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Lactose avoidance for young children with acute diarrhoea

  1. Stephen MacGillivray1,*,
  2. Tom Fahey2,
  3. William McGuire3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

Published Online: 31 OCT 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 MAY 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005433.pub2


How to Cite

MacGillivray S, Fahey T, McGuire W. Lactose avoidance for young children with acute diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD005433. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005433.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Dundee, Social Dimensions of Health Institute, Dundee, Tayside, UK

  2. 2

    Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical School, Department of Family Medicine and General Practice, Dublin, Ireland

  3. 3

    Hull York Medical School & Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, Y010 5DD, UK

*Stephen MacGillivray, Social Dimensions of Health Institute, University of Dundee, Airlie Place, Dundee, Tayside, DD1 4HN, UK. s.a.macgillivray@dundee.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 31 OCT 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Allen 1994 {published data only}
Armitstead 1989 {published data only}
Bhan 1988 {published data only}
  • Bhan MK, Arora NK, Khoshoo V, Raj P, Bhatnager S, Sazawal S, et al. Comparison of a lactose-free cereal-based formula and cow's milk in infants and children with acute gastroenteritis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1988;7(2):208-13.
Brown 1991 {published data only}
  • Brown KH, Perez F, Gastañaduy AS. Clinical trial of modified whole milk, lactose-hydrolyzed whole milk, or cereal-milk mixtures for the dietary management of acute childhood diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1991;12(3):340-50.
Chew 1993 {published data only}
  • Chew F, Penna FJ, Peret Filho LA, Quan C, Lopes MC, Mota JA, et al. Is dilution of cows' milk formula necessary for dietary management of acute diarrhoea in infants aged less than 6 months?. Lancet 1993;341(8839):194-7.
Clemente Yago 1993 {published data only}
  • Clemente Yago F, Tapia Collados C, Comino Almenara L, López Peña L, Escrivá Tomás P, González Peraba J. Lactose-free formula versus adapted formula in acute infantile diarrhea [Formula sin lactosa versus formula adaptada en la diarrea aguda del lactante]. Anales Espanoles de Pediatria 1993;39(4):309-12.
Conway 1989 {published data only}
Dagan 1984 {published data only}
  • Dagan R, Gorodischer R, Moses SW. Dietary treatment of acute diarrhea: comparison between cow's milk and a soy formula without disaccharides. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1984;30(4):221-4.
Dugdale 1982 {published data only}
Fayad 1999 {published data only}
  • Fayad IM, Hashem M, Hussein A, Zikri MA, Zikri MA, Santosham M. Comparison of soy-based formulas with lactose and with sucrose in the treatment of acute diarrhea in infants. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(7):675-80.
Groothuis 1986 {published data only}
Haffejee 1990 {published data only}
Haque 1983 {published data only}
  • Haque KN, al-Frayh A, el-Rifai R. Is it necessary to regraduate milk after acute gastroenteritis in children?. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 1983;35(4):369-73.
Isolauri 1986 {published data only}
  • Isolauri E, Vesikari T, Saha P, Viander M. Milk versus no milk in rapid refeeding after acute gastroenteritis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 1986;5(2):254-61.
Leake 1974 {published data only}
Lifshitz 1991 {published data only}
Lozano 1994 {published data only}
  • Lozano JM, Céspedes JA. Lactose vs. lactose free regimen in children with acute diarrhoea: a randomized controlled trial. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 1994;44(1):6-11.
Maudgal 1985 {published data only}
McDowell 1985 {published data only}
Naidoo 1981 {published data only}
  • Naidoo BT, Chunterpurshad I, Mahyoodeen AB, Pather G. The use of a soy isolate based formula in the treatment of infantile diarrhoea. Journal of International Medical Research 1981;9(3):232-5.
Pichaipat 1986 {published data only}
  • Pichaipat V, Thanomsingh P, Assadamongkul K, Varavithya W. Effects of amount and concentration of a lactose--containing formula on outcome of infantile diarrhoea. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 1986;69:132-6.
Placzek 1984 {published data only}
Prietsch 1999 {published data only}
  • Prietsch SO, Prietsch AI, Carvalho EM. Comparative study of a soy-based lactose-free formula, versus a lactose-containing formula, during an acute phase of diarrheal illness in infants [Estudo comparativo de uma fórmula não láctea à base de soja, sem lactose, versus fórmula láctea com lactose, durante a fase aguda da doença diarréica em lactentes]. Pediatria moderna 1999;35(4):225-32.
Ransome 1984 {published data only}
Romer 1991 {published data only}
  • Römer H, Guerra M, Piña JM, Urrestarazu MI, García D, Blanco ME. Realimentation of dehydrated children with acute diarrhea: comparison of cow's milk to a chicken-based formula. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1991;13(1):46-51.
Saneian 2012 {published data only}
  • Saneian H, Yaghini O, Modaresi M, Razmkhah N. Lactose-free compared with lactose-containing formula in dietary management of acute childhood diarrhoea. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 2012;22(1):82-6.
Simakachorn 2004 {published data only}
  • Simakachorn N, Tongpenyai Y, Tongtan O, Varavithya W. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial of a lactose-free and a lactose-containing formula in dietary management of acute childhood diarrhea. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2004;87(6):641-9.
Sutton 1968 {published data only}
  • Sutton RE, Hamilton JR. Tolerance of young children with severe gastroenteritis to dietary lactose: a controlled study. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1968;99(20):980-2.
Touhami 1989 {published data only}
  • Touhami M, Boudraa G, Adlaoui M, Telidji Z, Soltana R, Mary JY, et al. Is the dilution of milk necessary in benign acute diarrhea in eutrophic infants? [La dilution du lait est-elle indispensable dans les diarrhees aigues benignes du nourrisson eutrophique?]. Archives Françaises de Pédiatrie 1989;46(1):25-30.
Wall 1994 {published data only}
  • Wall CR, Webster J, Quirk P, Robb TA, Cleghorn GJ, Davidson GP, et al. The nutritional management of acute diarrhea in young infants: effect of carbohydrate ingested. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1994;19(2):170-4.
Wolf 1989 {published data only}
  • Wolf A, Leupold D, Bürgin-Wolff A, Kohne E. Incidence and symptoms of cow's milk protein intolerance following acute gastroenteritis in young infants. Effect of a hypoallergenic diet [Inzidenz und Symptome der Kuhmilchprotein-Intoleranz nach akuter Gastroenteritis bei jungen Säuglingen. Einfluss hypoallergener Diät]. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 1989;137(11):747-51.
Xu 2009 {published data only}
  • Xu JH, Huang Y. Efficiency of lactose-free formula feeding as an adjunctive therapy in infants with acute diarrhea. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics) 2009;11(7):532-6.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Agustina 2007 {published data only}
  • Agustina R, Lukito W, Firmansyah A, Suhardjo HN, Murniati D, Bindels J. The effect of early nutritional supplementation with a mixture of probiotic, prebiotic, fiber and micronutrients in infants with acute diarrhea in Indonesia. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;16(3):435-42.
Alarcon 1991 {published data only}
  • Alarcon P, Montoya R, Perez F, Dongo JW, Peerson JM, Brown KH. Clinical trial of home available, mixed diets versus a lactose-free, soy-protein formula for the dietary management of acute childhood diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1991;12(2):224-32.
Binns 2007 {published data only}
Brand 1977 {published data only}
  • Brand JC, Miller JJ, Vorbach EA, Edwards RA. A trial of lactose hydrolysed milk in Australian Aboriginal children. Medical Journal of Australia 1977;2(4 Suppl):10-3.
Brunster 1990 {published data only}
  • Brunster O, Araye M, Espinoza J, Cruchet S, Pacheco I. Trial of milk with low-lactose contents in acute diarrhea [Ensayo de leche con bajo contenido de lactosa en diarrea aguda]. La Revista Chilena de Pediatría 1990;61(2):94-9.
Dagan 1980 {published data only}
Dewit 1987 {published data only}
  • Dewit O, Boudraa G, Touhami M, Desjeux JF. Breath hydrogen test and stools characteristics after ingestion of milk and yogurt in malnourished children with chronic diarrhoea and lactase deficiency. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1987;33(4):177-80.
Donovan 1987 {published data only}
Eichenberger 1984 {published data only}
  • Eichenberger JR, Hadorn B, Schmidt BJ. A semi-elemental diet with low osmolarity and high content of hydrolyzed lactalbumin in the treatment of acute diarrhea in malnourished children. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia 1984;21(3):130-5.
Ferrari 1987 {published data only}
  • Ferrari Castilla AM, Montano Lolito AA, Ferolla Mendez MC, Mendez Subiela MV, Gentile Ramos I. Acute infantile diarrhea: Refeeding with a low lactose milk [Diarrea aguda infantil: Realimentacion con una leche de bajo contenido en lactosa]. Archivos De Pediatria Del Uruguay 1987;58(4):221-3.
Fox 1990 {published data only}
Herrera-Anaya 1987 {published data only}
  • Herrera-Anaya E, Vega-Franco L. Balance studies in malnourished infants, recovering from diarrhea, using 3 dietary formulas. Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México 1987;44(4):207-13.
Hoghton 1996 {published data only}
  • Hoghton MA, Mittal NK, Sandhu BK, Mahdi G. Effects of immediate modified feeding on infantile gastroenteritis. British Journal of General Practice 1996;46(404):173-5.
Hohenauer 1983 {published data only}
  • Hohenauer L. Dietary treatment of acute gastroenteritis in infants [Untersuchungen zur Diätbehandlung der einfachen Säuglingsenteritis]. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 1983;131(10):729-32.
Ibanez 1986 {published data only}
  • Ibanez S, Puentes R, Winter A, Guajardo J, Jeraldo A, Jiménez A. Comparison of three dietetic formulas in infants with acute diarrhea [Comparación de tres formulas dietéticas en lactantes con diarrea aguda]. Revista chilena de pediatría 1986;57(2):158-63.
Kukuruzovic 2002 {published data only}
Loredo-Adala 1984 {published data only}
  • Loredo-Abdalá A, Mochón M, Sosa MC, Vidales C, Carabajal L, Bolaños R. Comparative evaluation of two food formulas for children with acute diarrhea [Evaluacion comparativa de dos formulas alimenticias en ninis con diarrea aguda]. Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México 1984;41(8):432-6.
Mahalanabis 1993 {published data only}
Margolis 1990 {published data only}
McClean 1990 {published data only}
Mitchell 1977 {published data only}
Ooi 1989 {published data only}
  • Ooi BC, Lou J, Cheng HK. Acute gastroenteritis in children--aetiology and comparison of two modes of treatment. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 1989;18(1):40-2.
Palma 1997 {published data only}
  • Palma D, Oliva CA, Taddei JA, Fagundes-Neto U. Acute diarrhea: stool water loss in hospitalized infants and its correlation with etiologic agents and lactose content in the diet [Diarreia aguda: perdas hidricas fecais em lactentes hospitalizados e sua correlacao com agentes etiologicos e a presenca de lactose na dieta]. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia 1997;34(3):186-95.
Rajah 1988 {published data only}
  • Rajah R, Pettifor JM, Noormohamed M, Venter A, Rosen EU, Rabinowitz L, et al. The effect of feeding four different formulae on stool weights in prolonged dehydrating infantile gastroenteritis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenetrology and Nutrition 1988;7(2):203-7.
Rees 1979 {published data only}
Rothman 1980 {published data only}
Sagaro 1991 {published data only}
  • Sagáro E, Trujillo ME, Fragoso T, Gorrin N, Cardona ME, Gamez M, et al. Clinic evaluation of lactose-free milk in the treatment of children with persistent diarrhea [Evaluación clinica de leche libre de lactosa en el tratamiento de niños con diaarrea persistente]. Revista de la Sociedad Boliviana de Pediatría 1991;30(3):130-3.
Schmidt 1990 {published data only}
  • Schmidt BJ, Costa CD, Oshiro CG. Evaluation of a low lactose formula food in children with diarrheic syndrome. Revista Paulista de Pediatria 1990;8:91-6.
Silveira 1989 {published data only}
  • Silveira TR, Pires AL, Ferreira CH, Silva GL, Soares M, Lima A, et al. Comparison between soy-based hydrosoluble extract formula (PDGE 3945) and whole cow's milk on diarrheic infants feeding [Comparaçäo entre produto alimentar a base de extrato hidrossolúvel de soja (PDGE 3945) e leite de vaca integral na alimentaçäo de crianças com diarréia]. Folha Medica 1989;99(4):233-8.
Sperotto 1998 {published data only}
  • Sperotto G, Barrison EM, Baldacci, ER, Okay Y. Use of undiluted whole cow's milk is effective for the routine treatment of children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia 1998;35(2):132-7.
Suthutvoravut 1983 {published data only}
  • Suthutvoravut U, Tontisirin K, Varavithya W, Valyasevi A, Björck I, Dahlqvist A. Wheat extract and milk mixture as a milk substitute for children with milk intolerance. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research 1984;2(3):168-72.
Ubaldo 1998 {published data only}
  • Ubaldo LA, Bonifacio FP. [Terapéutica dietética con fórmulas sin lactosa en niños hospitalizados con diarrea aguda]. Revista de Sanidad 1998;52(2):40-4.
Wehba 1989 {published data only}
  • Wehba J, Medeiros EH. Feeding in children with acute diarrhea syndrome: comparison between HN-25 milupa and a soy formula [Realimentaçäo de crianças com síndrome diarréica aguda: comparaçäo entre HN-25 milupa e produto a base de soja]. Revista Paulista de Pediatria 1989;6(24):5-10.
Wemmer 1977 {published data only}
  • Wemmer U. Nutrition in infant enteritis [Ernährung bei säuglingen-Enteritis]. Fortschritte der Medizin 1977;95(2):94-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Chiriboga 1986 {published data only}
  • Chiriboga E, Chavez L, Tejada L. [Alimentación en lactantes deshidratados por diarrea aguda y rehidratados con sales orales: estudio comparativo administrando leche entera de vaca y leche diluída]. Geneva, World Health Organization (Report of WHO/CDD Supported Study, 83014) 1986.
Madkour 1986 {published data only}
  • Madkour AM. A study of the effects of non-interruption of feeding on infantile diarrhea. Geneva, World Health Organization (Report of WHO/CDD Supported Study, 83043) 1986.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
AAP 1996
  • American Academy of Pediatrics, Provisional Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Acute Gastroenteritis. Practice parameter: the management of acute gastroenteritis in young children. Pediatrics 1996;97(3):424-35.
AAP 2006
Armon 2001a
  • Armon K, Stephenson T, Gabriel V, MacFaul R, Eccleston P, Werneke U, et al. Determining the common medical presenting problems to an accident and emergency department. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2001;84(5):390-2.
Armon 2001b
Black 2010
  • Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, Lawn JE, Rudan I, Bassani DG, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2010;375(9730):1969–87.
Brown 1994
  • Brown KH, Peerson JM, Fontaine O. Use of nonhuman milks in the dietary management of young children with acute diarrhea: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics 1994;93(1):17-27.
Dalby-Payne 2011
  • Dalby-Payne JR, Elliott EJ. Gastroenteritis in children. Clinical Evidence 2011;07(314):1-64.
DerSimonian 1986
Djuretic 1999
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org. The Cochrane Collaboration.
Hopewell 2009
Lefebvre 2011
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org. The Cochrane Collaboration.
Malek 2006
  • Malek MA, Curns AT, Holman RC, Fischer TK, Bresee JS, Glass RI, et al. Diarrhea- and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations among children less than 5 years of age: United States, 1997 and 2000. Pediatrics 2006;117(6):1887-92.
Murphy 1998
Saavedra 1989
Santosham 2010
  • Santosham M, Chandran A, Fitzwater S, Fischer-Walker C, Baqui AH, Black R. Progress and barriers for the control of diarrhoeal disease. Lancet 2010;376(9734):63-7.
Sunshine 1964
  • Sunshine P, Kretchmer N. Studies of small intestine during development. III: Infantile diarrhea associated with intolerance to disaccharides. Pediatrics 1964;34:38-50.