Intervention Review

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Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents

  1. Lindsay S Uman1,
  2. Kathryn A Birnie2,
  3. Melanie Noel2,
  4. Jennifer A Parker2,
  5. Christine T Chambers3,*,
  6. Patrick J McGrath3,
  7. Steve R Kisely4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group

Published Online: 10 OCT 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 2 SEP 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005179.pub3

How to Cite

Uman LS, Birnie KA, Noel M, Parker JA, Chambers CT, McGrath PJ, Kisely SR. Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD005179. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005179.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    IWK Health Centre & Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

  2. 2

    IWK Health Centre, Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, Halifax, Canada

  3. 3

    Department of Pediatrics (GI Division), IWK Health Centre, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Noval Scotia, Canada

  4. 4

    The University of Queensland, School of Population Health, Brisbane, Australia

*Christine T Chambers, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Department of Pediatrics (GI Division), IWK Health Centre, 5850/5980 University Avenue, P.O. Box 9700, Halifax, Noval Scotia, B3K 6R8, Canada.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 10 OCT 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Balan 2009 {published data only}
Bellieni 2006 {published data only}
Bisignano 2006 {published data only}
  • Bisignano A, Bush JP. Distress in pediatric hematology-oncology patients undergoing intravenous procedures: Evaluation of a CD-ROM intervention. Children's Health Care 2006;35(1):61-74.
Blount 1992 {published data only}
  • Blount RL, Bachanas PJ, Powers SW, Cotter MC, Franklin A, Chaplin W, et al. Training children to cope and parents to coach them during routine immunizations: Effects on child, parent, and staff behaviors. Behavior Therapy 1992;23:689-705.
Caprilli 2007 {published data only}
  • Caprilli S, Anastasi F, Grotto RP, Scollo M, Messeri A. Interactive music as a treatment for pain and stress in children during venipuncture: A randomized prospective study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2007;28:399-403.
Cassidy 2002 {published data only}
Cavender 2004 {published data only}
  • Cavender K, Goff MD, Hollon EC, Guzzetta CE. Parent's positioning and distracting children during venipuncture. Journal of Holistic Nursing 2004;22(1):32-56.
Chen 1999 {published data only}
  • Chen E, Zeltzer LK, Craske MG, Katz ER. Alteration of memory in the reduction of children's distress during repeated aversive medical procedures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1999;67(4):481-90.
Eland 1981 {published data only}
  • Eland JM. Minimizing pain associated with prekindergarten intramuscular injections. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 1981;5(5-6):361-72.
Fanurik 2000 {published data only}
  • Fanurik D, Koh JL, Schmitz ML. Distraction techniques combined with EMLA: Effects of IV insertion pain and distress in children. Children's Health Care 2000;29(2):87-101.
Fowler-Kerry 1987 {published data only}
Gold 2006 {published data only}
Gonzalez 1993 {published data only}
Goodenough 1997 {published data only}
  • Goodenough B, Kampel L, Champion GD, Laubreaux L, Nicholas MK, Ziegler JB, et al. An investigation of the placebo effect and age-related factors in the report of needle pain from venipuncture in children. Pain 1997;72:383-91.
Gupta 2006 {published data only}
  • Gupta D, Agarwal A, Dhiraaj S, Tandon M, Kumar M, Singh RS, et al. An evaluation of efficacy of balloon inflation on venous cannulation pain in children: A prospective, randomized, controlled study. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2006;102:1372-5.
Harrison 1991 {published data only}
Huet 2011 {published data only}
  • Huet A, Lucas-Polomeni MM, Robert JC, Sixou JL. Hypnosis and dental anesthesia in children: A prospective controlled study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2011;59:424-40.
Inal 2012 {published data only}
Jeffs 2007 {published data only}
Katz 1987 {published data only}
Kleiber 2001 {published data only}
Kristjansdottir 2010 {published data only}
Kuttner 1987 {published data only}
Liossi 1999 {published data only}
  • Liossi C, Hatira P. Clinical hypnosis versus cognitive behavioral training for pain management with pediatric cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirations. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1999;47(2):104-16.
Liossi 2003 {published data only}
  • Liossi C, Hatira P. Clinical hypnosis in the alleviation of procedure-related pain in pediatric oncology patients. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2003;51(1):4-28.
Liossi 2006 {published data only}
  • Liossi C, White P, Hatira P. Randomized clinical trial of local anesthetic versus a combination of local anesthetic with self-hypnosis in the management of pediatric procedure-related pain. Health Psychology 2006;25:307-15.
Liossi 2009 {published data only}
  • Liossi C, White P, Hatira P. A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control venepuncture-related pain of paediatric cancer patients. Pain 2009;142:255-63.
McCarthy 2010 {published data only}
Nguyen 2010 {published data only}
  • Nguyen TN, Nilsson S, Hellstrom A-L, Bengtson A. Music therapy to reduce pain and anxiety in children with cancer undergoing lumbar puncture: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2010;27(3):146-55.
Noguchi 2006 {published data only}
  • Noguchi LK. The effect of music versus nonmusic on behavioral signs of distress and self-report of pain in pediatric injection patients. Journal of Music Therapy 2006;43(1):16-38.
Press 2003 {published data only}
  • Press J, Gidron Y, Maimon M, Gonen A, Goldman V, Buskila D. Effects of active distraction on pain of children undergoing venipuncture: Who benefits from it?. The Pain Clinic 2003;15(3):261-9.
Sinha 2006 {published data only}
  • Sinha M, Christopher NC, Fenn R, Reeves L. Evaluation of nonpharmacologic methods of pain and anxiety management for laceration repair in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics 2006;117:1162-8.
Tak 2006 {published data only}
Tyc 1997 {published data only}
  • Tyc VL, Leigh L, Mulhern RK, Kumar Srivastava D, Bruce D. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for reducing distress in pediatric cancer patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging procedures. International Journal of Rehabilitation and Health 1997;3(4):267-79.
Vessey 1994 {published data only}
Vosoghi 2010 {published data only}
  • Vosoghi N, Chehrzad M, Abotalebi G, Atrkar RZ. Effects of distraction on physiologic Indices and pain intensity in children aged 3-6. HAYAT 2010;16(3-4):39-47.
Wang 2008 {published data only}
  • Wang ZX, Sun LH, Chen AP. The efficacy of non-pharmacological methods of pain management in school age children receiving venepuncture in a paediatric department: a randomized controlled trial of audiovisual distraction and routine psychological intervention. Swiss Medical Weekly 2008;138(39-40):579-84.
Windich-Biermeier 2007 {published data only}
  • Windich-Biermeier A, Sjoberg I, Dale JC, Eshelman D, Guzzetta CE. Effects of distraction on pain, fear, and distress during venous port access and venipuncture in children and adolescents with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2007;24(1):8-19.
Wint 2002 {published data only}
  • Sander Wint S, Eshelman D, Steele J, Guzzetta CE. Effects of distraction using virtual reality glasses during lumbar punctures in adolescents with cancer. ONF 2002;29(1):E8-15.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Agarwal 2008 {published data only}
  • Agarwal A,  Yadav G,  Gupta D,  Tandon M,  Singh PK,  Singh U. The role of a flash of light for attenuation of venous cannulation pain: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2008;106(3):814-6.
Alavi 2005 {published data only}
  • Alavi A, Zargham A, Abdyzdan Z, Nmnbati M. The comparison of distraction and EMLA cream effects on pain intensity due to intravenous catheters in 5-12 years old thalassemic children. Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences 2005;7(3):9-15.
Alderfer 2010 {published data only}
Alhani 2010 {published data only}
Anghelescu 2013 {published data only}
  • Anghelescu DL, Burgoyne LL, Faughnan LG, Hankins GM, Smeltzer MP, Pui C. Prospective randomized crossover evaluation of three anthesthetic regimens for painful procedures in children with cancer. The Journal of Pediatrics 2013;162(1):137-41.
Anson 2010 {published data only}
  • Anson L,  Edmundson E,  Teasley S. Implications of evidence-based venipuncture practice in a pediatric health care magnet facility. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 2010;41(4):179-85.
Arts 1994 {published data only}
  • Arts SE, Abu-Saad HH, Champion GD, Crawford MR, Fisher RJ, Juniper KH, et al. Age-related response to lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) emulsion and effect of music distraction on the pain of intravenous cannulation. Pediatrics 1994;93:797-801.
Ashkenzai 2006 {published data only}
  • Ashkenazi M,  Blumer S,  Eli I. Effectiveness of various modes of computerized delivery of local anesthesia in primary maxillary molars. Pediatric Dentistry 2006;28(1):29-39.
Atkinson 2009 {published data only}
Bagnasco 2012 {published data only}
  • Bagnasco A, Pezzi E, Rosa F, Fornoni L, Sasso L. Distraction techniques in children during venipuncture: an Italian experience. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene 2012;53:44-8.
Baxter 2011 {published data only}
  • Baxter AL,  Cohen LL,  McElvery HL,  Lawson ML,  von Baeyer CL. An integration of vibration and cold relieves venipuncture pain in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care 2011;27(12):1151-6.
Bengston 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Bengston BS, Jacobson RM, Friedrich WM, Vierkant RA, Poland GA. Teaching self-hypnosis to alleviate vaccination-related distress in children: A randomized, single-blinded controlled trial. In preparation.
Berberich 2009 {published data only}
Boivin 2008 {published data only}
  • Boivin JM,  Poupon-Lemarquis L,  Iraqi W,  Fay R,  Schmitt C,  Rossignol P. A multifactorial strategy of pain management is associated with less pain in scheduled vaccination of children. A study realized by family practitioners in 239 children aged 4-12 years old. Family Practice 2008;25(6):423-9.
Bowen 1999 {published data only}
  • Bowen AM, Dammeyer MM. Reducing children's immunization distress in a primary care setting. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 1999;14:296-303.
Broome 1998 {published data only}
  • Broome ME, Rehwaldt M, Fogg L. Relationships between cognitive behavioral techniques, temperament, observed distress, and pain reports in children and adolescents during lumbar puncture. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 1998;13(1):48-54.
Bruck 1995 {published data only}
Bufalini 2009 {published data only}
  • Bufalini A. Role of interactive music in oncological pediatric patients undergoing painful procedures [Ruolo della musica interattiva nel paziente pediatrico oncologico sottoposto a procedure dolorose]. Minerva Pediatrica 2009;61(4):379-90.
Bufalini 2012 {unpublished data only}
  • Bufalini A. The effect of live music on oncological paediatric patients during painful procedures. European Journal of Integrative Medicine 2012.
Carlson 2000 {published data only}
  • Carlson KL, Broome M, Vessey JA. Using distraction to reduce reported pain, fear, behavioral distress in children and adolescents: A multisite study. Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses 2000;5:75-85.
Chen 2000b {published data only}
  • Chen E, Craske MG, Katz ER, Schwartz E, Zeltzer LK. Pain-sensitive temperament: Does it predict procedural distress and response to psychological treatment among children with cancer?. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2000;25(4):269-78.
Christiano 1996 {unpublished data only}
  • Christiano BA. Children's coping and distress during invasive dental procedures: The effects of matching coping interventions to coping styles. Doctoral Dissertation. Case Western Reserve University, 1996.
Cline 2006 {published data only}
  • Cline RJ,  Harper FW,  Penner LA,  Peterson AM,  Taub JW,  Albrecht TL. Parent communication and child pain and distress during painful pediatric cancer treatments. Social Science & Medicine 2006;63(4):883-98.
Cohen 1997 {published data only}
  • Cohen LL, Blount RL, Panopoulos G. Nurse coaching and cartoon distraction: An effective and practical intervention to reduce child, parent, and nurse distress during immunizations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1997;22(3):355-70.
Cohen 1999 {published data only}
  • Cohen LL, Blount RL, Jansevics Cohen R, Schaen ER, Zaff JF. Comparative study of distraction versus topical anesthesia for pediatric pain management during immunizations. Health Psychology 1999;18(6):591-8.
Cohen 2001 {published data only}
  • Cohen LL, Blount RL, Jansevics Cohen R, Ball CM, McClellan CB, Bernard RS. Children's expectations and memories of acute distress: Short- and long-term efficacy of pain management interventions. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2001;26(6):367-74.
Cohen 2002 {published data only}
  • Cohen LL, Bernard RS, Greco LA, McClellan CB. A child-focused intervention for coping with procedural pain: Are parent and nurse coaches necessary?. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2002;27(8):749-57.
Cohen 2010 {published data only}
  • Cohen L. A multifaceted distraction intervention may reduce pain and discomfort in children 4–6 years of age receiving immunisation. Evidence Based Nursing 2010;13:15-6.
Cramer-Berness 2005 {published data only}
Crowley 2011 {published data only}
  • Crowley MA,  Storer A,  Heaton K,  Naccarato MK,  Proehl JA,  Moretz JD,  Li S. Emergency nursing resource: needle-related procedural pain in pediatric patients in the emergency department. Journal of Emergency Nursing 2011;37(3):246-51.
Dalhquist 2002 {published data only}
  • Dahlquist LM, Pendley JS, Landthrip DS, Jones CL, Steuber CP. Distraction intervention for preschoolers undergoing intramuscular injections and subcutaneous port access. Health Psychology 2002;21(1):94-9.
Dalhquist 2005 {published data only}
  • Dahlquist LM, Shroff Pendley J. When distraction fails: Parental anxiety and children’s responses to distraction during cancer procedures. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2005;30(7):623-8.
Davit 2011 {published data only}
  • Davit CJ,  Hundley RJ,  Bacic JD,  Hanson EM. A pilot study to improve venipuncture compliance in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2011;32(7):521-5.
Demir 2012 {published data only}
  • Demir G, Cukurova Z, Eren G, Tekdos Y, Hergunsel O. The effect of "Multiphase Sedation" in the course of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging on children, parents and anesthesiologists. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia 2012;62(4):511-9.
Drahota 2008 {published data only}
  • Drahota A,  Galloway E,  Stores R,  Ward D,  Severs M,  Dean T. Audiovisual distraction as an adjunct to pain and anxiety relief during minor surgery. Foot (Edinburgh) 2008;18(4):211-9.
Dufresne 2010 {published data only}
El-Sharkawi 2012 {published data only}
  • El-Sharkawi HFA, El-Housseiny AA, Aly AM. Effectivness of new distraction technique on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia for children. Pediatric Dentistry 2012;34(2):142-5.
Fassler 1985 {published data only}
French 1994 {published data only}
Gilbert 1982 {published data only}
  • Gilbert BO, Bennett Johnson S, Spillar R, McCallum M, Silverstein JH, Rosenbloom A. The effect of a peer-modelling film on children learning to self-inject insulin. Behavior Therapy 1982;13:186-93.
Goymour 2000 {published data only}
  • Goymour K, Stephenson C, Goodenough B, Boulton C. Evaluating the role of play therapy in the pediatric emergency department. AENJ 2000;3(2):10-2.
Hatava 2000 {published data only}
Hawkins 1998 {published data only}
  • Hawkins PJ. Hypnosis in the alleviation of procedure related pain and distress in paediatric oncology patients. Contemporary Hypnosis 1998;15(4):199-207.
Heckler-Medina 2006 {published data only}
  • Heckler-Medina GA. The importance of child life and pain management during vascular access procedures in pediatrics. Journal of the Association for Vascular Access 2006;11(3):144-51.
Heden 2009 {published data only}
Hoffman 2011 {published data only}
  • Hoffmann F,  Deanovic D. Prehospital pain management in children and adolescents [Präklinische Schmerztherapie bei Kindern und Jugendlichen]. Notfall and Rettungsmedizin 2011;14(7):549-53.
Howe 2011 {published data only}
  • Howe CJ,  Ratcliffe SJ,  Tuttle A,  Dougherty S,  Lipman TH. Needle anxiety in children with type 1 diabetes and their mothers. MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 2011;36(1):25-31.
Inal 2010 {published data only}
  • Inal S, Kelleci M. External thermomechanical stimulation and distraction are effective on pain relief of children during blood draw. 14th International Nursing Research Conference, Burgos 2010.
Jacobson 2006 {published data only}
  • Jacobson AF. Cognitive-behavioral interventions for IV insertion pain. AORN J 2006;84(6):1031-48.
Jay 1987 {published data only}
  • Jay SM, Elliott CH, Katz E, Siegel SE. Cognitive-behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for children's distress during painful medical procedures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1987;55(6):860-5.
Jay 1990 {published data only}
Jay 1991 {published data only}
  • Jay SM, Elliott CH, Woody PD. An investigation of cognitive-behavior therapy combined with oral Valium for children undergoing painful medical procedures. Health Psychology 1991;10(5):317-22.
Jay 1995 {published data only}
  • Jay S, Elliott CH, Fitzgibbons I, Woody P, Siegel S. A comparative study of cognitive behavior therapy versus general anesthesia for painful medical procedures in children. Pain 1995;62:3-9.
Kain 2006 {published data only}
  • Kain ZN,  Caldwell-Andrews AA,  Mayes LC,  Weinberg ME,  Wang SM,  MacLaren JE,  Blount RL. Family-centered preparation for surgery improves perioperative outcomes in children: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 2007;106(1):65-74.
Kammerbauer 2011 {published data only}
  • Kammerbauer N, Becke K. Acute pain management in pediatric and geriatric medicine - pain measurement: What pain scale in which patients? [Akutschmerztherapie in Pädiatrie und Geriatrie - Akutschmerztherapie im Kindesalter]. Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie - AINS 2011;46:344-53.
Kazak 1996 {published data only}
  • Kazak AE, Penati B, Boyer BA, Himelstein B, Brophy P, Waibel MK, et al. A randomized controlled perspective outcome study of a psychological and pharmacological intervention protocol for procedural distress in pediatric leukemia. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1996;21(5):615-31.
Kazak 1998 {published data only}
Kettwich 2007 {published data only}
  • Kettwich SC,  Sibbitt Jr WL,  Brandt JR,  Johnson CR,  Wong CS,  Bankhurst AD. Needle phobia and stress-reducing medical devices in pediatric and adult chemotherapy patients. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2007;24(1):20-8.
Klingman 1985 {published data only}
Klorman 1980 {published data only}
  • Klorman F, Hilpert PL, Michael R, LaGana C, Sveen OB. Effects of coping and mastery modelling on experienced and inexperienced pedodontic patients' disruptiveness. Behavior Therapy 1980;11:156-68.
Kolk 2000 {published data only}
Krauss 1996 {unpublished data only}
  • Krauss WJ. Videotape modelling and parent participation: Effects on reducing distress behavior in children undergoing immunization procedures. Doctoral Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology 1996.
Kuttner 1988 {published data only}
Kwekkeboom 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Kwekkeboom KL. Music versus distraction for procedural pain and anxiety in patients with cancer. ONF 2003;30(3):433-40.
Lawes 2008 {published data only}
  • Lawes C,  Sawyer L,  Amos S,  Kandiah M,  Pearce L,  Symons J. Impact of an education programme for staff working with children undergoing painful procedures. Paediatric Nursing 2008;20(2):33-7.
Lessi 2011 {published data only}
  • Lessi E, Biasutto M, Ferrazzo M. The pain from venipuncture in children: The benefit of visual distraction [Il dolore da venipuntura nel bambino: Il beneficio della distrazione con audiovisivi]. Gli Infermieri dei Bambini GISIP 2011;3(2):43-8.
Liossi 2007 {published data only}
  • Liossi C,  White P,  Franck L,  Hatira P. Parental pain expectancy as a mediator between child expected and experienced procedure-related pain intensity during painful medical procedures. The Clinical Journal of Pain 2007;23(5):392-9.
Lustman 1983 {published data only}
  • Lustman NM. The effectiveness of two different components of stress inoculation, preparatory information and the teaching of coping devices aimed at mothers whose children are undergoing minor surgery. Yale University (Doctoral Dissertation) 1983.
MacLaren 2005 {published data only}
MacLaren 2007 {published data only}
Malone 1996 {published data only}
  • Malone AB. The effects of live music on the distress of pediatric patients receiving intravenous starts, venipunctures, injections, and heel sticks. Journal of Music Therapy 1996;33(1):19-33.
Manimala 2000 {published data only}
  • Manimala R, Blount RL, Cohen LL. The effects of parental reassurance versus distraction on child distress and coping during immunizations. Child Health Care 2000;29:161-77.
Manne 1990 {published data only}
  • Manne SL, Redd WH, Jacobsen PB, Gorfinkle K, Schorr O. Behavioral intervention to reduce child and parent distress during venipuncture. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1990;58(5):565-72.
Manne 1994 {published data only}
Marec-Berard 2009 {published data only}
  • Marec-Bérard P, Bissery A, Kebaïli K, Schell M, Aubert F, Gaillard S, et al. A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Cancer 2009;21: doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-21.
McCarthy 1998 {published data only}
  • McCarthy AM, Cool VA, Hanrahan K. Cognitive behavioral interventions for children during painful procedures: Research challenges and program development. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 1998;13(1):55-63.
McCarthy 2010b {published data only}
  • McCarthy AM,  Kleiber C,  Hanrahan K,  Zimmerman MB,  Westhus N,  Allen S. Factors explaining children's responses to intravenous needle insertions. Nursing Research 2010;59(6):407-16.
McInally 2005 {published data only}
  • McInally W. Whose line is it anyway? Management of central venous catheters in children. Paediatric Nursing 2005;17(5):14-8.
Megel 1998 {published data only}
  • Megel ME, Houser CW, Gleaves LS. Children's responses to immunizations: Lullabies as a distraction. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 1998;21:129-45.
Melamed 1974 {published data only}
  • Melamed BG, Hawes RR, Heiby E, Glick J. Use of filmed modelling to reduce uncooperative behavior of children during dental treatment. Journal of Dental Research 1974;54(4):797-801.
Myrvik 2009 {unpublished data only}
  • Myrvik MP. A behavioral intervention targeting a reduction in child distress during a routine immunization. Dissertation, University of North Dakota 2008.
Nilsson 2009 {published data only}
  • Nilsson S,  Finnström B,  Kokinsky E,  Enskär K. The use of Virtual Reality for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents in a paediatric oncology unit. European Journal of Oncology Nursing 2009;13(2):102-9.
O'Laughlin 1995 {published data only}
  • O'Laughlin E, Ridley-Johnson. Maternal presence during children's routine immunizations: The effect of mother as observer in reducing child distress. Children's Health Care 1995;24(3):175-91.
Olsen 1991 {published data only}
  • Olsen BR. Brief interventions for routine use with children in a phlebotomy laboratory. West Virginia University (Doctoral Dissertation) 1991.
Ozdemir 2012 {published data only}
  • Ozdemir FK, Tufekci FG. The effect of using musical mobiles on reducing pain in infants during vaccination. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2012;17(7):662-7.
Park 2008 {published data only}
  • Park SH,  Bang SM,  Nam E,  Cho EK,  Shin DB,  Lee JH,  Ahn JY. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of low-dose intravenous Lorazepam to reduce procedural pain during bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Pain Medicine 2008;9(2):249-52.
Pederson 1996 {published data only}
  • Pederson C. Promoting parental use of nonpharmacologic techniques with children during lumbar punctures. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 1996;13(1):21-30.
Peretz 1999 {published data only}
  • Peretz B, Gluck GM. Assessing an active distracting technique for local anesthetic injection in pediatric dental patients: repeated deep breathing and blowing out air. The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 1999;24(1):5-8.
Posner 1998 {unpublished data only}
  • Posner K. A pharmacobehavioral intervention to reduce child cancer distress. Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Doctoral Dissertation. Yeshiva University, 1998.
Powers 1993 {published data only}
Ramponi 2009 {published data only}
Reeb 1997 {published data only}
  • Reeb RN, Busch JP. Preprocedural psychological preparation in pediatric oncology: A process-oriented intervention study. Children's Health Care 1997;25:265-79.
Rogovik 2007 {published data only}
  • Rogovik AL, Goldman RD. Hypnosis for treatment of pain in children. Canadian Family Physician 2007;53(5):823–5.
Russell 2012 {unpublished data only}
  • Russell K, Nicholson R, Legge L, Leauanae E, Olsen A, Marsh S, Naidu R. Reducing the pain of Bicillin injections in the rheumatic fever population of CMDHB. Conference presentation 2012.
Salih 2010 {published data only}
Santos 1999 {published data only}
  • Santos LMCN, Borba RIH, Sabates AL. The importance of the preschool in the preparation for intramuscular injection using the play [La importancia del preparo de ninos en edad prescolar para la injeccion intramuscular con el uso del juguete]. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem 2000;13(2):52-8.
Schechter 2010 {published data only}
  • Schechter NL,  Bernstein BA,  Zempsky WT,  Bright NS,  Willard AK. Educational outreach to reduce immunization pain in office settings. Pediatrics 2010;126(6):1514-21.
Schneider 2011 {published data only}
  • Schneider SM,  Kisby CK,  Flint EP. Effect of virtual reality on time perception in patients receiving chemotherapy. Support Care in Cancer 2011;19(4):555-64.
Schur 1986 {unpublished data only}
  • Schur JM. Alleviating behavioral distress with music or lamaze pant-blow breathing in children undergoing bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas (Doctoral Dissertation) 1986.
Shabanloei 2010 {published data only}
  • Shabanloei R,  Golchin M,  Esfahani A,  Dolatkhah R,  Rasoulian M. Effects of music therapy on pain and anxiety in patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy and aspiration. AORN J 2010;91(6):746-51.
Shahabi 2007 {published data only}
  • Shahabi M, Kalani-Tehrani D, Eghbal M, Alavi-Majd H, Abed Saidi J. Comparing the effects of EMLA ointment with a diversionary activity (music) on vein puncture pain at school-age children. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery 2007;17:56.
Shimizu 2005 {published data only}
Sikorova 2011 {published data only}
  • Sikorova L,  Hrazdilova P. The effect of psychological intervention on perceived pain in children undergoing venipuncture. BioBiomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 2011;155(2):149-54.
Slack 2009 {published data only}
  • Slack D,  Nelson L,  Patterson D,  Burns S,  Hakimi K,  Robinson L. The feasibility of hypnotic analgesia in ameliorating pain and anxiety among adults undergoing needle electromyography. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2009;88(1):21-9.
Slifer 2009 {published data only}
  • Slifer KJ,  Demore M,  Vona-Messersmith N,  Pulbrook-Vetter V,  Beck M,  Dalhquist L,  et al. Comparison of two brief parent-training interventions for child distress during parent-administered needle procedures. Child Health Care 2009;38(1):23-48.
Slifer 2011 {published data only}
  • Slifer KJ,  Hankinson JC,  Zettler MA,  Frutchey RA,  Hendricks MC,  Ward CM,  Reesman J. Distraction, exposure therapy, counterconditioning, and topical anesthetic for acute pain management during needle sticks in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Clinical Pediatrics 2011;50(8):688-97.
Smith 1989 {published data only}
  • Smith KE, Ackerson JD, Blotcky AD. Reducing distress during invasive medical procedures: Relating behavioral interventions to preferred coping style in pediatric cancer patients. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1989;14(3):405-19.
Smith 1996 {published data only}
  • Smith JT, Barabasz A, Barabasz M. Comparison of hypnosis and distraction in severely ill children undergoing painful medical procedures. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1996;43(2):187-95.
Sparks 2001 {published data only}
  • Sparks L. Taking the "ouch" out of injections for children: Using distraction to decrease pain. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing 2001;26(2):72-8.
Stefano 2005 {unpublished data only}
  • Stefano C, Giancarlo I, Corrado V. The experience of control related to the procedure of non-pharmacologic pain management in paediatric oncology and heamatology. Poster abstract - no source identified. 2005.
Stevenson 2005 {published data only}
  • Stevenson MD,  Bivins CM,  O'Brien K,  Gonzalez del Rey JA. Child life intervention during angiocatheter insertion in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care 2005;21(11):712-8.
Sury 2010 {published data only}
Thurgate 2005 {published data only}
  • Thurgate C,  Heppell S. Needle phobia--changing venepuncture practice in ambulatory care. Paediatric Nursing 2005;17(9):15-8.
Tufekci 2009 {published data only}
Vernon 1974 {published data only}
Vika 2009 {published data only}
Vohra 2011 {published data only}
  • Vohra S, Nilsson S. Does music therapy reduce pain and anxiety in children with cancer undergoing lumbar puncture?. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2011;16(1):66-7.
Wall 1989 {published data only}
  • Wall VJ, Womack W. Hypnotic versus active cognitive strategies for alleviation of procedural distress in pediatric oncology patients. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1989;31(3):181-91.
Wallace 2010 {published data only}
Weber 2010 {published data only}
  • Weber FS. The influence of playful activities on children's anxiety during the preoperative period at the outpatient surgical center. Jornal de Pediatria 2010;86(3):209-14.
Weinstein 2003 {published data only}
  • Weinstein P, Raadal M, Naidu S, Yoshida T, Kvale G, Milgrom P. A videotaped intervention to enhance child control and reduce anxiety of the pain of dental injections. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2003;4:181-5.
Winborn 1989 {published data only}
  • Winborn MD. Associative and dissociative preparatory strategies for children undergoing dental treatment. Memphis State University (Doctoral Dissertation).
Wood 2002 {published data only}
  • Wood C. Introducing a protocol for procedural pain. Paediatric Nursing 2002;14(8):30-3.
Yoo 2011 {published data only}
  • Yoo H,  Kim S,  Hur HK,  Kim HS. The effects of an animation distraction intervention on pain response of preschool children during venipuncture. Applied Nursing Research 2011;24(2):94-100.
Young 1988 {published data only}
  • Young MR, Fu VR. Influence of play and temperament on the young child's response to pain. CHC 1988;16(3):209-15.
Zabin 1982 {unpublished data only}
  • Zabin MA. The modification of children's behavior during blood work procedures. Doctoral Dissertation, West Virginia University 1982.
Zahr 1998 {published data only}
  • Zahr KL. Therapeutic play for hospitalized preschoolers in Lebanon. Pediatric Nursing 1998;24(5):449-54.
Zeltzer 1982 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
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Luebbert 2001
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