Intervention Review

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Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

  1. Guy Faulkner1,*,
  2. Tony Cohn2,
  3. Gary Remington3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 24 JAN 2007

Assessed as up-to-date: 13 NOV 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005148.pub2


How to Cite

Faulkner G, Cohn T, Remington G. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD005148. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005148.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Toronto, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, Toronto, Canada

  2. 2

    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Schizophrenia Program and MAPS, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

*Guy Faulkner, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto, 55 Harbord St, Toronto, On M5S 2W6, Canada. guy.faulkner@utoronto.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 24 JAN 2007

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[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Body mass index.
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 4 Weight: 4. Change in body mass index.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 5 Weight: 5. Change in waist circumference.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 6 Weight: 6. Increase initial weight by 7%.
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 7 Global state: 1. Improvement in quality of life, mean change score - 3 months (CGI, high=worse).
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 8 Global state: 2. Improvement in overall health, mean change score - 3 months (CGI, high=worse).
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 9 Global state: 3. Improvement in body image, mean change score - 3 months (CGI, high=worse).
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 PREVENTION: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 10 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Body mass index.
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Weight: 4. Change in body mass index.
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Weight: 5. Increase initial weight by 7%.
[Analysis 2.6]
Analysis 2.6. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Global state: 1. Average endpoint change scores - 6 weeks (CGI, high=worse).
[Analysis 2.7]
Analysis 2.7. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Mental state: 1. Average endpoint change score - 16 weeks (BPRS 6 items, high score=worse).
[Analysis 2.8]
Analysis 2.8. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Mental state: 2. Average endpoint change score - 6 weeks (SAPS, worse=poor).
[Analysis 2.9]
Analysis 2.9. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 9 Mental state: 3. Average endpoint change score - 6 weeks (SANS, high=worse).
[Analysis 2.10]
Analysis 2.10. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 10 Adverse effects: 1. Movement disorders - average endpoint change scores (SAS, high=worse).
[Analysis 2.11]
Analysis 2.11. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 11 Adverse effects: 2. Daytime somnolence.
[Analysis 2.12]
Analysis 2.12. Comparison 2 PREVENTION: 2. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 12 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 PREVENTION: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS - HIGHER DOSE versus LOWER DOSE, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 PREVENTION: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS - HIGHER DOSE versus LOWER DOSE, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 PREVENTION: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS - HIGHER DOSE versus LOWER DOSE, Outcome 3 Mental state: 1. Average endpoint change score - 16 weeks (BPRS, high=worse).
[Analysis 3.4]
Analysis 3.4. Comparison 3 PREVENTION: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS - HIGHER DOSE versus LOWER DOSE, Outcome 4 Adverse effects: 1. Movement disorders - average endpoint change score - 16 weeks (SAS, high=worse).
[Analysis 3.5]
Analysis 3.5. Comparison 3 PREVENTION: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS - HIGHER DOSE versus LOWER DOSE, Outcome 5 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg) (short term).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs) (short term).
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Body mass index (short term).
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Mental state: 1. Average endpoint change score - 8 weeks (SANS, high=worse).
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Mental state: 2. Average endpoint change score - 8 weeks (SAPS, high=worse).
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Mental state: 3. Average endpoint change score - 8 weeks (HAM-D, high=worse).
[Analysis 4.7]
Analysis 4.7. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Adverse effects: 1. Any (short term).
[Analysis 4.8]
Analysis 4.8. Comparison 4 PREVENTION: 4. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Leaving the study early (short term).
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 5.3]
Analysis 5.3. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Body mass index.
[Analysis 5.4]
Analysis 5.4. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Weight: 4. BMI change.
[Analysis 5.5]
Analysis 5.5. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Weight: 5. Increase initial weight by 7%.
[Analysis 5.6]
Analysis 5.6. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Global state: 1. Average endpoint change scores - 6 weeks (CGI, high=worse).
[Analysis 5.7]
Analysis 5.7. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Mental state: 1. Average endpoint change score - 6 weeks (SAPS, high=worse).
[Analysis 5.8]
Analysis 5.8. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Mental state: 2. Average endpoint change score - 6 weeks (SANS, high=worse).
[Analysis 5.9]
Analysis 5.9. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 9 Mental state: 3. Average endpoint change score - 6 weeks (HAM-D, high=worse).
[Analysis 5.10]
Analysis 5.10. Comparison 5 PREVENTION: 5. SELECTIVE NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR versus PLACEBO, Outcome 10 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 6.2]
Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 6.3]
Analysis 6.3. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Body mass index.
[Analysis 6.4]
Analysis 6.4. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Weight: 4. Waist circumference.
[Analysis 6.5]
Analysis 6.5. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Mental state: 1. Average endpoint change scores - 14 weeks (BPRS total, high=worse).
[Analysis 6.6]
Analysis 6.6. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Physiological.
[Analysis 6.7]
Analysis 6.7. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Physiological (skewed data).
[Analysis 6.8]
Analysis 6.8. Comparison 6 PREVENTION: 6. ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 7.1]
Analysis 7.1. Comparison 7 PREVENTION: 7. ANTICONVULSANT AGENT versus CONTROL, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 7.2]
Analysis 7.2. Comparison 7 PREVENTION: 7. ANTICONVULSANT AGENT versus CONTROL, Outcome 2 Adverse effects: 1. Insomnia.
[Analysis 7.3]
Analysis 7.3. Comparison 7 PREVENTION: 7. ANTICONVULSANT AGENT versus CONTROL, Outcome 3 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 8.1]
Analysis 8.1. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 8.2]
Analysis 8.2. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Body mass index.
[Analysis 8.3]
Analysis 8.3. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Increase initial weight by 7%.
[Analysis 8.4]
Analysis 8.4. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 4 Global state: 1. Average total endpoint score - 12 weeks (GAF, high=good).
[Analysis 8.5]
Analysis 8.5. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 5 Global state: 2. Average total endpoint score - 12 weeks (CGI, high=worse).
[Analysis 8.6]
Analysis 8.6. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 6 Adverse effects: 1. Physical (medium term).
[Analysis 8.7]
Analysis 8.7. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 7 Adverse effects: 2. Side effects (medium term).
[Analysis 8.8]
Analysis 8.8. Comparison 8 PREVENTION: 8. SSRI's + LOW DOSE CLOZAPINE versus HIGH DOSE CLOZAPINE, Outcome 8 Physiological (medium term).
[Analysis 9.1]
Analysis 9.1. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 9.2]
Analysis 9.2. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. BMI change.
[Analysis 9.3]
Analysis 9.3. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Waist-hip change.
[Analysis 9.4]
Analysis 9.4. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 4 Weight: 4. No loss (only >10% loss data).
[Analysis 9.5]
Analysis 9.5. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 5 Weight: 5. No loss (only >5% loss data).
[Analysis 9.6]
Analysis 9.6. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 6 Satisfaction: 1. Average total endpoint score - 14 weeks (CSQ-8, high=positive).
[Analysis 9.7]
Analysis 9.7. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 7 Mental state: 1. Average endpoint score - 14 weeks (PANSS total, high=worse).
[Analysis 9.8]
Analysis 9.8. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 8 Global state: 1. Not much improved (CGI-C).
[Analysis 9.9]
Analysis 9.9. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 9 Physiological: Blood pressure.
[Analysis 9.10]
Analysis 9.10. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 10 Laboratory data: Number increasing ratio of LDL to HDL.
[Analysis 9.11]
Analysis 9.11. Comparison 9 TREATMENT: 1. COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION versus STANDARD CARE, Outcome 11 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 10.1]
Analysis 10.1. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 10.2]
Analysis 10.2. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2a. Change (kgs) (heterogeneous data).
[Analysis 10.3]
Analysis 10.3. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Weight: 2b. Body weigh (kg) studies analysed seperately.
[Analysis 10.4]
Analysis 10.4. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Weight: 3. Body mass index.
[Analysis 10.5]
Analysis 10.5. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Weight: 4. Change in body mass index.
[Analysis 10.6]
Analysis 10.6. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Weight: 5. Waist circumference.
[Analysis 10.7]
Analysis 10.7. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Weight: 6. Change in waist circumference (cm).
[Analysis 10.8]
Analysis 10.8. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Weight: 7. Waist-hip ratio.
[Analysis 10.9]
Analysis 10.9. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 9 Weight: 8. Change in waist-hip ratio.
[Analysis 10.10]
Analysis 10.10. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 10 Weight: 9. Hip circumference.
[Analysis 10.11]
Analysis 10.11. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 11 Weight: 10. Body fat (%).
[Analysis 10.12]
Analysis 10.12. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 12 Global state: 1. Average total endpoint score - medium term (GAS, high=good).
[Analysis 10.13]
Analysis 10.13. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 13 Mental state: 1. Average total endpoint score - medium term (PANSS, high=worse).
[Analysis 10.14]
Analysis 10.14. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 14 Mental state: 2. Average total endpoint score - medium term (SANS, high=worse).
[Analysis 10.15]
Analysis 10.15. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 15 Extrapyramidal symptoms: (skewed data).
[Analysis 10.16]
Analysis 10.16. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 16 Adverse effects: 1. Related to satiety (medium term).
[Analysis 10.17]
Analysis 10.17. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 17 Adverse effects: 2. Related to sleep (medium term).
[Analysis 10.18]
Analysis 10.18. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 18 Adverse effects: 3. Other (medium term).
[Analysis 10.19]
Analysis 10.19. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 19 Cardiovascular (medium term).
[Analysis 10.20]
Analysis 10.20. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 20 Laboratory data (medium term).
[Analysis 10.21]
Analysis 10.21. Comparison 10 TREATMENT: 2. ANTI OBESITY DRUGS +/- LIFE STYLE MANAGEMENT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 21 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 11.1]
Analysis 11.1. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 11.2]
Analysis 11.2. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 11.3]
Analysis 11.3. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. Body mass index.
[Analysis 11.4]
Analysis 11.4. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Weight: 4. Change in body mass index.
[Analysis 11.5]
Analysis 11.5. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Mental state: 1. Average endpoint scores - 8 weeks (PANSS total, high=worse).
[Analysis 11.6]
Analysis 11.6. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Adverse effects: 1. Any.
[Analysis 11.7]
Analysis 11.7. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Other physiological: 1a. Leptin levels.
[Analysis 11.8]
Analysis 11.8. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Other physiological: 1b. Leptin change.
[Analysis 11.9]
Analysis 11.9. Comparison 11 TREATMENT: 3. H2 ANTAGONISTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 9 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 12.1]
Analysis 12.1. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 12.2]
Analysis 12.2. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 12.3]
Analysis 12.3. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Mental state: Average endpoint scores - 12 weeks (PANSS total, high=worse).
[Analysis 12.4]
Analysis 12.4. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Adverse effects: 1. Side-effects (medium term).
[Analysis 12.5]
Analysis 12.5. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Adverse effects: 2. Related to sleep (short term).
[Analysis 12.6]
Analysis 12.6. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Adverse effects: 3. Appetite (short term).
[Analysis 12.7]
Analysis 12.7. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Adverse effects: 4. Physical (short term).
[Analysis 12.8]
Analysis 12.8. Comparison 12 TREATMENT: 4. APPETITE SUPPRESSANT versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 13.1]
Analysis 13.1. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Body weight (kg).
[Analysis 13.2]
Analysis 13.2. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Percent body fat.
[Analysis 13.3]
Analysis 13.3. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Mental state: 1a. Positive symptoms, average change score - 4 months (PANSS total, high=worse).
[Analysis 13.4]
Analysis 13.4. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Mental state: 1b. Negative symptoms, average change score - 4 months (PANSS total, high=worse).
[Analysis 13.5]
Analysis 13.5. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Mental state: 2. Depressive symptoms, average change score - 4 months (HAM-D, high=worse).
[Analysis 13.6]
Analysis 13.6. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Extrapyramidal symptoms: 1. Tardive dyskinesia, average change score - 4 months (AIMS, high=worse).
[Analysis 13.7]
Analysis 13.7. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Extrapyramidal symptoms: 2. Parkinsonism, average total endpoint score - 4 months (SAS, high=worse).
[Analysis 13.8]
Analysis 13.8. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Extrapyramidal symptoms: 3. Akathisia, average change score - 4 months (BAS, high=worse).
[Analysis 13.9]
Analysis 13.9. Comparison 13 TREATMENT: 5. 5HT REUPTAKE BLOCKER versus PLACEBO, Outcome 9 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 14.1]
Analysis 14.1. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: 1. Change (kgs).
[Analysis 14.2]
Analysis 14.2. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Weight: 2. Change in body mass index.
[Analysis 14.3]
Analysis 14.3. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Weight: 3. No gain.
[Analysis 14.4]
Analysis 14.4. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 4 Weight: 4. Increase initial weight by 7%.
[Analysis 14.5]
Analysis 14.5. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 5 Weight: 5. Decrease initial weight by 7%.
[Analysis 14.6]
Analysis 14.6. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 6 Mental state: 1. Average change scores - medium term (BPRS, high=worse).
[Analysis 14.7]
Analysis 14.7. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 7 Mental state: 2. Average change scores - medium term (MADRS, high=worse).
[Analysis 14.8]
Analysis 14.8. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 8 Adverse effects: 1. Worsening of schizophrenia.
[Analysis 14.9]
Analysis 14.9. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 9 Adverse effects: 2. Lipid abnormalities (medium term).
[Analysis 14.10]
Analysis 14.10. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 10 Adverse effects: 3. Other (medium term).
[Analysis 14.11]
Analysis 14.11. Comparison 14 TREATMENT: 6. ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUG versus PLACEBO, Outcome 11 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 15.1]
Analysis 15.1. Comparison 15 TREATMENT: 7. ANTICONVULSANTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 1 Weight: Change (kgs).
[Analysis 15.2]
Analysis 15.2. Comparison 15 TREATMENT: 7. ANTICONVULSANTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 2 Adverse events (medium term).
[Analysis 15.3]
Analysis 15.3. Comparison 15 TREATMENT: 7. ANTICONVULSANTS versus PLACEBO, Outcome 3 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 16.1]
Analysis 16.1. Comparison 16 TREATMENT: 8. ANTICONVULSANTS - higher dose versus ANTICONVULSANTS - lower dose, Outcome 1 Weight: Change (kgs).
[Analysis 16.2]
Analysis 16.2. Comparison 16 TREATMENT: 8. ANTICONVULSANTS - higher dose versus ANTICONVULSANTS - lower dose, Outcome 2 Adverse events (medium term).
[Analysis 16.3]
Analysis 16.3. Comparison 16 TREATMENT: 8. ANTICONVULSANTS - higher dose versus ANTICONVULSANTS - lower dose, Outcome 3 Leaving the study early.
[Analysis 17.1]
Analysis 17.1. Comparison 17 PREVENTION: 9. (PHARMACOLOGICAL) MEAN WEIGHT CHANGE, Outcome 1 End of treatment.
[Analysis 18.1]
Analysis 18.1. Comparison 18 TREATMENT: 10. (PHARMACOLOGICAL) MEAN WEIGHT CHANGE, Outcome 1 End of treatment.