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Topical anaesthetics for repair of dermal laceration

  1. Anthony Eidelman1,*,
  2. Jocelyn M Weiss2,
  3. Cristy L Baldwin3,
  4. Ikay K Enu4,
  5. Ewan D McNicol5,
  6. Daniel B Carr6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Anaesthesia, Critical and Emergency Care Group

Published Online: 15 JUN 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 22 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005364.pub2


How to Cite

Eidelman A, Weiss JM, Baldwin CL, Enu IK, McNicol ED, Carr DB. Topical anaesthetics for repair of dermal laceration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD005364. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005364.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Barnes Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA

  2. 2

    American College of Cardiology, Science and Quality Division, Washington, DC, USA

  3. 3

    University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Department of Pediatrics, Wichita, Kansas, USA

  4. 4

    University of Maryland, Department Anesthesiology, Baltimore, USA

  5. 5

    Tufts Medical Center, Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacy, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

  6. 6

    Tufts Medical Center, Department of Anesthesia, Boston, USA

*Anthony Eidelman, Olathe Medical Center, 20375 West 151st Street, Suite 306, Olathe, KS, 66061, USA. Anthony_eidelman@yahoo.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 15 JUN 2011

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Anderson 1990 {published data only}
Blackburn 1995 {published data only}
  • Blackburn PA, Butler KH, Hughes MJ, Clark MR, Riker RL. Comparison of tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine (TAC) with topical lidocaine-epinephrine (TLE): efficacy and cost. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1995;13(3):315-7. [MEDLINE: 7755827]
Bonadio 1990 {published data only}
  • Bonadio WA, Wagner V. Efficacy of tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine topical anesthetic without tetracaine for facial laceration repair in children. Pediatrics 1990 1990;86(6):856-57. [MEDLINE: 2251022]
Ernst 1990 {published data only}
Ernst 1995a {published data only}
  • Ernst AA, Marvez E, Nick TG, Chin E, Wood E, Gonzaba WT. Lidocaine adrenaline tetracaine gel versus tetracaine adrenaline cocaine gel for topical anesthesia in linear scalp and facial lacerations in children aged 5 to 17 years. Pediatrics 1995;95(2):255-8. [MEDLINE: 7838644]
Ernst 1995b {published data only}
  • Ernst AA, Marvez-Valls E, Nick TG, Weiss SJ. LAT (lidocaine-adrenaline-tetracaine) versus TAC (tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine) for topical anesthesia in face and scalp lacerations. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1995;13(2):151-4. [MEDLINE: 7893297]
Ernst 1997 {published data only}
  • Ernst AA, Marvez-Valls E, Nick TG, Mills T, Minvielle L, Houry D. Topical lidocaine adrenaline tetracaine (LAT gel) versus injectable buffered lidocaine for local anesthesia in laceration repair. Western Journal of Medicine 1997;167(2):79-81. [MEDLINE: 9291744]
Gaufberg 2007 {published data only}
  • Gaufberg SV, Walta MJ, Workman TP. Expanding the use of topical anesthesia in wound management: sequential layered application of topical lidocaine with epinephrine. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2007;25(4):379-84. [MEDLINE: 17499653]
Hegenbarth 1990 {published data only}
  • Hegenbarth MA, Altieri MF, Hawk WH, Greene A, Ochsenschlager DW, O'Donnell R. Comparison of topical tetracaine, adrenaline, and cocaine anesthesia with lidocaine infiltration for repair of lacerations in children. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1990;12(1):63-7. [MEDLINE: 2297157]
Kendall 1996 {published data only}
  • Kendall JM, Charters A, McCabe SE. Topical anaesthesia for children's lacerations: an acceptable approach?. Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine 1997;14(1):119-22. [MEDLINE: 8653235]
Krief 2002 {published data only}
  • Krief W, Sadock V, Tunik M, Mojica M, Manikian A. EMLA vs LET for topical anesthesia in wound repair. Academic Emergency Medicine 2002;9(5):398.
Kuhn 1996 {published data only}
Pryor 1980 {published data only}
Resch 1998 {published data only}
  • Resch K, Schilling C, Borchert BD, Klatzko M, Uden D. Topical anesthesia for pediatric lacerations: a randomized trial of lidocaine-epinephrine-tetracaine solution versus gel. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1998;32(6):693-7. [MEDLINE: 9832666]
Schaffer 1985 {published data only}
Schilling 1995 {published data only}
  • Schilling CG, Bank DE, Borchert BA, Klatzko MD, Uden DL. Tetracaine, epinephrine (adrenalin), and cocaine (TAC) versus lidocaine, epinephrine, and tetracaine (LET) for anesthesia of lacerations in children. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1995;25(2):203-8. [MEDLINE: 7832348]
Smith 1996 {published data only}
  • Smith GA, Strausbaugh SD, Harbeck-Weber C, Shields BJ, Powers JD, Hackenberg D. Comparison of topical anesthetics without cocaine to tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine and lidocaine infiltration during repair of lacerations: bupivacaine-norepinephrine is an effective new topical anesthetic agent. Pediatrics 1996;97(3):301-7. [MEDLINE: 8604261]
Smith 1997a {published data only}
Smith 1997b {published data only}
  • Smith GA, Strausbaugh SD, Harbeck-Weber C, Cohen DM, Shields BJ, Powers JD. New non-cocaine-containing topical anesthetics compared with tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine during repair of lacerations. Pediatrics 1997;100(5):825-30. [MEDLINE: 9346982]
Smith 1998a {published data only}
  • Smith GA, Strausbaugh SD, Harbeck-Weber C, Cohen DM, Shields BJ, Powers JD, Barrett T. Prilocaine-phenylephrine and bupivacaine-phenylephrine topical anesthetics compared with tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine during repair of lacerations. American Journal of Emergency 1998;16(2):121-4. [MEDLINE: 9517683]
Vinci 1996 {published data only}
White 1986 {published data only}
  • White WB, Iserson KV, Criss E. Topical anesthesia for laceration repair: tetracaine versus TAC (tetracaine, adrenaline, and cocaine. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1986;4(4):319-22. [MEDLINE: 3718621]
Zempsky 1997 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Adler 1998 {published data only}
Adriansson 2004 {published data only}
  • Adriansson C, Suserud BO, Bergbom I. The use of topical anaesthesia at children's minor lacerations: an experimental study. Accident and Emergency Nursing 2004;12(2):74-84. [MEDLINE: 15041008]
Bartfield 1995 {published data only}
Bartfield 1996 {published data only}
Bass 1990 {published data only}
Bonadio 1988a {published data only}
Bonadio 1988b {published data only}
Bonadio 1992 {published data only}
Bonadio 1996 {published data only}
Chale 2006 {published data only}
Chipont 2001 {published data only}
  • Chipont Benabent E, Garcia-Hermosa P, Alio Y Sanz JL. Benabent Sutura de laceraciones cutaneas con gel LAT (lidocaina, adrenalina, tetracaina). Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia 2001;76:505-8.
Liebelt 1997 {published data only}
  • Liebelt EL. Current concepts in laceration repair. Current Opinion Pediatrics 1997;9(5):459-64. [MEDLINE: 9360822]
Little 2004 {published data only}
  • Little S, Brosnahan J. Topical anaesthetic applied at triage reduced treatment time in children presenting to the emergency department with minor lacerations. Evidence-Based Nursing 2004;7(1):9. [MEDLINE: N/A]
Peirluisi 1989 {published data only}
  • Pierluisi GJ, Terndrup TE. Influence of topical anesthesia on the sedation of pediatric emergency department patients with lacerations. Pediatric Emergency Care 1989;5(4):211-5. [MEDLINE: 2602190]
Priestley 2003 {published data only}
  • Priestley S, Kelly AM, Chow L, Powell C, Williams A. Application of topical local anesthetic at triage reduces treatment time for children with lacerations: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2003;42(1):34-40. [MEDLINE: 12827121]
Singer 2000 {published data only}
Singer 2001 {published data only}
Smith 1990 {published data only}
  • Smith SM, Barry RC. A comparison of three formulations of TAC (tetracaine, adrenalin, cocaine) for anesthesia of minor lacerations in children. Pediatric Emergency Care 1990;6(4):166-70. [MEDLINE: 2290723]
Smith 1998b {published data only}
Smith 1998c {published data only}
  • Smith G, Strausbaugh S, Harbeck-Weber C, Cohen D, Shields B, Powers J. Tetracaine-lidocaine-phenylephrine topical anethesia compared with lidocaine infiltration during repair of mucous membrane lacerations in children. Clinical Pediatrics (Philadelphia). 1998;37(7):405-12. [MEDLINE: 9675433]
Spivey 1987 {published data only}
Stewart 1998 {published data only}
White 2004 {published data only}
Yamamoto 1997 {published data only}
  • Yamamoto LG, Young LL, Roberts JL. Informed consent and parental choice of anesthesia and sedation for the repair of small lacerations in children. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1997;15(3):285-9. [MEDLINE: 9148989]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Altman 1985
Berde 1991
  • Berde CB, Lehn BM, Yee JD, Sethna NF, Russo D. Patient-controlled analgesia in children and adolescents: a randomized, prospective comparison with intramuscular administration of morphine for postoperative analgesia. Journal of Pediatrics 1991;118(3):460-6. [MEDLINE: 1999793]
Bush 2002
Choiniere 1990
Crellin 2007
Dailey 1988
Daya 1988
Drug Facts 2003
  • Facts, Comparisons Editors. Drug Facts and Comparisons, 2003. 7th Edition. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons, 2002.
Grant 1992
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Highly sensitive search strategies for identifying reports of randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE; Chapter 6.3.2.1. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org. Chichester, UK.
Kundu 2002
Lander 1993
RevMan 5.1
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Singer 1999
  • Singer A, Richman P, Kowalska A, Thode H. Comparison of patient and practitioner assessments of pain from commonly performed emergency department procedures. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1999;33(6):652-8. [MEDLINE: 10339680]
Stephenson 1994
  • Stephenson NL. A comparison of nurse and patient: perceptions of postsurgical pain. Journal Intravenous Nursing 1994;17(5):235-9. [MEDLINE: 7965368]
Stoelting 1999
  • Stoelting R. Pharmacology And Physiology In Anesthetic Practice. Pharmacology and physiology in anesthetic practice. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999.
Terndrup 1992
  • Terndrup TE, Walls HC, Mariani PJ, Gavula DP, Madden CM, Cantor RM. Plasma cocaine and tetracaine levels following application of topical anesthesia in children. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1992;21(2):162-6. [: 1739203]
Tipton 1988
Tyler 1993
Vinci 1999
Wehner 1984
Zeltzer 1991

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Eidelman 2005
  • Eidelman A, Weiss J, Enu I, Lau J, Carr D. Comparative efficacy and costs of various topical anesthetics for repair of dermal lacerations: A systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 2005;17(2):106-16. [MEDLINE: 15809126]