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Media-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy and behavioural therapy (self-help) for anxiety disorders in adults

  1. Evan Mayo-Wilson1,*,
  2. Paul Montgomery2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group

Published Online: 9 SEP 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005330.pub4


How to Cite

Mayo-Wilson E, Montgomery P. Media-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy and behavioural therapy (self-help) for anxiety disorders in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD005330. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005330.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University College London, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, London, UK

  2. 2

    University of Oxford, Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, Social Policy & Intervention, Oxford, UK

*Evan Mayo-Wilson, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7HB, UK. evan.mayowilson@gmail.com. e.mayo-wilson@ucl.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 9 SEP 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. Study flow diagram.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. Risk of bias graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies.
[Figure 3]
Figure 3. 1 Self-help compared with no treatment.

1.3 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Figure 4]
Figure 4. 1 Self-help compared with no treatment.

1.26 Response at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Figure 5]
Figure 5. 2 Self-help compared with face-to-face therapy.

2.3 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Figure 6]
Figure 6. Forest plot of comparison: 2 Media-delivered intervention compared with face-to-face therapy, outcome. 2.21 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 1 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 2 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (type of control).
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 3 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 4 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by media).
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 5 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by therapy).
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 6 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by setting).
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 7 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (sensitivity analysis for bias).
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 8 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 9 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (type of control).
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 10 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 11 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by media).
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 12 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by therapy).
[Analysis 1.13]
Analysis 1.13. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 13 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by setting).
[Analysis 1.14]
Analysis 1.14. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 14 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (sensitivity analysis for bias).
[Analysis 1.15]
Analysis 1.15. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 15 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (studies also reporting clinician rated).
[Analysis 1.16]
Analysis 1.16. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 16 Specific symptoms, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.17]
Analysis 1.17. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 17 Specific symptoms, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.18]
Analysis 1.18. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 18 General symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.19]
Analysis 1.19. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 19 Behavioural Test (level), clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.20]
Analysis 1.20. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 20 Behavioural Test (symptoms), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.21]
Analysis 1.21. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 21 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.22]
Analysis 1.22. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 22 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (type of control).
[Analysis 1.23]
Analysis 1.23. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 23 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Analysis 1.24]
Analysis 1.24. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 24 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by media).
[Analysis 1.25]
Analysis 1.25. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 25 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by therapy).
[Analysis 1.26]
Analysis 1.26. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 26 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by setting).
[Analysis 1.27]
Analysis 1.27. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 27 Response (specific), clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.28]
Analysis 1.28. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 28 Response (general), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.29]
Analysis 1.29. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 29 Recovery, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.30]
Analysis 1.30. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 30 Depression, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.31]
Analysis 1.31. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 31 Depression, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.32]
Analysis 1.32. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 32 Depression improvement, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.33]
Analysis 1.33. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 33 Disability, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.34]
Analysis 1.34. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 34 Disability, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.35]
Analysis 1.35. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 35 Quality of Life, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.36]
Analysis 1.36. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 36 Dropout at post-treatment.
[Analysis 1.37]
Analysis 1.37. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 37 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.38]
Analysis 1.38. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 38 Specific symptoms, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.39]
Analysis 1.39. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 39 Specific symptoms, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.40]
Analysis 1.40. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 40 General symptoms, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.41]
Analysis 1.41. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 41 Behavioural Test (level), clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.42]
Analysis 1.42. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 42 Behavioural Test (symptoms), self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.43]
Analysis 1.43. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 43 Response (specific), self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.44]
Analysis 1.44. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 44 Response (specific), clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.45]
Analysis 1.45. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 45 Response (general), self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.46]
Analysis 1.46. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 46 Recovery, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.47]
Analysis 1.47. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 47 Depression, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.48]
Analysis 1.48. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 48 Depression, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.49]
Analysis 1.49. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 49 Disability, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.50]
Analysis 1.50. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 50 Disability, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.51]
Analysis 1.51. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 51 Quality of Life, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 1.52]
Analysis 1.52. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 52 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 1.53]
Analysis 1.53. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 53 Specific symptoms, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 1.54]
Analysis 1.54. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 54 General symptoms, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 1.55]
Analysis 1.55. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 55 Response (specific), self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 1.56]
Analysis 1.56. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 56 Depression, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 1.57]
Analysis 1.57. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 57 Disability, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 1.58]
Analysis 1.58. Comparison 1 Media-delivered interventions compared to no intervention, Outcome 58 Quality of Life, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 1 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 2 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (group versus individual).
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 3 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 4 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by media).
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 5 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by therapy).
[Analysis 2.6]
Analysis 2.6. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 6 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (by setting).
[Analysis 2.7]
Analysis 2.7. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 7 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at post-treatment (sensitivity analysis for bias).
[Analysis 2.8]
Analysis 2.8. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 8 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.9]
Analysis 2.9. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 9 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (group versus individual).
[Analysis 2.10]
Analysis 2.10. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 10 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Analysis 2.11]
Analysis 2.11. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 11 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by media).
[Analysis 2.12]
Analysis 2.12. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 12 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by therapy).
[Analysis 2.13]
Analysis 2.13. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 13 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (by setting).
[Analysis 2.14]
Analysis 2.14. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 14 Specific symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment (sensitivity analysis for bias).
[Analysis 2.15]
Analysis 2.15. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 15 Specific symptoms, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.16]
Analysis 2.16. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 16 General symptoms, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.17]
Analysis 2.17. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 17 Behavioural Test (level), clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.18]
Analysis 2.18. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 18 Behavioural Test (symptoms), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.19]
Analysis 2.19. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 19 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.20]
Analysis 2.20. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 20 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (group versus individual).
[Analysis 2.21]
Analysis 2.21. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 21 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by disorder).
[Analysis 2.22]
Analysis 2.22. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 22 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by media).
[Analysis 2.23]
Analysis 2.23. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 23 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by therapy).
[Analysis 2.24]
Analysis 2.24. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 24 Response (specific), self-rated at post-treatment (by setting).
[Analysis 2.25]
Analysis 2.25. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 25 Response (specific), clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.26]
Analysis 2.26. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 26 Response (general), self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.27]
Analysis 2.27. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 27 Recovery, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.28]
Analysis 2.28. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 28 Depression, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.29]
Analysis 2.29. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 29 Depression, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.30]
Analysis 2.30. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 30 Depression improvement, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.31]
Analysis 2.31. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 31 Disability, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.32]
Analysis 2.32. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 32 Disability, clinician-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.33]
Analysis 2.33. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 33 Quality of Life, self-rated at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.34]
Analysis 2.34. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 34 Dropout at post-treatment.
[Analysis 2.35]
Analysis 2.35. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 35 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.36]
Analysis 2.36. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 36 Specific symptoms, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.37]
Analysis 2.37. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 37 Specific symptoms, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.38]
Analysis 2.38. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 38 General symptoms, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.39]
Analysis 2.39. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 39 Behavioural Test (level), clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.40]
Analysis 2.40. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 40 Behavioural Test (symptoms), self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.41]
Analysis 2.41. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 41 Response (specific), self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.42]
Analysis 2.42. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 42 Response (specific), clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.43]
Analysis 2.43. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 43 Recovery, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.44]
Analysis 2.44. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 44 Depression, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.45]
Analysis 2.45. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 45 Depression, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.46]
Analysis 2.46. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 46 Depression improvement, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.47]
Analysis 2.47. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 47 Disability, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.48]
Analysis 2.48. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 48 Disability, clinician-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.49]
Analysis 2.49. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 49 Quality of Life, self-rated at follow-up.
[Analysis 2.50]
Analysis 2.50. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 50 Anxiety (any measure), self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.51]
Analysis 2.51. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 51 Specific symptoms, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.52]
Analysis 2.52. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 52 Specific symptoms, clinician-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.53]
Analysis 2.53. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 53 General symptoms, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.54]
Analysis 2.54. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 54 Behavioural Test (level), clinician-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.55]
Analysis 2.55. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 55 Behavioural Test (symptoms), self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.56]
Analysis 2.56. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 56 Response (specific), self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.57]
Analysis 2.57. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 57 Response (specific), clinician-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.58]
Analysis 2.58. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 58 Response (general), self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.59]
Analysis 2.59. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 59 Recovery, clinician-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.60]
Analysis 2.60. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 60 Depression, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.61]
Analysis 2.61. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 61 Depression improvement, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.62]
Analysis 2.62. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 62 Disability, self-rated at >6m.
[Analysis 2.63]
Analysis 2.63. Comparison 2 Media-delivered interventions compared to face-to-face interventions, Outcome 63 Quality of Life, self-rated at >6m.