Intervention Review

Increased police patrols for preventing alcohol-impaired driving

  1. Cynthia W Goss1,*,
  2. Lisa D Van Bramer2,
  3. Jeffrey A Gliner3,
  4. Todd R Porter4,
  5. Ian G Roberts5,
  6. Carolyn DiGuiseppi1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 8 OCT 2008

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 MAY 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005242.pub2

How to Cite

Goss CW, Van Bramer LD, Gliner JA, Porter TR, Roberts IG, DiGuiseppi C. Increased police patrols for preventing alcohol-impaired driving. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005242. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005242.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Colorado Denver, Colorado Injury Control Research Center, Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO, USA

  2. 2

    Rocky Mountain Research & Prevention Institute, Aurora, Colorado, USA

  3. 3

    Colorado State University, Colorado Injury Control Research Center, Colorado School of Public Health, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

  4. 4

    University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado, USA

  5. 5

    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Cochrane Injuries Group, London, UK

*Cynthia W Goss, Colorado Injury Control Research Center, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, 4200 E 9th Avenue, Box C245, Denver, CO, 80262, USA. cynthia.goss@uchsc.edu.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 8 OCT 2008

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Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Road traffic injuries cause 1.2 million deaths worldwide each year. Alcohol consumption increases the risk of traffic crashes, especially fatal crashes. Increased police patrols aim to increase both the perceived and actual likelihood of being caught driving while alcohol-impaired, potentially reducing alcohol-related driving, crashes and injuries.

Objectives

To assess the effects on injuries and crashes of increased police patrols that target alcohol-impaired driving.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register (5/2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 5/2006), TRANSPORT (1968 to 5/2006), C2-SPECTR (2/2005), NCJRS (1/1951 to 5/2006), PsycINFO (1872 to 5/2006), Social Science Citation Index (1974 to 5/2006), SIGLE (1980 to 2/2006), Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to 5/2006), Dissertation Abstracts (1870 to 5/2006), NTIS (1964 to 12/2004), conference proceedings, and reference lists. We contacted authors of eligible studies.

Selection criteria

Randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, controlled before and after studies, interrupted time series (ITS) studies, and controlled ITS studies evaluating increased police patrols, either alone or combined with other interventions, targeting alcohol-impaired motor vehicle drivers.

Data collection and analysis

Two investigators independently screened citations, extracted data, and assessed quality criteria. We compared intervention and no-intervention geographical areas or time periods. We re-analyzed study data as required. Results are presented narratively.

Main results

The 32 eligible studies included one randomized controlled trial, eight controlled before-after studies, 14 controlled ITS studies, six ITS studies, and three studies with both ITS and controlled before-after analyses. Most interventions targeted only alcohol-impaired driving (69%) and included additional interventions such as media campaigns or special training for police officers (91%). Only two studies reported sufficient information to assess study quality completely. Two-thirds of studies were scored 'not adequate' on at least one feature. Five of six studies evaluating traffic fatalities reported reductions with the intervention, but differences were statistically significant in only one study. Effects of intervention on traffic injuries were inconsistent in the six studies evaluating this outcome, and no results were statistically significant. All four controlled studies evaluating fatal crashes reported reductions with the intervention, which were statistically significant in one study. All 12 controlled studies assessing injury crashes reported greater reductions with the intervention, though effects were minimal or not significant in several studies. ITS studies showed less consistent effects on fatal crashes (three studies) and injury crashes (four studies), and effect estimates were typically imprecise. Thirteen of 20 studies showed reductions in total crashes and about two-thirds of these were statistically significant.

Authors' conclusions

Studies examining increased police patrol programs were generally consistent in reporting beneficial effects on traffic crashes and fatalities, but study quality and reporting were often poor. Methodological limitations included inadequate sample size, dissimilar baseline measures, contamination, and inadequate data analysis. Thus existing evidence, although supportive, does not firmly establish whether increased police patrols, implemented with or without other intervention elements, reduce the adverse consequences of alcohol-impaired driving.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Increased police patrols for preventing alcohol-impaired driving

More than one million people are killed worldwide each year in traffic crashes. Driving after drinking alcohol increases the chance of a traffic crash. To reduce alcohol-impaired driving, some police agencies have increased the number of police patrols or the time the police spend patrolling. The aim of these increased patrols is to raise the perceived and actual likelihood that impaired drivers will be identified and stopped. Identification is based on observable behavioral cues, which include moving violations, erratic driving, and crash involvement. In response to these cues, police officers stop the driver and administer tests for alcohol impairment. We found 32 studies that tested the effects of increased police patrols on traffic deaths, injuries, and crashes. There was one randomized controlled trial and no quasi-randomized controlled trials. Almost all of the programs included additional interventions like community information programs, media campaigns, and special training for police officers. Most studies found that increased police patrols reduced traffic crashes and fatalities. Evidence for the effect on traffic injuries was less consistent. The detail provided on the methodology of included studies was almost uniformly poor. When this information was reported, the methodological quality was often weak. Therefore, the available evidence does not firmly establish that increased police patrols reduce the adverse consequences of alcohol-impaired driving. Good quality controlled studies with adequate sample size are needed to evaluate increased patrols. Also needed are studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of this intervention.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

增加警察巡邏來防止酒醉開車

道路交通傷害每年引起全世界120萬人死亡。酒精消耗增加交通碰撞事故,特別是致命的交通事故。增加警察巡邏目的是提高察覺酒駕情形與逮補酒駕的可能性,潛在性降低酒駕,碰撞,和傷害。

目標

評估增加警察巡邏對酒駕所造成的傷害和碰撞事故的影響。

搜尋策略

Group Specialised Register (5/2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 5/2006), TRANSPORT (1968 to 5/2006), C2SPECTR (2/2005), NCJRS (1/1951 to 5/2006), PsycINFO (1872 to 5/2006), Social Science Citation Index (1974 to 5/2006), SIGLE (1980 to 2/2006), Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to 5/2006), Dissertation Abstracts (1870 to 5/2006), NTIS (1964 to 12/2004), conference proceedings, and reference lists. 聯繫合格研究的作者.

選擇標準

隨機控制試驗,控制試驗,控制前後試驗,時間中斷試驗,評價增加警察巡邏或者合併其他干涉,瞄準酒駕司機

資料收集與分析

兩調查者獨立篩選引證,選出數據,並且評價質量標準。我們比較干涉和沒有干涉的地區或者時段,且被要求重新分析研究數據。結果被敘述呈獻。

主要結論

32項合格的研究包括1個隨機控制試驗, 8個控制前後試驗,14 個控制ITS研究,6個 ITS研究和3 個同時具備ITS與控制前後分析的研究。大多數研究者只瞄準酒醉開車(69%),其他研究者(91%)為媒體運動或者是警官的特別訓練,只有兩項研究報告有足夠的訊息評價研究品質。2/3的研究至少被記錄為”不足夠。6個評價交通死亡事故的研究中有5 個是有關於減低交通事故的研究,但是只有一項研究是有統計數據的差別。評價干涉對交通事故的影響在這6 項研究結果並不一致,並且沒有重要統計數據結果。4 項控制研究評價用干涉減少致命的碰撞事故,只有在一項研究有重要的統計數據。全部12控制研究確定干涉會減少致命的碰撞事故,雖然影響很小且幾個研究並不顯著。ITS研究顯示對致命的碰撞事故(3項研究)以及傷害性碰撞事故(4項研究)較缺乏一致性的影響, 並且影響估計通常不精確。全部20項研究中有13 項顯示減少碰撞事故且3分之2有重要的統計數據。

作者結論

增加警察巡邏計畫研究對交通事故和死亡的有利影響始終如一,但是研究質量與報告經常缺乏。方法學的限制包括不夠的樣品數,不同的基線測量,污染和不適當的數據分析。因此現有的證據,雖然支持,卻不確定是否增加警察巡邏伴隨有或沒有其他干涉要素可降低酒醉開車的不良結果。

翻譯人

本摘要由高雄榮民總醫院葉宣德翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。

總結

增加警察巡邏防止酒駕︰全世界每年超過100萬人死在交通事故。在喝酒之後開車會增加交通事故的機會。為了降低酒駕,一些警察局增加警察巡邏數量或者增加警察巡邏的時間。增加巡邏的目的可提高察覺酒駕情形並且停止酒駕的可能性。察覺乃基於看得見的行為,包括移動破壞,不穩定駕駛,和碰撞。為了扼阻這些行為,警官攔阻司機並且測試酒精濃度。我們發現32 研究有關於增加警察巡邏在交通死傷,和事故的影響。有一個隨機控制試驗和其它非隨機控制但類似的試驗。幾乎所有計畫包括社區訊息計畫的介入,媒介運動,和警官特別訓練。大多數研究發現增加警察巡邏可降低的交通事故和死亡。對交通傷害的響的證據不那麼一致。研究的方法學上的細節幾乎缺乏。當這些研究被報告時,方法學的質量經常很弱。因此,可得到證據並無強烈支持增加警察巡邏可降低酒駕的不良結果。良好質量的控制研究須足夠樣品數來評價增加巡邏的效果。此外這是需要成本效益研究的評價。