Cerebral toxoplasmosis or toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis (hereafter referred to as TE) was one of the first opportunistic infections to be described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected patients. Treatment of TE has been relatively successful in comparison to other opportunistic infections. Prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a median survival of over a year was reported for patients who could tolerate the toxicity of TE treatment. HAART is becoming increasingly widely available in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of HIV-infected patients live. Many patients in Africa are diagnosed with HIV only after developing opportunistic infections such as TE. Hence, the optimal management of opportunistic infections such as TE is important if the benefits of subsequently initiating HAART are to be seen.