Intervention Review

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Media-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy and behavioural therapy (self-help) for anxiety disorders in adults

  1. Evan Mayo-Wilson1,*,
  2. Paul Montgomery2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group

Published Online: 9 SEP 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005330.pub4


How to Cite

Mayo-Wilson E, Montgomery P. Media-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy and behavioural therapy (self-help) for anxiety disorders in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD005330. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005330.pub4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University College London, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, London, UK

  2. 2

    University of Oxford, Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, Social Policy & Intervention, Oxford, UK

*Evan Mayo-Wilson, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7HB, UK. evan.mayowilson@gmail.com. e.mayo-wilson@ucl.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 9 SEP 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Abramowitz 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Abramowitz JS, Moore EL, Braddock AE, Harrington DL. Self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy with minimal therapist contact for social phobia: a controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2009;40(1):98-105.
Al-Kubaisy 1992 {published and unpublished data}
  • Al-Kubaisy T. Clinician-Accompanied Exposure and Self-Exposure in Phobia Reduction: A Controlled Study. London: Institute of Psychiatry, 1990.
  • Al-Kubaisy T, Marks IM, Logsdail S, Marks MP, Lovell K, Sungar M, et al. Role of exposure homework in phobia reduction: a controlled study. Behavior Therapy 1992;23(4):599-621.
  • Park JM, Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Ngamthipwatthana T, Marks M, Araya R, et al. Two-year follow-up after a randomised controlled trial of self- and clinician-accompanied exposure for phobia/panic disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2001;178:543-8.
Al-Kubaisy 1992 (AG) {published and unpublished data}
  • Al-Kubaisy T. Clinician-Accompanied Exposure and Self-Exposure in Phobia Reduction: A Controlled Study. London: Institute of Psychiatry, 1990.
  • Al-Kubaisy T, Marks IM, Logsdail S, Marks MP, Lovell K, Sungar M, et al. Role of exposure homework in phobia reduction: a controlled study. Behavior Therapy 1992;23(4):599-621.
  • Park JM, Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Ngamthipwatthana T, Marks M, Araya R, et al. Two-year follow-up after a randomised controlled trial of self- and clinician-accompanied exposure for phobia/panic disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2001;178:543-8.
Al-Kubaisy 1992 (SAD) {published and unpublished data}
  • Al-Kubaisy T. Clinician-Accompanied Exposure and Self-Exposure in Phobia Reduction: A Controlled Study. London: Institute of Psychiatry, 1990.
  • Al-Kubaisy T, Marks IM, Logsdail S, Marks MP, Lovell K, Sungar M, et al. Role of exposure homework in phobia reduction: a controlled study. Behavior Therapy 1992;23(4):599-621.
  • Park JM, Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Ngamthipwatthana T, Marks M, Araya R, et al. Two-year follow-up after a randomised controlled trial of self- and clinician-accompanied exposure for phobia/panic disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2001;178:543-8.
Al-Kubaisy 1992 (SP) {published and unpublished data}
  • Al-Kubaisy T. Clinician-Accompanied Exposure and Self-Exposure in Phobia Reduction: A Controlled Study. London: Institute of Psychiatry, 1990.
  • Al-Kubaisy T, Marks IM, Logsdail S, Marks MP, Lovell K, Sungar M, et al. Role of exposure homework in phobia reduction: a controlled study. Behavior Therapy 1992;23(4):599-621.
  • Park JM, Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Ngamthipwatthana T, Marks M, Araya R, et al. Two-year follow-up after a randomised controlled trial of self- and clinician-accompanied exposure for phobia/panic disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2001;178:543-8.
Andersson 2009a {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Andersson G, Waara J, Jonsson U, Malmaeus F, Carlbring P, Ost LG. Internet-based self-help versus one-session exposure in the treatment of spider phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Cognitve Behaviour Therapy 2009;38(2):114-20.
Andersson 2012a {published data only}
  • Andersson E, Enander J, Andrén P, Hedman E, Ljótsson B, Hursti T, et al. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine 2012;21:1-11.
Andersson 2012b {published data only}
  • Andersson G, Carlbring P, Furmark T, SOFIE Research Group. Therapist experience and knowledge acquisition in Internet-delivered CBT for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2012;7(5):e37411.
Andersson 2012c {published data only}
  • Andersson G, Paxling B, Roch-Norlund P, Östman G, Norgren A, Almlöv J, et al. Internet-based psychodynamic versus cognitive behavioral guided self-help for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2012;81(6):344-55.
Andrews 2011a {published and unpublished data}
  • Andrews GD, Davies M, Titov N. Effectiveness randomized controlled trial of face to face versus Internet cognitive behaviour therapy for social phobia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2011;45(4):337-40.
Baillie 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Baillie A. The Effectiveness of Stepped Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention for Panic Attacks. North Ryde, Australia: Psychology Department, Macquarie University, 2002.
  • Baillie AJ, Rapee RM. Predicting who benefits from psychoeducation and self help for panic attacks. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2004;42(5):513-27.
Baker 1973 {published and unpublished data}
Barrera 1977 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Barrera M, Rosen G. Detrimental effects of a self-reward contracting program on subjects' involvement in self-administered desensitization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1977;45(6):1180-1.
Bell 2012 {published data only}
  • Bell C. Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for the treatment of anxiety and effects on neuropsychological functioning and hormone levels (ACTRN12606000349549), 2008. http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?id=1534 (accessed 1 May 2013).
  • Bell CJ,  Colhoun HC,  Carter FA,  Frampton CM. Effectiveness of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2012;46(7):630-40.
  • Carter FA, Bell CJ, Colhoun HC. Suitability and acceptability of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2012;47(2):142-52.
Berger 2009 {published and unpublished data}
Bergstrom 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Bergstrom J, Andersson G, Ljotsson B, Ruck C, Andreewitch S, Karlsson A, et al. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial. BMC Psychiatry 2010;10:54.
Bickel 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Woolaway BK. An empirical test of CALM for PD: a computer-administered learning module for panic disorder. An empirical test of CALM for PD: a computer-administered learning module for panic disorder. PhD Dissertation. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, 2007.
Botella 2009 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Botella C, Gallego M, Garcia-Palacios A, Banos R, Quero S, Alcaniz M. The acceptability of an internet-based self-help treatment for fear of public speaking. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 2009;37(3):297-311.
Botella 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Botella C, Gallego M, Garcia-Palacios A, Guillen V, Banos R, Quero S, et al. An Internet-based self-help treatment for fear of public speaking: a controlled trial. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 2010;13(4):407-21.
Bowler 2012 {published data only}
  • Bowler JO,  Mackintosh B,  Dunn BD,  Mathews A,  Dalgleish T,  Hoppitt L. A comparison of cognitive bias modification for interpretation and computerized cognitive behavior therapy: effects on anxiety, depression, attentional control, and interpretive bias. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2012;80(6):1021–33.
Bowman 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bowman D, Scogin F, Floyd M, Patton E, Gist L. Efficacy of self-examination therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1997;44(3):267-73.
  • Floyd M, McKendree-Smith N, Bailey E, Stump J, Scogin F, Bowman D. Two-year follow-up of self-examination therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2002;16(4):369-75.
Carlbring 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Carlbring P. Panic! Its Prevalence, Diagnosis and Treatment via the Internet. Uppsala, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004.
  • Carlbring P, Westling B, Ljungstrand P, Ekselius L, Andersson G. Treatment of panic disorder via the Internet: a randomized trial of a self-help program. Behavior Therapy 2001;32(4):751-64.
Carlbring 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Carlbring P, Ekselius L, Andersson G. Treatment of panic disorder via the Internet: a randomized trial of CBT vs. applied relaxation. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2003;34(2):129-40.
Carlbring 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Andersson G, Carlbring P, Grimlund A. Predicting treatment outcome in internet versus face to face treatment of panic disorder. Computers in Human Behavior 2008; Vol. 24, issue 5:1790-801.
  • Carlbring P. Panic! Its Prevalence, Diagnosis and Treatment via the Internet. Uppsala, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004.
  • Carlbring P, Nilsson-Ihrfelta E, Waaraa J, Kollenstama C, Buhrmana M, Kaldoa V, et al. Treatment of panic disorder: live therapy vs. self-help via the Internet. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2005;43(10):1321-33.
Carlbring 2006a {published and unpublished data}
  • Almlov JC. Therapist effects in guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2011; Vol. 39, issue 3:311-22.
  • Carlbring P. Panic! Its prevalence, diagnosis and treatment via the internet. Panic! Its Prevalence, Diagnosis and Treatment via the Internet. Uppsala, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004.
  • Carlbring P, Bohman S, Brunt S, Buhrman M, Westling BE, Ekselius L, et al. Remote treatment of panic disorder: a randomized trial of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy supplemented with telephone calls. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006;163(12):2119-25.
  • Carlbring PM. All at once or one at a time? A randomized controlled trial comparing two ways to deliver bibliotherapy for panic disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2011; Vol. 40, issue 3:228-35.
Carlbring 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Almlov JC. Therapist effects in guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2011; Vol. 39, issue 3:311-22.
  • Carlbring P, Gunnarsdottir M, Hedensjo L, Andersson G, Ekselius L, Furmark T. Treatment of social phobia: randomised trial of internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy with telephone support. British Journal of Psychiatry 2007;190:123-8.
  • Carlbring P, Nordgren LB, Furmark T, Andersson G. Long-term outcome of internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for social phobia: a 30-month follow-up. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2009;47(10):848-50.
Carlbring 2011 {published data only}
  • Carlbring P, Maurin L, Torngren C, Linna E, Eriksson T, Sparthan E, et al. Individually-tailored, Internet-based treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2011;49(1):18-24.
Chung 2008 {published data only}
  • Chung YS, Kwon JH. The efficacy of bibliotherapy for social phobia. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 2008;8(4):390-401.
Donnan 1990 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Donnan P, Hutchinson A, Paxton R, Grant B, Firth M. Self-help materials for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial in general practice. British Journal of General Practice 1990;40(341):498-501.
Febbraro 1997a {published and unpublished data}
  • Febbraro G, Clum G, Roodman A, Wright J. The limits of bibliotherapy: a study of self-administered interventions in individuals with panic attacks. Behavior Therapy 1999;30:209-22.
  • Febbraro GA. An investigation of the differential effectiveness of bibliotherapy and self-regulatory treatments in individuals with panic attacks. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 1997.
  • Roodman AA. Assessment and feedback. Unpublished Master's thesis, 1995.
Febbraro 1997b {published and unpublished data}
  • Febbraro G, Clum G, Roodman A, Wright J. The limits of bibliotherapy: a study of self-administered interventions in individuals with panic attacks. Behavior Therapy 1999;30:209-22.
  • Febbraro GA. An investigation of the differential effectiveness of bibliotherapy and self-regulatory treatments in individuals with panic attacks. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 1997.
  • Roodman AA. Assessment and feedback. Unpublished Master's thesis, 1995.
Febbraro 2005 {published and unpublished data}
Fletcher 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fletcher J, Lovell K, Bower P, Campbell M, Dickens C. Process and outcome of a non-guided self-help manual for anxiety and depression in primary care: a pilot study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2005;33:319-31.
Fraser 2001 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Fraser JK. Three versus six sessions of computer-aided vicarious exposure treatment for spider phobia. Behaviour Change 2001; Vol. 18, issue 4:213-23.
Furmark 2009a {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Furmark T, Carlbring P, Hedman E, Sonnenstein A, Clevberger P, Bohman B, et al. Guided and unguided self-help for social anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2009;195(5):440-7.
  • Hedman E, Furmark T, Carlbring P, Ljotsson B, Ruck C, Lindefors N, et al. A 5-year follow-up of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder [NCT01145690]. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2011; Vol. 13, issue 2:e39.
Furmark 2009b {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Furmark T, Carlbring P, Hedman E, Sonnenstein A, Clevberger P, Bohman B, et al. Guided and unguided self-help for social anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2009;195(5):440-7.
  • Hedman E, Furmark T, Carlbring P, Ljotsson B, Ruck C, Lindefors N, et al. A 5-year follow-up of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2011; Vol. 13, issue 2:e39.
Ghosh 1984 {published and unpublished data}
Gilroy 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gilroy LJ, Kirkby KC, Daniels BA, Menzies RG, Montgomery IM. Controlled comparison of computer-aided vicarious exposure versus live exposure in the treatment of spider phobia. Behavior Therapy 2000;31(4):733-44.
  • Gilroy LJ, Kirkby KC, Daniels BA, Menzies RG, Montgomery IM. Long-term follow-up of computer-aided vicarious exposure versus live graded exposure in the treatment of spider phobia. Behavior Therapy 2003;34(1):65-76.
Gould 1993a {published and unpublished data}
Gould 1995 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gould RA, Clum GA. Self-help plus minimal therapist contact in the treatment of panic disorder: a replication and extension. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1995;26(3):533-46.
Granado 2007 {published data only}
  • Granado LC, Ranvaud R, Peláez JR. A spiderless arachnophobia therapy: comparison between placebo and treatment groups and six-month follow-up study. Neural Plasticity 2007;2007:10241.
Greist 2002 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Greist JH, Marks IM, Baer L, Kobak KA, Wenzel KW, Hirsch MJ, et al. Behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder guided by a computer or by a clinician compared with relaxation as a control. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002;63(2):138-45.
  • Mataix-Cols DMI. Obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions as predictors of compliance with and response to behaviour therapy: results from a controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2002;71(5):255-62.
  • McCrone P, Marks IM, Greist JH, Baer L, Kobak KA, Wenzel KW, et al. Cost-effectiveness of computer-aided behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics 2007;76(4):249-50.
  • McCrone P,  Knapp M,  Proudfoot J,  Ryden C,  Cavanagh K,  Shapiro DA,  et al. Erratum. Cost-effectiveness of computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2004;185:440.
Grime 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Grime PR. An open, randomised study, to compare the effects of a computerised cognitive behavioural therapy programme (‘beating the blues’) plus conventional care vs. conventional care alone on absence from work due to anxiety, depression or stress. Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians, 2001.
  • Grime PR. Computerized cognitive behavioural therapy at work: a randomized controlled trial in employees with recent stress-related absenteeism. Occupational Medicine 2004; Vol. 54, issue 5:353-9.
Hassan 1992 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hassan AAM. A comparison of computer-based symbolic modelling and conventional methods in the treatment of spider phobia. University of Leeds, England, 1992.
Hazen 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hazen A, Walker J, Eldridge G. Anxiety sensitivity and treatment outcome in panic disorder. Anxiety 1996;2(1):34-9.
  • Walker JG, Eldridge A, Hazen RJ, O'Riordan J, Frankel S. Evaluation of a self-help book and workbook for treatment of panic disorder used independently in a self-help group or a professional group. University of Manitoba, 1996.
Heading 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Heading K, Kirkby KC, Martin F, Daniels BA, Gilroy LJ, Menzies RG. Controlled comparison of single-session treatments for spider phobia: live graded exposure alone versus computer-aided vicarious exposure. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2001;18:103-13.
Hedman 2011a {published data only}
  • Hedman E, Andersson E, Lindefors N, Andersson G, Ruck C, Ljotsson B. Cost­effectiveness and long­term effectiveness of Internet­based cognitive behaviour therapy for severe health anxiety. Psychological Medicine 2013;43(2):363-74.
  • Hedman E, Andersson G, Andersson E, Ljotsson B, Ruck C, Asmundson GJ, et al. Internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for severe health anxiety: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2011;198:230-6.
  • Hedman EEMA, Hedman E. Internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for severe health anxiety: randomised controlled trial. Author's reply. British Journal of Psychiatry 2011; Vol. 199, issue 3:251.
  • Udo II. Internet-based CBT for severe health anxiety. British Journal of Psychiatry 2011; Vol. 199, issue 3:250-1.
Hedman 2011b {published data only}
  • Hedman E, Andersson G, Ljótsson B, Andersson E, Rück, C, Mörtberg E, et al. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. PLoS One 2011;6(3):e18001.
  • Hedman E,  Andersson E,  Ljótsson B,  Andersson G,  Andersson E,  Schalling M,  et al. Clinical and genetic outcome determinants of Internet- and group-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2012;126(2):126-36.
  • Hedman EA. Cost-effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2011; Vol. 49, issue 11:729-36.
Hellström 1995 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Hellström K, Öst L. One-session therapist directed exposure vs two forms of manual directed self-exposure in the treatment of spider phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1995;33(8):959-65.
Holdsworth 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • Holdsworth N, Paxton R, Seidel S, Thomson D, Shrubb S. Parallel evaluations of new guidance materials for anxiety and depression in primary care. Journal of Mental Health 1996;5(2):195-207.
Houghton 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Houghton VT. A quantitative study of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment, using an internet-delivered self-help program, for women with generalized anxiety disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.69(5-B) 2008.
Johnston 2011 {published data only}
  • Johnston L,  Titov N,  Andrews G,  Spence J,  Dear BF. A RCT of a transdiagnostic internet-delivered treatment for three anxiety disorders: examination of support roles and disorder-specific outcomes. PLoS ONE 2011;6(11):e28079.
Jones 2002a {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Jones FA. The role of bibliotherapy in health anxiety: an experimental study. British Journal of Community Nursing 2002;7(10):498-504.
Kenardy 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kenardy JA, Dow MGT, Johnston DW, Newman MG, Thomson A, Barr Taylor C. A comparison of delivery methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder: an international multicenter trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71(6):1068-75.
  • Kenardy JR. Cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder: long-term follow up. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2005;34(2):75-8.
Kiely 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kiely BG. Bibliotherapy for GAD: mediating and predictor variables influencing outcome. Unpublished manuscript, 2002.
  • Kiely BG. Bibliotherapy for generalised anxiety disorder: a controlled trial: comparison and exploration of factors related to outcome. Unpublished manuscript, 2002.
Kiropoulos 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kiropoulos LA,  Klein B,  Austin DW,  Gilson K,  Pier C,  Mitchell J,  et al. Is internet-based CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia as effective as face-to-face CBT?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2008;22:1273-84.
Klein 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Klein B, Richards JC. A brief Internet-based treatment for panic disorder. Behavoural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2001;29(1):113-7.
Klein 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Koszycki 2011 {published data only}
  • Bradwejn JK. Efficacy of self-administered cognitive behavior therapy and sertraline in panic disorder. Proceedings of the 156th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; May 17-22, 2003; San Francisco, California.
  • Koszycki D, Taljaard M, Segal Z, Bradwejn J. A randomized trial of sertraline, self-administered cognitive behavior therapy, and their combination for panic disorder. Psychological Medicine 2011;41(2):373-83.
Lewis 1978 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Lewis C. Self-administered relaxation training for anxiety management and the contribution of money deposits and locus of control. University of Oregon, 1977.
  • Lewis CE, Biglan A, Steinbock E. Self-administered relaxation training and money deposits in the treatment of recurrent anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1978;46(5):1274-83.
Lidren 1994 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lidren D, Watkins P, Gould R, Clum G. A comparison of bibliotherapy and group therapy in the treatment of panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1994;62(4):865-9.
  • Lidren DM. The differential efficacy of self-help and group therapy in the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia: a treatment comparison study. Washington State University, 1993.
Marks 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Marks I, Kenwright M, McDonough M, Whittaker M, Mataix-Cols D. Saving clinicians' time by delegating routine aspects of therapy to a computer: a randomized controlled trial in phobia/panic disorder. Psychological Medicine 2004;34(1):9-17.
  • McCrone P, Marks IM, Mataix-Cols D, Kenwright M, McDonough M. Computer-aided self-exposure therapy for phobia/panic disorder: a pilot economic evaluation. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2009;38(2):91-9.
Matthews 2011 {published data only}
  • Matthews AJ. Online exposure for spider phobia: continuous versus intermittent exposure. Behaviour Change 2011; Vol. 28, issue 3.
Maunder 2009 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Maunder L, Cameron L, Moss M, Muir D, Evans N, Paxton R, et al. Effectiveness of self-help materials for anxiety adapted for use in prison: a pilot study. Journal of Mental Health 2009;18(3):262-71.
  • Maunder L, Cameron L, Robson S, Quayle G. Adapting Self-Help Materials for the Prison Setting. Northumberland: Tyne and Wear Mental Health Trust, 2004.
McNamee 1989 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • McNamee G, O'Sullivan G, Lelliott P, Marks I. Telephone-guided treatment for housebound agoraphobics with panic disorder: exposure vs. relaxation. Behavior Therapy 1989;20(4):491-7.
Mead 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Mead N, MacDonald W, Bower P, Lovell K, Richards D, Roberts C, et al. The clinical effectiveness of guided self-help versus waiting-list control in the management of anxiety and depression: a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine 2005;35(11):1633-43.
  • Young C, Brosan L, Shelfer L, Beazley P. The clinical effectiveness of guided self-help versus waiting-list control in the management of anxiety and depression: a randomised controlled trial: Comment. Psychological Medicine 2006;36(5):725-6.
Milne 1988 {published and unpublished data}
  • Milne D, Covitz F. A comparative evaluation of anxiety management materials in general practice. Health Education Journal 1988;47(2/3):67-9.
Moritz 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Moritz S, Jelinek L, Hauschildt M, Naber D. How to treat the untreated: effectiveness of a self-help metacognitive training program (myMCT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 2010;12(2):209-20.
Muller 2011 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Muller BHK. One-session computer-based exposure treatment for spider-fearful individuals: efficacy of a minimal self-help intervention in a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2011;42(2):179-84.
Nordin 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Nordin S, Carlbring P, Cuijpers P, Andersson G. Expanding the limits of bibliotherapy for panic disorder: randomized trial of self-help without support but with a clear deadline. Behavior Therapy 2010;41(3):267-76.
Ost 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Öst L, Salkovskis P, Hellström K. One-session therapist-directed exposure vs. self-exposure in the treatment of spider phobia. Behavior Therapy 1991;22(3):407-22.
Paxling 2011 {published data only}
  • Almlov JC. Therapist effects in guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2011; Vol. 39, issue 3:311-22.
  • Paxling B, Almlov J, Dahlin M, Carlbring P, Breitholtz E, Eriksson T, et al. Guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2011; Vol. 40, issue 3:159-73.
Proudfoot 2004a {published and unpublished data}
  • McCrone P,  Knapp M,  Proudfoot J,  Ryden C,  Cavanagh K,  Shapiro DA,  et al. Cost-effectiveness of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care. British Journal of Psychiatry 2004;185:55-62.
  • Proudfoot J,  Goldberg D,  Mann A,  Everitt B,  Marks I,  Gray JA. Computerized, interactive, multimedia cognitive-behavioural program for anxiety and depression in general practice. Psychological Medicine 2003;33(2):217-27.
  • Proudfoot J,  Ryden C,  Everitt B,  Shapiro DA,  Goldberg D,  Mann A,  et al. Clinical efficacy of computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2004;185:46-54.
Rapee 2007 {published and unpublished data}
Richards 2003a {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Richards A, Barkham M, Cahill J, Richards D, Williams C, Heywood P. PHASE: a randomised, controlled trial of supervised self-help cognitive behavioural therapy in primary care. British Journal of General Practice 2003;53(495):764-70.
Richards 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Richards JC, Klein B, Austin DW. Internet cognitive behavioural therapy for panic disorder: does the inclusion of stress management information improve end-state functioning?. Clinical Psychologist 2006;10(1):2-15.
Robinson 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Robinson E,  Titov N,  Andrews G,  McIntyre K,  Schwencke G,  Solley K. Internet treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs. technician assistance. PLoS ONE 2010;5(6):e10942.
Rosen 1976 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Rosen GM, Glasgow RE, Barrera M. A two-year follow-up on systematic desensitization with data pertaining to the external validity of laboratory fear assessment. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1977;45(6):1188-9.
  • Rosen GM, Glasgow RE, Barrera NM. A controlled study to assess the clinical efficacy of totally self-administered systematic desensitization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1976;44(2):208-17.
Rosmarin 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Rosmarin DH. A randomized controlled evaluation of a spiritually integrated cognitive behavioral intervention for sub-clinical anxiety among Jews, delivered via the internet. Bowling Green State University, 2010.
  • Rosmarin DH, Pargament KI, Pirutinsky S, Mahoney A. A randomized controlled evaluation of a spiritually integrated treatment for subclinical anxiety in the Jewish community, delivered via the internet. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2010;24(7):799-808.
Ruwaard 2010 {published data only}
  • Ruwaard J, Broeksteeg J, Schrieken B, Emmelkamp P, Lange A. Web-based therapist-assisted cognitive behavioral treatment of panic symptoms: a randomized controlled trial with a three-year follow-up. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2010;24:387-96.
Salaberria 1995 {published and unpublished data}
  • Salaberria IK, Echeburua OE. Psychological treatment in social phobia: an experimental study. [Spanish] Tratamiento psicologico de la fobia social: un estudio experimental. Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta 1995; Vol. .21, issue 76:151-79.
  • Salaberria K, Echeburua E. Long-term outcome of cognitive therapy's contribution to the treatment of generalized social phobia. Behavior Modification 1998;22(3):262-84.
Schneider 2005 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Schneider AJ, Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Bachofen M. Internet-guided self-help with or without exposure therapy for phobic and panic disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2005;74(3):154-64.
Seekles 2011 {published data only}
  • Seekles W, van Straten A, Beekman A, van Marwijk H, Cuijpers P. Effectiveness of guided self-help for depression and anxiety disorders in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Psychiatry Research 2011;187(1-2):113-20.
  • Seekles W, van Straten A, Beekman A, van Marwijk H, Cuijpers P. Stepped care for depression and anxiety. From primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders. BMC Health Services Research 2009;9:90.
Sharp 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Power KG, Sharp DM, Swanson V, Simpson RJ. Therapist contact in cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 2000;7(1):37-46.
  • Sharp DM, Power KG, Swanson V. Reducing therapist contact in cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care: global measures of outcome in a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of General Practice 2000;50(461):963-8.
Shoenberger 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Shoenberger D. Preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of a self-help intervention for chronic worry. University of Nevada, 2008.
Silfvernagel 2012 {published data only}
  • Silfvernagel K, Carlbring P, Kabo J, Edström S, Eriksson J, Månson L, et al. Individually tailored internet-based treatment of young adults and adults with panic symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2012; Vol. 14, issue 3:e65.
Smith 1997 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Smith KL, Kirkby KC, Montgomery IM, Daniels BA. Computer-delivered modeling of exposure for spider phobia: relevant versus irrelevant exposure. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 1997;11(5):489-97.
Sorby 1991 {published and unpublished data}
  • Sorby NG, Reavley W, Huber JW. Self help programme for anxiety in general practice: controlled trial of an anxiety management booklet. British Journal of General Practice 1991;41(351):417-20.
Tarrier 1986 {published and unpublished data}
  • Tarrier N, Main CJ. Applied relaxation training for generalised anxiety and panic attacks: the efficacy of a learnt coping strategy on subjective reports. British Journal of Psychiatry 1986;149:330-6.
Titov 2008a {published and unpublished data}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Johnston L, Schwencke G, Choi I. Shyness programme: longer term benefits, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009;43(1):36-44.
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Schwencke G, Drobny J, Einstein D. Shyness 1: distance treatment of social phobia over the Internet. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2008;42(7):585-94.
  • Titov N, Gibson M, Andrews G, McEvoy P. Internet treatment for social phobia reduces comorbidity. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009 Aug;43(8):754-9.
Titov 2008b {published and unpublished data}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Johnston L, Schwencke G, Choi I. Shyness programme: longer term benefits, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009;43(1):36-44.
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Schwencke G. Shyness 2: treating social phobia online: replication and extension. Australian and New Zealalnd Journal of Psychiatry 2008;42(7):595-605.
  • Titov N, Gibson M, Andrews G, McEvoy P. Internet treatment for social phobia reduces comorbidity. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009 Aug;43(8):754-9.
Titov 2008c {published and unpublished data}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Choi I, Schwencke G, Mahoney A. Shyness 3: Randomized controlled trial of guided versus unguided Internet-based CBT for social phobia. Australian and New Zealand Journal od Psychiatry 2008;.42(12):1030-40.
  • Titov N, Gibson M, Andrews G, McEvoy P. Internet treatment for social phobia reduces comorbidity. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009 Aug;43(8):754-9.
Titov 2009a {published and unpublished data}
  • Lorian CNT. Changes in risk-taking over the course of an internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2012; Vol. 26, issue 1:140-9.
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Robinson E, Schwencke G, Johnston L, Solley K, et al. Clinician-assisted Internet-based treatment is effective for generalized anxiety disorder: randomized controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009;43(10):905-12.
Titov 2010a {published data only}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Johnston L, Robinson E, Spence J. Transdiagnostic Internet treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2010 Sep;48(9):890-9.
Titov 2010a (GAD) {published data only}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Johnston L, Robinson E, Spence J. Transdiagnostic Internet treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2010;48(9):890-9.
Titov 2010a (PD) {published data only}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Johnston L, Robinson E, Spence J. Transdiagnostic Internet treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2010;48(9):890-9.
Titov 2010a (SAD) {published data only}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Johnston L, Robinson E, Spence J. Transdiagnostic Internet treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2010;48(9):890-9.
Titov 2010b {published data only}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Schwencke G, Robinson E, Peters L, Spence J. Randomized controlled trial of internet cognitive behavioural treatment for social phobia with and without motivational enhancement strategies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2010;44(10):938-45.
Tolin 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Tolin D F, Hannan S, Maltby N, Diefenbach GJ, Worhunsky P, Brady RE. A randomized controlled trial of self-directed versus therapist-directed cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with prior medication trials. Behavior Therapy 2007;38(2):179-91.
Tolin 2011 {published data only}
Tortella-Feliu 2011 {published data only}
  • Tortella-Feliu M, Botella C, Llabres J, Breton-Lopez JM, del Amo AR, Banos RM, et al. Virtual reality versus computer-aided exposure treatments for fear of flying. Behavior Modification 2011;35(1):3-30.
Tyrer 1988 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Tyrer P, Seivewright H, Johnson T. The Nottingham Study of Neurotic Disorder: predictors of 12-year outcome of dysthymic, panic and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychological Medicine 2004 Nov;34(8):1385-94.
  • Tyrer P, Seivewright N, Ferguson B, Murphy S, Darling C, Brothwell J, et al. The Nottingham Study of Neurotic Disorder: relationship between personality status and symptoms. Psychological Medicine 1990;20(2):423-31.
  • Tyrer P, Seivewright N, Ferguson B, Murphy S, Johnson AL. The Nottingham study of neurotic disorder: effect of personality status on response to drug treatment, cognitive therapy and self-help over two years. British Journal of Psychiatry 1993;162:219-26.
  • Tyrer P, Seivewright N, Murphy S, Ferguson B, Kingdon D, Barczak P, et al. The Nottingham study of neurotic disorder: comparison of drug and psychological treatments. Lancet 1988 Jul 30;2(8605):235-40.
van Boeijen 2005a {published and unpublished data}
  • van Boeijen CA, van Oppen P, van Balkom AJ, Visser S, Kempe PT, Blankenstein N, et al. Treatment of anxiety disorders in primary care practice: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of General Practice 2005;55(519):763-9.
Varley 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Varley R, Webb, TL, Sheeran P. Making self-help more helpful: a randomized controlled trial of the impact of augmenting self-help materials with implementation intentions on promoting the effective self-management of anxiety symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2010;79(1):123-8.
Walker 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Walker JR, Cox BJ, Frankel S, Torgrud LJ. Evaluating two cognitive-behavioral self-help approaches for generalized social phobia. Proceedings of the World Congress of Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies; July 22-25, 2001; Vancouver, BC.
White 1995 {published and unpublished data}
  • White J. "Stresspac": three-year follow-up of a controlled trial of self-help package for the anxiety disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 1998;26(2):133-41.
  • White J. Stresspac: a controlled trial of a self-help package for the anxiety disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 1995;23(2):89-107.
Wims 2010 {published data only}
  • Wims E, Titov N, Andrews G, Choi I. Clinician-assisted Internet-based treatment is effective for panic: a randomized controlled trial. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2010;44(7):599-607.
Zetterqvist 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Zetterqvist K, Maanmies J, Strom L, Andersson G. Randomized controlled trial of internet-based stress management. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2003;32(3):151-60.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Allen 1973 {published data only}
Altmaier 1981 {published data only}
Andersson 2006 {published data only}
  • Andersson G,  Carlbring P,  Holmström A,  Sparthan E,  Furmark T,  Nilsson-Ihrfelt E,  et al. Internet-based self-help with therapist feedback and in vivo group exposure for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006 Aug;74(4):677-86.
Arpin-Cribbie 2008 {published data only}
  • Arpin-Cribbie CA. Perfectionism related cognitions and psychological distress: a randomized trial evaluating the relative effectiveness of a web-based cognitive behavioral intervention protocol. York University, Canada, 2007.
Ayres 1993 {published data only}
  • Ayres J, Ayres FE, Baker AL, Colby N, De Blasy C, Dimke D, et al. Two empirical tests of a videotape designed to reduce public speaking anxiety. Journal of Applied Communication Research 1993;21(2):132-47.
Bennett 1985 {published data only}
Berger 2011 {published data only}
  • Berger T,  Caspar F,  Richardson R,  Kneubühler B,  Sutter D,  Andersson G. Internet-based treatment of social phobia: a randomized controlled trial comparing unguided with two types of guided self-help. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2011;29:158-69.
Billings 2008 {published data only}
  • Billings D, Cook R, Hendrickson A, Dove D. A web-based approach to managing stress and mood disorders in the workforce. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2008;50(8):960-8.
Boettcher 2012 {published data only}
  • Boettcher J, Berger T, Renneberg B. Internet-based attention training for social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Therapy Research 2012;36:522-36.
Bornas 2001 {published data only}
  • Bornas X, Tortella-Feliu M, Llabres J, Fullana MA. Computer-assisted exposure treatment for flight phobia: a controlled study. Psychotherapy Research 2001;11(3):259-73.
Botella 1999 {published data only}
  • Botella C, Garcia-Palacios A. The possibility of reducing therapist contact and total length of therapy in the treatment of panic disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 1999;27(3):231-47.
Carpenter 1994 {published data only}
  • Carpenter DJ, Gatchel RJ, Hasegawa T. Effectiveness of a videotaped behavioral intervention for dental anxiety: the role of gender and the need for information. Behavioral Medicine 1994;20(3):123-32.
Chiauzzi 2008 {published data only}
  • Chiauzzi E, Brevard J, Thurn C, Decembrele S, Lord S. MyStudentBody-Stress: an online stress management intervention for college students. Journal of Health Communication 2008;13(6):555-72.
Coldwell 1998 {published data only}
  • Coldwell SE,  Getz T,  Milgrom P,  Prall CW,  Spadafora A,  Ramsay DS. CARL: a LabView 3 computer program for conducting exposure therapy for the treatment of dental injection fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1998;36(4):429-41.
Cronin 1994 {published data only}
Crowder 1970 {published data only}
Currie 2010 {published data only}
  • Currie SL, McGrath PJ, Day V. Development and usability of an online CBT program for symptoms of moderate depression, anxiety, and stress in post-secondary students. Computers in Human Behavior 2010; Vol. 26, issue 6:1419-26.
Dannon 2002 {published data only}
den Boer 2007 {published data only}
  • den Boer PC, Wiersma D, Ten Vaarwerk I, Span MM, Stant AD, Van den Bosch RJ. Cognitive self-therapy for chronic depression and anxiety: a multi-centre randomized controlled study. Psychological Medicine 2007;37(3):329-39.
Devine 1973 {published data only}
Dolezal-Wood 1998 {published data only}
  • Dolezal-Wood S, Belar CD, Snibbe J. A comparison of computer-assisted psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in groups. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 1998;5(1):103-15.
Donner 1969 {published data only}
Furmark 2009 {published data only}
  • Furmark T,  Carlbring P,  Hedman E,  Sonnenstein A,  Clevberger P,  Bohman B, et al. Guided and unguided self-help for social anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2009;195(5):440-7.
Gatchel 1986 {published data only}
Gross 1979 {published data only}
Grossman 1991 {published data only}
  • Grossman KS, McNamara J, Dudley K. Treatment effectiveness of a self-help manual for dating anxiety. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 1991;6(1):85-106.
Gruber 2001 {published data only}
Halpern 1995 {published data only}
  • Halpern RF. Mastery through self-efficacy. University of Detroit Mercy, 1995.
Hamberger 1986 {published data only}
  • Hamberger LK, Schuldt WJ. Live and taped relaxation instructions: effects of procedural variables. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 1986;11(1):31-46.
Hasson 2005 {published data only}
  • Hasson D, Anderberg UM, Theorell T, Arnetz BB. Psychophysiological effects of a web-based stress management system: a prospective, randomized controlled intervention study of IT and media workers. BMC Public Health 2005;25(5):78.
Hasson 2010 {published data only}
  • Hasson H, Brown C, Hasson D. Factors associated with high use of a workplace web-based stress management program in a randomized controlled intervention study. Health Education Research 2010;25(4):596-607.
Hazen 2009 {published data only}
Heatherton 2004 {published data only}
  • Heatherton J, Matheson A, Robson M. Recruitment by GPs during consultations in a primary care randomized controlled trial comparing computerized psychological therapy with clinical psychology and routine GP care: problems and possible solutions. Primary Health Care Research and Development 2004;5:5-10.
Hecker 2004 {published data only}
  • Hecker JE, Losee MC, Roberson-Nay R, Maki K. Mastery of your anxiety and panic and brief therapist contact in the treatment of panic disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2004;18(2):111-26.
Hetherton 2004 {published data only}
  • Hetherton J, Matheson A, Robson M. Recruitment by GPs during consultations in a primary care randomized controlled trial comparing computerized psychological therapy with clinical psychology and routine GP care: problems and possible solutions. Primary Health Care Research and Development 2004;5(1):5-10.
Hickie 2010 {published data only}
  • Hickie IB, Davenport TA, Luscombe GM, Moore M, Griffiths KM, Christensen H. Practitioner-supported delivery of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy: evaluation of the feasibility of conducting a cluster randomised trial. Medical Journal of Australia 2010;192:S31-5.
Hiebert 1983 {published data only}
  • Hiebert B, Cardinal J, Dumka L, Marx RW. Self-instructed relaxation: a therapeutic alternative. Biofeedback & Self Regulation 1983;8(4):601-17.
Hoek 2012 {published data only}
  • Hoek W, Schuurmans J, Koot HM, Cuijpers P. Effects of Internet-based guided self-help problem-solving therapy for adolescents with depression and anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 2012;7(8):e43485.
Hogan 1968 {published data only}
Hopf 1995 {published data only}
  • Hopf T, Ayres J, Ayres F, Baker B. Does self-help material work? Testing a manual designed to help trainers construct public speaking apprehension reduction workshops. Communication Research Reports 1995;12(1):34-8.
Israel 1977 {published data only}
Jannoun 1982 {published data only}
Jarmon 1972 {published data only}
  • Jarmon DG. Differential effectiveness of rational-emotive therapy, bibliotherapy, and attention-placebo in the treatment of speech anxiety (PhD). Southern Illinois University, 1972.
Jeffcoat 2012 {published data only}
  • Jeffcoat T,  Hayes SC. A randomized trial of ACT bibliotherapy on the mental health of K-12 teachers and staff. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2012;50:571-9.
Johansson 2012 {published data only}
  • Johansson R,  Hesser H,  Ljótsson B,  Frederick RJ,  Andersson G. Transdiagnostic, affect-focused, psychodynamic, guided self-help for depression and anxiety through the internet: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open 2012;2:e002167.
Jones 2002b {published data only}
  • Jones R, White J, Kamarzaman Z, Naven L, Morton R, Mariott C, et al. Cognitive behavioural computer therapy for anxiety: difficulties in carrying out a randomised trial and lessons learned. (Cited in Kaltenthaler E, Brazier J, De Nigris E, Tumur I, Ferriter M, Beverley C, et al Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for depression and anxiety update: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment 2006;10(33):1-186) 2002.
Kahn 1968 {published data only}
Kassinove 1980 {published data only}
  • Kassinove H, Miller N, Kalin M. Effects of pretreatment with rational emotive bibliotherapy and rational emotive audiotherapy on clients waiting at community mental health center. Psychological Reports 1980;46(3):851-7.
Kenwright 2005 {published data only}
  • Kenwright M, Marks I, Graham C, Franses A, Mataix-Cols D. Brief scheduled phone support from a clinician to enhance computer-aided self-help for obsessive-compulsive disorder: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2005;61(12):1499-508.
Khanna 2010 {published data only}
  • Khanna MS,  Kendall PC. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for child anxiety: results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2010;78(5):737-45.
Kiely 1984 {published data only}
  • Kiely BG. Pilot evaluation of a stress self-help/educational package, as used in a primary care setting (MSc). University of Birmingham, 1984.
Kiely 1986 {published data only}
  • Kiely BG, McPherson IG. Stress self-help packages in primary care: a controlled trial evaluation. The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1986;36(288):307-9.
Kilfedder 2010 {published data only}
Kirsch 1979 {published data only}
Klein 2009 {published data only}
  • Klein B,  Austin D,  Pier C,  Kiropoulos L,  Shandley K,  Mitchell J, et al. Internet-based treatment for panic disorder: does frequency of therapist contact make a difference?. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2009;38(2):100-13.
Kohutek 1983 {published data only}
Kupshik 1999 {published data only}
  • Kupshik GA, Fisher CR. Assisted bibliotherapy: effective, efficient treatment for moderate anxiety problems. British Journal of General Practice 1999;49(438):47-8.
Linder 1971 {published data only}
Lucock 2008 {published data only}
  • Lucock MP, Padgett K, Noble R, Westley A, Atha C, Horsefield C, et al. Controlled clinical trial of a self-help for anxiety intervention for patients waiting for psychological therapy. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2008;36(5):541-51.
Lucock 2011 {published data only}
Lynch 1997 {published data only}
  • Lynch F. Progressive relaxation and guided imagery as audio cassette interventions to reduce teacher stress. United States International University, 1997.
Mann 1972 {published data only}
Marchand 2007 {published data only}
  • Marchand A, Todorov C, Borgeat F, Pelland ME. Effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia and the impact of partner involvement. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2007; Vol. 35, issue 5.
Marshall 1976 {published data only}
Mataix-Cols 2006 {published data only}
  • Mataix-Cols D, Cameron R, Gega L, Kenwright M, Marks I. Effect of referral source on outcome with cognitive-behaviour therapy self-help. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2006;47(4):241-5.
Matthews 2010 {published data only}
  • Matthews AJ. Online exposure for spider fear: treatment completion and habituation outcomes. Behaviour Change 2010; Vol. 27, issue 4.
McGlynn 1976 {published data only}
  • McGlynn FD, Walls R. Credibility ratings for desensitization and pseudotherapy among moderately and mildly snake-avoidant college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1976; Vol. 32, issue 1:140-5.
Moritz 2011 {published data only}
  • Moritz S, Rufer M. Movement decoupling: a self-help intervention for the treatment of trichotillomania. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2011;42(1):74-80.
Muroff 2012 {published data only}
Newman 1997 {published data only}
  • Newman M, Kenardy J, Herman S, Taylor C. Comparison of palmtop-computer-assisted brief cognitive-behavioral treatment to cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1997;65(1):178-83.
Ormrod 2010 {published data only}
  • Ormrod JA. Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy in an adult mental health service: a pilot study of outcomes and alliance. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2010; Vol. 39, issue 3.
Pier 2008 {published data only}
  • Pier C,  Austin DW,  Klein B,  Mitchell J,  Schattner P,  Ciechomski L, et al. A controlled trial of internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for panic disorder with face-to-face support from a general practitioner or email support from a psychologist. Mental Health in Family Medicine 2008;5(1):29-39.
Pittaway 2009 {published data only}
  • Pittaway S,  Cupitt C,  Palmer D,  Arowobusoye N,  Milne R,  Holttum S,  et al. Comparative, clinical feasibility study of three tools for delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy for mild to moderate depression and anxiety provided on a self-help basis. Mental Health in Family Medicine 2009;6(3):145-54.
Pless 2010 {published data only}
  • Pless A. Treatment of test anxiety: a computerized approach. Central Michigan University, 2010.
Pleva 2007 {published data only}
Powell 2012 {published data only}
  • Powell J,  Hamborg T,  Stallard N,  Burls A,  McSorley J,  Bennett K,  et al. Effectiveness of a Web-based cognitive-behavioral tool to improve mental well-being in the general population: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2013;15(1):e2.
Rahe 2002 {published data only}
  • Rahe RH, Taylor CB, Tolles RL, Newhall LM, Veach TL, Bryson S. A novel stress and coping workplace program reduces illness and healthcare utilization. Psychosomatic Medicine 2002;64(2):278-86.
Register 1991 {published data only}
  • Register AC, Beckham JC, May JG, Gustafson DJ. Stress inoculation bibliotherapy in the treatment of test anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1991;38(2):115-9.
Rishel 1993 {published data only}
  • Rishel DJD. A comparison of videotaped behavioral interventions in reducing anxiety and increasing patient satisfaction. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1993.
Ruwaard 2007 {published data only}
  • Ruwaard J,  Lange A,  Bouwman M,  Broeksteeg J,  Schrieken B. E-mailed standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2007;36(3):179-92.
Saul 2007 {published data only}
  • Saul JE. A comparison of internet-based versus face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy for snake phobia. Hofstra University, 2007.
Schelver 1983 {published data only}
Schneider 1995 {published data only}
  • Schneider SJ, Schwartz MD, Fast J. Computerized, telephone-based health promotion: II. Stress management program. Computers in Human Behavior 1995;11:205-14.
Serrano 2009 {published data only}
  • Serrano-Aguilar P, Ramallo-Farina Y, Trujillo-Martin MM, Munoz-Navarro SR, Perestelo-Perez L, de las Cuevas-Castresana C. The relationship among mental health status (GHQ-12), health related quality of life (EQ-5D) and health-state utilities in a general population. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale 2009;18:229-39.
Smith 1987 {published data only}
  • Smith JJ. The effectiveness of a computerized self-help stress coping program with adult males. Computers in Human Services 1987;2(1-2):37-49.
Sportel 2013 {published data only}
  • Sportel BE,  de Hullu E,  de Jong PJ,  Nauta MH. Cognitive bias modification versus CBT in reducing adolescent social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 2013;8(5):e64355.
Tillfors 2008 {published data only}
  • Tillfors M,  Carlbring P,  Furmark T,  Lewenhaupt S,  Spak M,  Eriksson A, et al. Treating university students with social phobia and public speaking fears: Internet delivered self-help with or without live group exposure sessions. Depression and Anxiety 2008;25(8):708-17.
Titov 2009b {published data only}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Choi I, Schwencke G, Johnston L. Randomized controlled trial of web-based treatment of social phobia without clinician guidance. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009;43(10):913-9.
Titov 2009c {published data only}
  • Titov N, Andrews G, Schwencke G, Solley K, Johnston L, Robinson E. An RCT comparing effect of two types of support on severity of symptoms for people completing Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for social phobia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2009;43(10):920-6.
van Straten 2008 {published data only}
  • van Straten A, Cuijpers P, Smits N. Effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2008;10(1):e7.
Vestre 1989 {published data only}
  • Vestre ND, Judge TJ. Evaluation of self-administered rational emotive therapy programs for interpersonal anxiety. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy 1989;7(3):141-54.
Weissberg 1977 {published data only}
  • Weissberg M. A comparison of direct and vicarious treatments of speech anxiety: desensitization, desensitization with coping imagery, and cognitive modification. Behavior Therapy 1977; Vol. 8, issue 4:606-20.
Wolitzky-Taylor 2010 {published data only}
  • Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Telch MJ. Efficacy of self-administered treatments for pathological academic worry: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2010;48(9):840-50.
Wright 1997 {published and unpublished data}
  • Wright J, Clum G, Roodman A, Febbraro G. A bibliotherapy approach to relapse prevention in individuals with panic attacks. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2000;14(5):483-99.
  • Wright JH. An investigation of a minimal-contact bibliotherapy approach to relapse prevention for individuals treated for panic attacks (PhD). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,. Virginia Polytechnic Inst And State U., US, 1997.
Zou 2012 {published data only}
  • Zou JB, Dear BF, Titov N, Lorian CN, Johnston L, Spence J, et al. Brief internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in older adults: a feasibility trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2012;26(6):650-5.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
ACTRN12610001058066 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12610001058066. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of different levels of graded support on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adults using the Internet-based Wellbeing Course. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12610001058066.aspx‎ (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12611000116921 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611000116921. A randomised controlled trial of a clinician-guided education program for obsessive compulsive disorder comparing the efficacy of administration via the Internet with administration via Bibliotherapy. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611000116921.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12611000625976 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611000625976. A randomized controlled trial of Internet based education for social phobia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia), and generalised anxiety disorder, comparing immediate education versus delayed education groups on severity of symptoms of anxiety. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611000625976.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12611000626965 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611000626965. Internet versus face to face cognitive behaviour therapy for social phobia. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611000626965.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
Andersson 2011 {published data only}
  • Andersson G. Psychodynamic internet treatment versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (NCT01312116), 2011. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01312116 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Bohus 2010 {published data only}
  • Bohus M. Evaluation of the efficacy, mechanisms of change and efficiency of a stepped-care program with a computer-based self-help module and minimal therapist contact in comparison to a standard cognitive therapy for patients with social phobia, 2010. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00434759 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Christensen 2010 {published data only}
  • Christensen H, Guastella A, Mackinnon A, Griffiths KM, Eagleson C, Batterham P, et al. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of an online e-health application compared to attention placebo or sertraline in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder. Trials [electronic resource] 2010;11:48.
Donker 2009 {published data only}
  • Donker T, van Straten A, Riper H, Marks I, Andersson G, Cuijpers P. Implementation of Internet-based preventive interventions for depression and anxiety: role of support? The design of a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2009;10:59.
DRKS00004612 {published data only}
  • DRKS0000461. Internet-based treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder-acceptance and effectiveness [Internetgestützte Behandlung von Zwangsstörungen-Akzeptanz und Wirksamkeit]. [German Clinical Trials Register] www.drks.de/DRKS0000461 (accessed 26 February 2013).
Greist 2008 {published data only}
  • Greist JH. Cost-effectiveness of adding Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to Luvox CR for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00743834 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Griffiths 2010a {published data only}
  • Griffiths K. The wellbeing project: internet interventions to improve mental health and wellbeing (ISRCTN65657330). http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN65657330/ (accessed 1 May 2013).
  • Griffiths KM, Crisp D, Christensen H, Mackinnon AJ, Bennett K. The ANU WellBeing study: a protocol for a quasi-factorial randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of an Internet support group and an automated Internet intervention for depression. BMC Psychiatry 2010;10:20.
  • Griffiths KM, Mackinnon AJ, Crisp DA, Christensen H, Bennett K, Farrer L. The effectiveness of an online support group for members of the community with depression: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2012;7(12):e53244.
ISRCTN36376369 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN36376369. Stepped care for panic disorder [Stepped care voor paniekstoornis]. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN36376369 (accessed 26 February 2013).
Kerkhof 2005 {published data only}
  • Kerkhof AJFM. Stop worrying: the effectivity of a self-help brochure for excessive worrying, with or without telephonic support (ISRCTN99166327). http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN99166327 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Kool 2007 {published data only}
  • Kool L. Stepped care in depression and anxiety: from primary to secondary care (ISRCTN17831610). http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN17831610/ (accessed 1 May 2013).
Lacasse 2010 {published data only}
  • Lacasse JR. Mindfulness and lifestyle interventions for depression and anxiety: a pilot study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01230047 (accessed 1 May 2013) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01230047?term=NCT01230047&rank=1.
Martinez 2008 {published data only}
  • Martinez R. A pilot research project into the use of online resources for low mood and anxiety in the voluntary sector (ISRCTN71327173), 2008. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN71327173/ (accessed 1 May 2013).
Moore 1998 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Moore A. An investigation of the use of self-help booklets for clients on a waiting list: pilot study. National Research Register 1998.
Muntingh 2009 {published data only}
  • Muntingh ADT, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, van Marwijk HW, Spinhoven P, Assendelft WJ, Hakkaart-van Roijen L, et al. Collaborative stepped care for anxiety disorders in primary care: aims and design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Health Services Research 2009;9:159.
NTR1260 {published data only}
  • NTR1260. Phobias under control. Internet-based guided self-help for treatment of social, agora-, or specific phobia(s): a pilot trial. [Nederlands Trial Register] www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1260 (accessed 26 February 2013).
NTR2573 {published data only}
  • NTR2573. A better picture of your Self: strengthening your self-image in order to counter feelings of anxiety and depression: a study on the effectiveness of a guided self-help intervention. [Nederlands Trial Register] http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2573 (accessed 26 February 2013).
Schmidt 2008 {published data only}
  • Schmidt B. Interactive computer treatment for panic disorder (NCT00063375), 2008. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00063375 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Spooner 2011 {published data only}
  • Spooner D. Cognitive-behavioural self-help for depressed and anxious adults: a randomised controlled trial comparing computer based interactive self-help versus a self-help treatment manual. ISRCTN32111346, 2011. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32111346/ (accessed 1 May 2013).
Titov 2011a {published data only}
  • Titov N. The Wellbeing Program: a randomized controlled trial of internet based treatment of anxiety and depression (ACTRN12610000247077), 2011. http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?id=335292 (accessed 1 May 2013).
van Ballegooijen 2011 {published data only}
  • van Ballegooijen W. Don't Panic Online: a randomised trial to the effects of an internet based self-help course for reducing panic symptoms. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1639 (accessed 1 May 2013).
  • van Ballegooijen W. The effects of an Internet based self-help course for reducing panic symptoms-Don't Panic Online: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2011;11(12):75.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
ACTRN12610001081000 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12610001081000. A randomised control trial of guided self help cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical perfectionism versus a guided self help cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12610001081000.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12611000321943 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611000321943. Internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611000321943.aspx‎ (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12611001052921 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611001052921. Development, evaluation and implementation of an online metacognitive intervention programme for obsessive-compulsive disorder. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611001052921.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12611001055998 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611001055998. The Wellbeing6 Program for Anxiety and Depression: a randomised controlled trial. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611001055998.aspx‎ (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12612000430831 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12612000430831. Is internet-delivered treatment specifically for symptoms of social phobia as effective as internet-delivered treatment for symptoms of both anxiety and depression, and are self-guided versions of these as effective as therapist-guided versions?. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12612000430831.aspx‎ (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12612000431820 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12612000431820. Is internet-delivered treatment specifically for symptoms of panic disorder as effective as internet-delivered treatment for symptoms of both anxiety and depression, and are self-guided versions of these as effective as therapist-guided versions?. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12612000431820.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12612000433808 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12612000433808. Is internet-delivered treatment specifically for symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder as effective as internet-delivered treatment for symptoms of both anxiety and depression, and are self-guided versions of these as effective as therapist-guided versions?. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12612000433808.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12612001073897 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12612001073897. The Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) program: a randomised controlled trial comparing clinician-assisted Internet based treatment for OCD vs. a waitlist control condition on severity of symptoms of OCD. www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12612001073897.aspx (accessed 26 February 2013).
ACTRN12612001306808 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12612001306808. The Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) program: a randomised controlled trial of online versus face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12612001306808.aspx‎ (accessed 26 February 2013).
Carlbring 2012a {published data only}
  • Per Carlbring. Internet-based treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01570374 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Carlbring 2012b {unpublished data only}
  • Per Carlbring. An Internet-administered, mindfulness training program for the treatment of anxiety. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01577290 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Clark 2012 {published data only}
  • Clark DM. A randomised controlled trial of internet-based cognitive therapy (iCT) and standard cognitive therapy (CT) for social anxiety disorder. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN95458747 (accessed 1 May 2013). [DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN95458747]
Havik 2012 {published data only}
  • Havik OE. Treatment of social phobia and panic disorder in adults (TSPPA). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00619138 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Hedman 2012 {unpublished data only}
  • Hedman E. Cognitive behavioral therapy, guided self help versus individual therapy. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01667822 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Hedman 2013 {unpublished data only}
  • Erik Hedman. Internet Treatment for Health Anxiety (HA-X). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01673035.
ISRCTN73535163 {published data only}
  • Health Technology Assessment. Obsessive compulsive treatment efficacy trial (OCTET ) (Project record). www.hta.ac.uk/protocols/200900810001.pdf (accessed 12 June 2013).
  • ISRCTN73535163. Obsessive compulsive treatment efficacy trial (OCTET). http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN73535163/ (accessed 26 February 2013).
Kok 2012 {published data only}
  • Kok RN,  van Straten A,  Beekman A,  Bosmans J,  de Neef M,  Cuijpers P. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of web-based treatment for phobic outpatients on a waiting list for psychotherapy: protocol of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 2012;12:131.
Nordgren 2012 {published data only}
  • Carlbring P, Andersson G, Nordgren LB. Internet-administrated treatment of anxiety disorders (NOVA II) (NCT01390168). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01390168 (accessed 1 May 2013).
  • Nordgren LB, Andersson G, Kadowaki Å, & Carlbring P. Tailored internet-administered treatment of anxiety disorders for primary care patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2012;13:16.
NTR1985 {published data only}
  • NTR1985. Acceptance and commitment therapy as a self-help intervention. [Nederlands Trial Register] http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1985 (accessed 26 February 2013).
Proudfoot 2010 {published data only}
  • Proudfoot J. Randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect on mental health of a self-monitoring and self-management program delivered by mobile phone and computer for people with mild to moderate depression, anxiety or stress compared against an attention control program, and a waitlist control (ACTRN12610000625077), 2010. http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?id=335772 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Rollman 2012 {published data only}
  • Rollman B. Online treatments for mood and anxiety disorders in primary care. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01482806 (accessed 1 May 2013).
Tulbure 2012 {published data only}
  • Tulbure BT,  Månsson KN,  Andersson G. Internet treatment for social anxiety disorder in Romania: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2012;13:202.

Additional references

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  5. Additional references
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