenior M, Goldstein M. Early recognition, intensive intervention and other protective and risk factors for psychotic relapse in patients with first psychotic episodes in schizophrenia. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 1998;13(Suppl 1):S7-S12.
Linszen 1998a {published data only}
  • Linszen D, Dingemans PM, Lenior ME, Scholte WF, Goldstein M. Early family and individual interventions and relapse in recent-onset schizophrenia and related disorders. Italian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences 1998; Vol. 8:77-84.
Lopez-Luengo 2003 {published data only}
Malm 2003 {published data only}
Marder 1994 {published data only}
  • Eckman TA, Wirshing WC, Marder SR, Liberman RP, Johnston-Cronk K, Zimmermann K, et al. Technique for training schizophrenic patients in Illness self-management: A controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry 1992;149(11):1549-55.
  • Marder S, Wirshing W, Mintz J, McKenzie J, Johnston K, Eckman T, et al. Two-year outcome of social skills training and group psychotherapy for outpatients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 1996;153(12):1585-92.
  • Marder SR, Mintz J, Van Putten T, Lebell M, Wirshing WC, Johnston-Cronk K. Early prediction of relapse in schizophrenia: an application of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methods. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1991;27:79-82.
  • Marder SR, Wirshing WC, Van Putten T, Mintz J, McKenzie J, Johnston-Cronk K, et al. Fluphenazine vs placebo supplementation for prodromal signs of relapse in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 1994;51:280-7.
  • Wirshing W, Eckman T, Liberman R, Marder S. Management of risk of relapse through skills training of chronic schizophrenics. Advances in Neuropsychiatry and Psychoparmacology 1991;Schizophrenia Research(1):255-67.
  • Wirshing WC, Marder SR, Eckman T, Liberman RP, Mintz J. Acquisition and retention of skills training methods in chronic schizophrenic outpatients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992;28(3):241-5.
Marder 2003 {published data only}
  • Marder S, Glynn SM, Wirshing W, Wirshing D, Ross D, Widmark C, et al. Maintenance treatment of schizophrenia with risperidone and haloperidol: 2-year outcomes. American Journal of Psychiatry 2003;160(8):1405-12.
Mausbach 2008 {published data only}
  • Mausbach BT, Cardenas V, McKibbin CL, Jeste DV, Patterson TL. Reducing emergency medical service use in patients with chronic psychotic disorders: results from the FAST intervention study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2008;46(1):145-53.
McFarlane 1995 {published data only}
  • McFarlane WR, Link B, Dushay R, Marchal J, Crilly J. Psychoeducational multiple family groups: four-year relapse outcome in schizophrenia. Family Process 1995;34(2):127-44.
  • McFarlane WR, Lukens E, Link B, Dushay R, Deakins SA, Newmark M, et al. Multiple-family groups and psychoeducation in the treatment of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 1995;52(8):679-87.
McGill 1983 {published data only}
  • McGill CW, Falloon I, Boyd J, Wood-Siverio C. Family educational intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1983;34(10):934-8.
Merson 1992 {published data only}
  • Merson S, Tyrer P, Carlen D, Johnson T. The cost of treatment of psychiatric emergencies: a comparison of hospital and community services. Psychological Medicine 1996;26(4):727-34.
  • Merson S, Tyrer P, Onyett S, Lack S, Birkett P, Lynch S, et al. Early intervention in psychiatric emergencies: a controlled clinical trial. Lancet 1992;339:1311-4.
Monking 1994 {published data only}
  • Schulze Monking H. Self-help groups for families of schizophrenic patients: formation, development and therapeutic impact. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 1994;29:149-54.
Montero 2001 {published data only}
  • Montero I, Asencio A, Hernandez I, Masanet MJ, Lacruz M, Bellver F, et al. Two strategies for family intervention in schizophrenia: a randomized trial in a Mediterranean environment. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2001;27(4):661-9.
Moxon 2008 {published data only}
  • Moxon AM, Ronan KR. Providing information to relatives and patients about expressed emotion and schizophrenia in a community-support setting: a randomized, controlled trial. Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses 2008;2(1):47-58.
Munroe-Blum 1993 {published data only}
  • Munroe-Blum H, McCleary L, Foster G. Social treatments study: design and preliminary outcome. Schizophrenia Research 1993;9(1, 2):269.
Newton 2005 {published data only}
  • Newton E, Landau S, Smith P, Monks P, Shergill S, Wykes T. Early psychological intervention for auditory hallucinations: An exploratory study of young people's voices groups. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2005;193(1):58-61.
Nordentoft 1998 {published data only}
  • Jorgensen P, Nordentoft M, Abel MB, Gouliaev G, Jeppesen P, Kassow P. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics: The opus study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2000;35:283-7.
  • Nordentoft M, Jeppesen P, Abel MB, Hemmingsen R, Reisby N. Can duration of untreated psychosis be shortened and does optimal treatment program improve outcome? A randomised controlled study. Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1998;52(41):76.
  • Nordentoft M, Jeppesen P, Kassow P, Abel M, Petersen L, Thorup A, et al. OPUS-project: A randomised controlled trial of integrated psychiatric treatment in first-episode psychosis - Clinical outcome improved. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Early Psychosis; 2002 Sep 25-28; Copenhagen, Denmark. 2002.
  • Nordentoft M, Reisby N, Jeppesen P, Abel M, Kassow P, Jirgensen P. Opus-project: differences in treatment outcome of a randomised controlled trial of integrated psychiatric treatment of first-episode psychosis. Proceedings of the 11th World Congress of Psychiatry; 1999 Aug 6-11; Hamburg, Germany. 1999.
  • Ohlenschlaeger J, Thorup A, Petersen L, Jeppesen P, Abel M, Nordentoft M. Coercion in first episode psychosis. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Early Psychosis; 2002 Sep 25-28; Copenhagen, Denmark. 2002.
  • Petersen L, Jeppesen P, Thorup A, Abel M, Ohlenschlaeger J, Christensen TO. A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness. BMJ 2005;331(7517):602.
Owens 2001 {published data only}
  • Cunningham Owens D, Carroll A, Fattah S, Clyde Z, Coffey I, Johnstone E. A randomized, controlled trial of a brief interventional package for schizophrenic out-patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia 2001;103:362-9.
  • Harrison G, Owens D, Holton A, Neilson D, Boot D. A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients. Psychological Medicine 1988;18:643-57.
Papageorgiou 2002 {published data only}
  • Papageorgiou A, King M, Janmohamed A, Davidson O, Dawson J. Advance directives for patients compulsorily admitted to hospital with serious mental illness. Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2002;181:513-9.
Pietzcker 1993 {published data only}
  • Bandelow B, Muller P, Frick U, Gaebel W, Linden M, Muller-Spahn F, et al. Depressive syndromes in schizophrenic patients under neuroleptic therapy. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1992;241:291-5.
  • Gaebel W, Frick U, Kopcke W, Linden M, Muller P, Muller-Spahn F, et al. Early neuroleptic intervention in schizophrenia: Are prodromal symptoms valid predictors of relapse?. British Journal of Psychiatry 1993;163(Suppl 21):8-12.
  • Pietzcker A. A German multicentre study on the long-term treatment of schizophrenic outpatients. Pharmacopsychiatry 1985;18:333-8.
  • Pietzcker A, Gaebel W, Kopcke W, Linden M, Muller P, Muller-Spahn F, et al. A German multicenter study on the neuroleptic long-term treatment of schizophrenic patients, preliminary report. Pharmacopsychiatry 1986;19:161-6.
  • Pietzcker A, Gaebel W, Kopcke W, Linden M, Muller P, Muller-Spahn F, et al. Intermittent vs maintenance neuroleptic long-term treatment in schizophrenia-two-year results of a German multicentre study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 1993;27(4):321-9.
Power 2003 {published data only}
  • Power P, Bell R, Mills R, Herrman-Doig T, Davern M, Henry L, et al. Suicide prevention in first episode psychosis: the development of a randomised controlled trial of cognitive therapy for acutely suicidal patients with early psychosis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2003;37(4):414-20.
Rogers 2003 {published data only}
  • Rogers A, Day J, Randall F, Bentall RP. Patient's understanding and participation in a trial designed to improve the management of anti-psychotic medication. A qualitative study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2003;38:720-7.
Rossotto 2003 {published data only}
  • Rossotto E, Wirshing D, Wirshing W, Boyd J, Liberman R, Marder S. Reducing rehospitalization rates for patients with schizophrenia: the community re-entry supplemental intervention. Schizophrenia Research 2003;60(1):328.
Rotondi 2005 {published data only}
  • Rotondi AJ, Haas G, Anderson C, Ganguli R, Keshavan M, Newhill C, et al. A randomized trial of a telehealth intervention to provide in-home psychoeducation to persons with schizophrenia and their families: intervention design and preliminary findings. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2005;31(2):533.
  • Rotondi AJ, Haas GL, Anderson CM, Newhill CE, Spring MB, Ganguli R, et al. A clinical trial to test the feasibility of a telehealth psychoeducational intervention for persons with schizophrenia and their families: intervention and 3 month findings. Rehabilitation Psychology 2005;50(4):325-6.
Salzer 2004 {published data only}
Saren 2003 {published data only}
  • Saren T, Xiang Y, Weng Y, Feng Y. Social skill training for rehabilitating social skill disability of schizophrenics in the community. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;7(5):734-5.
Schonell 1995 {published data only}
  • Schonell H, Kumpf S, Gralle J, Gebhardt R. Efficacy of psychoeducational training for schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry 1995;28:213.
Schooler 1997 {published data only}
  • Keith SJ, Bellack A, Frances A, Mance R, Matthews S: The Treatment Strategies in Schizophrenia Collabortive Study Group. The influence of diagnosis and family treatment on acute treatment response and short term outcome in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1989;25(3):336-9.
  • Mueser K, Sengupta A, Schooler N, Bellack A, Xie H, Glick I. Family treatment and medication dosage reduction in Schizophrenia: Effects on patient social functioning, family attitudes, and burden. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001;69(1):3-12.
  • Schooler N, Keith S, Severe J, Matthews S, Bellack A, Glick I, et al. Relapse and rehospitalization during maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. The effects of dose reduction and family treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 1997;54:453-63.
Smith 1999 {published data only}
  • Smith TE, Hull JW, Romanelli S, Fertuck E, Weiss KA. Symptoms and neurocognition as rate limiters in skills training for psychotic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999;156(11):1817-8.
So 2006 {published data only}
  • So HW, Chen EYH, Wong CW, Hung SF, Chung DWS, Ng SM, et al. Efficacy of brief intervention for carers of people with first-episode psychosis: a waiting list controlled study. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry 2006;16(3):92-100.
Tamaras 2000 {published data only}
  • Tamaras V, Mavreas V, Economou M, Ioannovich E, Karydi V, Stefanis C. The effect of family intervention on chronic schizophrenics under individual psychosocial treatment: a 3-year study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2000;35(11):487-93.
Tsang 2001 {published data only}
Van Der Krieke 2010 {published data only}
  • Van Der Krieke AJ, Emerencia AC, Sytema S, Wunderink L, Aiello M, Petkov N, et al. Wegweis: An online self-management tool for people with psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4(Suppl 1):179.
Velligan 2002 {published data only}
  • Velligan DI, Prihoda TJ, Ritch JL, Maples N, Bow-Thomas C, Dassori A. A randomised single-blind pilot study of compensatory strategies in schizophrenia outpatients. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2002;28(2):283-92.
Wallace 1985 {published data only}
Wei 2007 {published data only}
  • Wei CX, Chu PH, Wei GM. Evaluation on the healing effects of self - control education on schizophrenia inpatients. Heilongjiang Nursing Journal [Modern Nursing][现代护理] 2007;13(25):2367-9.
Woods 2002 {published data only}
  • Woods SW, Wexler BE, Miller TJ, Hawkins KA, Saab WA, Davidson L. Novel early interventions for prodromal states. Proceedings of the 155th Annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2002 May 18-23; Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2002.
杜芳 2010 {published data only}
  • 杜芳, 魏春香, 楚平华. Self-management education as the central group of patients with schizophrenia take care of themselves, of happiness and self-esteem [Google translate] [以自我管理为中心团体教育对精神分裂症患者自理、幸福度及自尊的影响]. 中国护理管理 2010; Vol. 1:18-21.
王莉 2010 {published data only}
  • 王莉. Self-care education on self-care ability of patients with schizophrenia rehabilitation and quality of life [Google Translate] [自我护理教育对康复精神分裂症患者自理能力和生活质量的影响]. Chinese Journal of Coal Industry Medicine 2010;2:282-4.
许玉芳 2008 {published data only}
  • 许玉芳, 蒋菊芳, 吴晓梅, 张紫娟, 唐红, 方春霞, et al. Title only available in Chinese characters. Medical Journal of Chinese People's Health China and China Medicine 2008;20(5):471-3.
许玉芳 2008a {published data only}
  • 许玉芳, 蒋菊芳, 吴晓梅, 张紫娟, 唐红, 方春霞, et al. Application program training in the community care of patients with schizophrenia [程式训练在精神分裂症患者社区护理中的应用]. Chinese Journal of Nursing [Chung Hua Hu Li Tsa Chih][中华护理杂志] 2008;43(4):334-6.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Farhall 2001 {published data only}
  • Farhall J. Trialling CBT for psychosis in ordinary mental health services. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 2001.
Jones 2012 {published data only}
  • Jones P. Cts: Cognitive training for schizophrenia. http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/Search/StudyDetail.aspx?StudyID=11571 2012.
NCT00046085 {published data only}
  • NCT00046085. Online family support and education for schizophrenia. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2002.
NCT00069433 {published data only}
  • NCT00069433. Skills training for schizophrenia: enhancing outcomes. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2003.
NCT00169052 {published data only}
  • NCT00169052. Rehabilitation and health care for elderly with SMI. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2005.
NCT00435721 {published data only}
  • NCT00435721. The families coping with mental illness program. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2007.
NCT00515671 {published data only}
  • NCT00515671. IMR for veterans with SMI. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 2007.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
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