Intervention Review

Outreach and Early Warning Systems (EWS) for the prevention of Intensive Care admission and death of critically ill adult patients on general hospital wards

  1. Jennifer McGaughey1,*,
  2. Fiona Alderdice2,
  3. Robert Fowler3,
  4. Atul Kapila4,
  5. Alain Mayhew5,
  6. Marianne Moutray1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group

Published Online: 18 JUL 2007

Assessed as up-to-date: 22 MAY 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005529.pub2

How to Cite

McGaughey J, Alderdice F, Fowler R, Kapila A, Mayhew A, Moutray M. Outreach and Early Warning Systems (EWS) for the prevention of Intensive Care admission and death of critically ill adult patients on general hospital wards. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD005529. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005529.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Queen's University Belfast, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Belfast, UK

  2. 2

    Queen's University Belfast , Nursing and Midwifery Research Unit, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

  3. 3

    Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Departments of Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  4. 4

    Royal Bershire Hospital , Anaesthetics and Intensive Care, Reading, UK

  5. 5

    University of Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

*Jennifer McGaughey, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7BL, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 18 JUL 2007


Cited in:


This article has been cited by:

  1. 1
    Miriam Baruch, Ben Messer, Criteria for intensive care unit admission and severity of illness, Surgery (Oxford), 2015, 33, 4, 158


  2. 2
    K. JOKELA, P. SETÄLÄ, J. VIRTA, H. HUHTALA, A. YLI-HANKALA, S. HOPPU, Using a simplified pre-hospital ‘MET’ score to predict in-hospital care and outcomes, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2015, 59, 4
  3. 3
    Margaret A Coulter Smith, Pam Smith, Rosemary Crow, A critical review: a combined conceptual framework of severity of illness and clinical judgement for analysing diagnostic judgements in critical illness, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2014, 23, 5-6
  4. You have free access to this content4
    K. Ram, M. A. Boermeester, Checklists and crisis management in surgical emergencies, British Journal of Surgery, 2014, 101, 1
  5. 5
    Friede Simmes, Lisette Schoonhoven, Joke Mintjes, Eddy Adang, Johannes G. Hoeven, Financial consequences of the implementation of a rapid response system on a surgical ward, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 2014, 20, 4
  6. 6
    Malcolm Elliott, Linda Worrall-Carter, Karen Page, Intensive care readmission: A contemporary review of the literature, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 2014, 30, 3, 121


  7. 7
    JOONAS TIRKKONEN, KLAUS T. OLKKOLA, HEINI HUHTALA, JYRKI TENHUNEN, SANNA HOPPU, Medical emergency team activation: performance of conventional dichotomised criteria versus national early warning score, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2014, 58, 4
  8. 8
    Thierry Boulain, Isabelle Runge, Nathalie Delorme, Angèle Bouju, Antoine Valéry, Patients Hospitalized in General Wards via the Emergency Department: Early Identification of Predisposing Factors for Death or Unexpected Intensive Care Unit Admission—A Historical Prospective, Emergency Medicine International, 2014, 2014, 1


  9. 9
    Jeroen Ludikhuize, Marjon Borgert, Jan Binnekade, Christian Subbe, Dave Dongelmans, Astrid Goossens, Standardized measurement of the Modified Early Warning Score results in enhanced implementation of a Rapid Response System: A quasi-experimental study, Resuscitation, 2014, 85, 5, 676


  10. 10
    Alison M. Pirret, A critical care nurse practitioner's prescribing using standing orders and authorised prescribing when performing a critical care outreach role: A clinical audit, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 2012, 28, 1, 1


  11. 11
    Miriam Baruch, Ben Messer, Criteria for intensive care unit admission and severity of illness, Surgery (Oxford), 2012, 30, 5, 225


  12. 12
    Winston Cheung, Janice Gullick, Govindasamy Thanakrishnan, Jeff Snars, David Milliss, Jeff Tan, Expansion of a medical emergency team system to a mental health facility, Resuscitation, 2012, 83, 3, 293


  13. 13
    Annemie Vlayen, Sandra Verelst, Geertruida E Bekkering, Ward Schrooten, Johan Hellings, Neree Claes, Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 2012, 18, 2
  14. 14
    Rob Whittle, Jonathan Shelton, Outcome from intensive care and measuring performance, Surgery (Oxford), 2012, 30, 5, 244


  15. 15
    J. Ricardo Navarro, Viviana P. Castillo, Código rojo, un ejemplo de sistema de respuesta rápida, Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología, 2010, 38, 1, 86


  16. 16
    Debbie Massey, Leanne M Aitken, Wendy Chaboyer, Literature review: do rapid response systems reduce the incidence of major adverse events in the deteriorating ward patient?, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2010, 19, 23-24
  17. 17
    Mark Carrington, Jim Down, Recognition and assessment of critical illness, Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 2010, 11, 1, 6


  18. 18
    Ruth Endacott, Suzanne Eliott, Wendy Chaboyer, An integrative review and meta-synthesis of the scope and impact of intensive care liaison and outreach services, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2009, 18, 23
  19. 19
    Claire Williams, Daniel Wheeler, Criteria for ICU admission and severity of illness scoring, Surgery (Oxford), 2009, 27, 5, 201


  20. 20
    Winston Cheung, Janice Gullick, Govindasamy Thanakrishnan, Rodney Jacobs, Winnie Au, Joan Uy, Margaretha Fick, Pradeep Narayan, Sue Ralston, Jeff Tan, Injuries occurring in hospital staff attending medical emergency team (MET) calls—A prospective, observational study, Resuscitation, 2009, 80, 12, 1351


  21. 21
    Pat Deeny, Brian McFetridge, Critical care nursing in Northern Ireland: A rich history with a future of opportunity, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 2008, 24, 3, 143


  22. 22
    James Tibballs, Elise W. van der Jagt, Medical Emergency and Rapid Response Teams, Pediatric Clinics of North America, 2008, 55, 4, 989


  23. 23
    N.A. Barrett, S.M. Yentis, Outreach in obstetric critical care, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2008, 22, 5, 885


  24. 24
    Fiona Heaney, Julie Santy-Tomlinson, Principles of Trauma Care,
  25. 25
    Jackie Younker, Recognizing the Critically Ill Patient and Preventing Cardiorespiratory Arrest,