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Intervention Review

Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

  1. Maaike Angevaren1,*,
  2. Geert Aufdemkampe2,
  3. HJJ Verhaar3,
  4. A Aleman4,
  5. Luc Vanhees1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group

Published Online: 16 JUL 2008

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 JAN 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub3


How to Cite

Angevaren M, Aufdemkampe G, Verhaar HJJ, Aleman A, Vanhees L. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD005381. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Applied Sciences, Research Group Lifestyle and Health, Utrecht, Netherlands

  2. 2

    University of Professional Education, Research Department of Health and Lifestyle, Utrecht, Netherlands

  3. 3

    University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht, Netherlands

  4. 4

    B C Neuro Imaging Centre, Groningen, Netherlands

*Maaike Angevaren, Research Group Lifestyle and Health, University of Applied Sciences, Bolognalaan 101, Utrecht, 3584 CJ, Netherlands. Maaike.angevaren@hu.nl.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 16 JUL 2008

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (22 APR 2015)

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity, fitness and cognition are reported in the same individuals could help to resolve this question.

Objectives

To assess the effectiveness of physical activity, aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness, on cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment.

Search methods

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), Dissertation abstracts international and ongoing trials registers on 15 December 2005 with no language restrictions.

Selection criteria

All published randomised controlled trials comparing aerobic physical activity programmes with any other intervention or no intervention with participants older than 55 years of age were eligible for inclusion.

Data collection and analysis

Eleven RCTs fulfilling the inclusion criteria are included in this review. Two reviewers independently extracted the data from these included studies.

Main results

Eight out of 11 studies reported that aerobic exercise interventions resulted in increased cardiorespiratory fitness of the intervention group (an improvement on the maximum oxygen uptake test which is considered to be the single best indicator of the cardiorespiratory system) of approximately 14% and this improvement coincided with improvements in cognitive capacity. The largest effects on cognitive function were found on motor function and auditory attention (effect sizes of 1.17 and 0.50 respectively). Moderate effects were observed for cognitive speed (speed at which information is processed; effect size 0.26) and visual attention (effect size 0.26).

Authors' conclusions

There is evidence that aerobic physical activities which improve cardiorespiratory fitness are beneficial for cognitive function in healthy older adults, with effects observed for motor function, cognitive speed, auditory and visual attention. However, the majority of comparisons yielded no significant results.

The data are insufficient to show that the improvements in cognitive function which can be attributed to physical exercise are due to improvements in cardiovascular fitness, although the temporal association suggests that this might be the case. Larger studies are still required to confirm whether the aerobic training component is necessary, or whether the same can be achieved with any type of physical exercise. At the same time, it would be informative to understand why some cognitive functions seem to improve with (aerobic) physical exercise while other functions seem to be insensitive to physical exercise.

Clinicians and scientists in the field of neuropsychology should seek mutual agreement on a smaller battery of cognitive tests to use, in order to render research on cognition clinically relevant and transparent and heighten the reproducibility of results for future research.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function.

Eleven studies of aerobic physical activity programmes for healthy people over the age of 55 years have been included in this review. Eight of these 11 studies reported that aerobic exercise interventions resulted in increased fitness of the trained group and an improvement in at least one aspect of cognitive function. The largest effects were on cognitive speed, auditory and visual attention. However, the cognitive functions which improved were not the same in each study and the majority of comparisons yielded no significant results.

The data are insufficient to show that the improvements in cognitive function which can be attributed to physical exercise are due to improvements in cardiovascular fitness.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

透過運動以及提升健康,改善未患有已知認知損傷老年人的認知功能

運動對於健康的老年人有益,也可幫助較年長者保持良好認知功能。有氧的活動能改善心血管健康,但這種健康是否為認知功能改善所必須則還未為所知。同一個受試者的運動、健康以及認知報告將有助於解決這個問題。

目標

評估以改善心肺健康為目的運動,對於無已知認知損傷較年長者的效益。

搜尋策略

我們於2005年12月15日搜尋了MEDLINE、EMBASE、PEDro、SPORTDiscus、PsycINFO、CINAHL、Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL)資料庫、Dissertation abstracts international資料庫以及尋登錄進行中的臨床試驗,不限語言。

選擇標準

納入本文獻回顧的條件為: 1.所有已發布的隨機對照試驗; 2.以有氧運動與其他介入及無介入進行比較;3.受試者>55歲。

資料收集與分析

11 RCTs滿足納入標準而被本文獻回顧加入。兩位回顧者由這些納入的研究中獨立地摘錄資料。

主要結論

11項研究中有8項報告加入有氧運動,造成該組心肺健康改善(改善最大攝氧量,該指標為公認用來評估心肺功能最好的指標)達到約14%,且這種改善與認知能力的改善相一致。 已發現對於認知功能最大的功效在於運動功能及聽覺注意力(效用規模分別是1.17以及0.50),而對於認知速度(處理訊息的速度)以及視覺注意力方面則有中度的效果(上述兩者規模效果為0.26)。

作者結論

證據顯示,有氧運動有助於改善健康年長者的心肺功能外,也對於認知功能有益;並隨之觀察到對於活動能力、認知速度、聽覺及視覺注意的效果。然而,多數的比較並未有顯著的結果。 資料不足以顯示身體運動對認知功能上的改善,是因為運動改善了心血管的健康所致,雖然暫時的連結關係暗示這可能即是問題之所在。需要較大型的研究來確認有氧運動是否式必須的,以及是否所有種類的運動都可以達到同樣的效果。同時,也讓我們瞭解為什麼運動(有氧運動)可以改善認知功能,但似乎對其他功能沒有效果。 神經心理學的臨床人員以及科學家應該要尋求雙方同意採用小型電流進行認知測驗,以加強認知臨床研究的重要性以及透明度,並且提高未來研究結果的再現性。

翻譯人

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。

總結

運動對於健康老化的人來說是有益的,並且也有助於保持老年人認知功能。有氧活動可以改善心血管健康,但是仍不明白這種型式的健康是否有助於改善認知功能。 本文獻回顧納入11個以超過55歲的健康人進行有氧運動方案的研究 11項研究中有8項報告加入有氧運動後,使該受訓練群組增進了健康,並且至少改善了一項認知功能。最大的功效在於認知的速度、聽覺及視覺注意力。然而,被改善的認知功能在每一研究中並不一樣,而且多數的比較未產生明顯的結果。這些資料不足以顯示出歸功於身體運動的認知功能改善是由心血管健康改善而達成的。