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Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption

  1. Joanne E Callinan1,*,
  2. Anna Clarke2,
  3. Kirsten Doherty3,
  4. Cecily Kelleher2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group

Published Online: 14 APR 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 JUN 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005992.pub2

How to Cite

Callinan JE, Clarke A, Doherty K, Kelleher C. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005992. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005992.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Milford Care Centre, Limerick, Ireland

  2. 2

    University College Dublin, School of Public Health and Population Science, Dublin 4, Ireland

  3. 3

    Education and Research Centre, Department of Preventive Medicine and Health Promotion, Dublin 4, Ireland

*Joanne E Callinan, Milford Care Centre, Plassey Park Road, Castletroy, Limerick, Ireland.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 14 APR 2010



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abrams 2006 {published data only}
  • Abrams SM, Mahoney MC, Hyland A, Cummings KM, Davis W, Song L. Early evidence on the effectiveness of clean indoor air legislation in New York State. American Journal of Public Health 2006;96:296-8.
Akhtar 2007 {published data only}
  • Akhtar PC, Currie DB, Currie CE, Haw SJ. Changes in child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (CHETS) study after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland:national cross-sectional survey. BMJ 2007;335(7619):546-9.
Alcouffe 1997 {published data only}
  • Alcouffe J, Fabin C, Brehier M, Fleuret C, Botran-Aly C, Simonnet M, et al. Smoking prohibition effect on tobacco habits in Paris area small firms. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de Medecine du Travail 1997;58(5):455.
Allwright 2005 {published data only}
  • Allwright S, Paul G, Greiner B, Mullally BJ, Pursell L, Kelly A, et al. Legislation for smoke-free workplaces and health of bar workers in Ireland: before and after study. BMJ 2005;331:1117-20.
Barone-Aldesi 2006 {published data only}
  • Barone-Aldesi F, Vizzini L, Merletti F, Richiardi L. Short-term effects of Italian smoking regulation on rates of hospital admission for acute myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal 2006;27:2468-72.
Bartecchi 2006 {published data only}
  • Bartecchi C, Alsever RN, Nevin-Woods C, Thomas WM, Estacio RO, Bucher Bartelson B. Reduction in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction associated with a citywide smoking ordinance. Circulation 2006;114:1490-96.
Biener 2007 {published data only}
  • Biener L, Garrett CA, Skeer M, Siegel M, Connolly G. The effects on smokers of Boston's smoke-free bar ordinance: a longitudinal analysis of changes in compliance, patronage, policy support, and smoking at home. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2007;13:630-6.
Bondy 2009 {published data only}
  • Bondy SJ, Zhang B, Kreiger N, Selby P, Benowitz N, et al. Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;51:612-9.
Braverman 2008 {published data only}
  • Braverman MT, Aarø LE, Hetland J. Changes in smoking among restaurant and bar employees following Norway's comprehensive smoking ban. Health Promotion International 2008;23:5-15.
Brownson 1995 {published data only}
  • Brownson RC, Davis JR, Jackson-Thompson J, Wilkerson JC. Environmental tobacco smoke awareness and exposure: impact of a statewide clean indoor air law and the report of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tobacco Control 1995;4:132-8.
CDC 2007 {published data only}
  • Pechacek T, Kaufmann R, Trosclair A, Caraballo R, Caudill S. Reduced secondhand smoke exposure after implementation of a comprehensive statewide smoking ban-New York, June 26, 2003-June 30 2004. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2007;56(28):705-8.
Cesaroni 2008 {published data only}
  • Cesaroni G, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, Valente P, Zuccaro P, Perucci CA. Effect of the Italian smoking ban on population rates of acute coronary events. Circulation 2008;117:1183-8.
Eagan 2006 {published data only}
Eisner 1998 {published data only}
Ellingsen 2006 {published data only}
  • Ellingsen DG, Fladseth G, Daae HL, Gjolstad M, Kjaerheim K, Skogstad M, et al. Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2006;8:362-8.
  • Skogstad M, Kjaerheim K, Fladseth G, Gjolstad M, Daae HL, Olsen R, et al. Cross shift changes in lung function among bar and restaurant workers before and after implementation of a smoking ban. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;63:482-7.
Farrelly 2005 {published data only}
  • Farrelly MC, Nonnemaker JM, Chou R, Hyland A, Peterson KK, Bauer UE. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law. Tobacco Control 2005;14:236-41.
Fernando 2007 {published data only}
  • Fernando D, Fowles J, Woodward A, Christophersen A, Dickson S, Hosking M, et al. Legislation reduces exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in New Zealand bars by about 90%. Tobacco Control 2007;16:235-8.
Fernández 2009 {published data only}
  • Fernández E, Fu M, Pascual JA, López MJ, Pérez-Ríos M, Schiaffino A, et al. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: A cohort study. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e4244.
Fichtenberg 2000 {published data only}
  • Fichtenberg CM, Glantz SA. Association of the California Tobacco Control Program with declines in cigarette consumption and mortality from heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343:1772-7.
Fong 2006 {published data only}
  • Fong GT, Hyland A, Borland R, Hammond D, Hastings G, McNeill A, et al. Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland: findings from the ITC Ireland/UK Survey. Tobacco Control 2006;15 Suppl 3:iii51-8.
Fowkes 2008 {published data only}
Gallus 2007 {published data only}
  • Gallus S, Pacifici R, Colombo P, Scarpino V, Zuccaro P, Bosetti C, et al. Prevalence of smoking and attitude towards smoking regulation in Italy, 2004. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2006;15:77-81.
  • Gallus S, Zuccaro P, Colombo P, Apolone G, Pacifici R, Garattini S, La Vecchia C. Effects of new smoking regulations in Italy. Annals of Oncology 2006;17:346-7.
  • Gallus S, Zuccaro P, Colombo P, Apolone G, Pacifici R, Garattini S, et al. Smoking in Italy 2005-2006: Effects of a comprehensive national tobacco regulation. Preventive Medicine 2007;45:198-201.
  • Gorini G, Costantini AS, Paci E. Smoking prevalence in Italy after the smoking ban: Towards a comprehensive evaluation of tobacco control programs in Europe. Preventive Medicine 2007;45:123-4.
Galán 2007 {published data only}
  • Gálan I, Mata N, Estrada C, Díez-Ganán L, Velázquez L, Zorrilla B, et al. Impact of the "Tobacco Control Law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain. BMC Public Health 2007;7:224.
Gilpin 2002 {published data only}
Goodman 2007 {published data only}
  • Goodman P, Agnew M, McCaffrey M, Paul G, Clancy L. Effect of the Irish smoking ban on respiratory health of bar workers and air quality in Dublin pubs. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2007;175:840-5.
Gotz 2008 {published data only}
  • Gotz NK, van Tongeren M, Wareing H, Wallace LM, Semple S, MacCalman L. Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation. Journal of Public Health 2008;30:421-8.
Hahn 2006 {published data only}
  • Hahn E, Rayens M, York N, Okoli C, Zhang M, Dignan M, et al. Effects of a smoke-free law on hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms of restaurant and bar workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;48(9):906-913.
  • Hahn EJ, Rayens MK, York N, Dignan M, Al-Delaimy WK. Secondhand smoke exposure in restaurant and bar workers before and after Lexington's smoke-free ordinance. University of Kentucky, College of Nursing 2005.
  • Okoli CTC, Rayens MK, Hahn EJ. Behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand smoke among bar and restaurant workers. Addictive Behaviors 2007;32:1922-8.
Hahn 2008 {published data only}
Haw 2007 {published data only}
  • Haw SJ, Gruer L. Changes in exposure of adult non-smokers to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland:national cross-sectional survey. BMJ 2007;335(7619):549-552.
Helakorpi 2008 {published data only}
  • Helakorpi SA, Martelin TP, Torppa JO, Patja KM, Kiiskinen UA, Vartiainen EA, Uutela AK. Did the Tobacco Control Act Amendment in 1995 affect daily smoking in Finland? Effects of a restrictive workplace smoking policy. Journal of Public Health 2008;30:407-14.
Heloma 2003 {published data only}
Hyland 2009 {published data only}
  • Hyland A, Hassan LM, Higbee C, Boudreau C, Fong G, et al. The impact of smokefree legislation in Scotland: results from the Scottish ITC Scotland/UK longitudinal surveys. European Journal of Public Health 2009;19(2):198-205.
Jiménez-Ruiz 2008 {published data only}
  • Jiménez-Ruiz CA, Riesco Miranda JA, Hurt RD, Ramos Pinedo A, Solano Reina S, Carrión Valero F. Study of impact of laws regulating tobacco consumption on the prevalence of passive smoking in Spain. European Journal of Public Health 2008;18:622-5.
Juster 2007 {published data only}
  • Juster HR, Loomis BR, Hinman TM, et al. Declines in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction in New York State after implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97:2035-9.
Khuder 2007 {published data only}
Larsson 2008 {published data only}
  • Larsson M, Boëthius G, Axelsson S, Montgomery SM. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden - before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 2008;34:267-77 .
Lemstra 2008 {published data only}
Menzies 2006 {published data only}
  • Menzies D, Nair A, Williamson P, Schembri S, Al-Khairalla M, Barnes M, et al. Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation among bar workers before and after a legislative ban on smoking in public places. JAMA 2006;296:1742-8.
Mulcahy 2005 {published data only}
  • Mulcahy M, Evans DS, Hammond SK, Repace JL, Byrne M. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars. Tobacco Control 2005;14(6):384-8.
Mullally 2009 {published data only}
  • Mullally BJ, Greiner BA, Allwright S, Paul G, Perry IJ. Prevalence of smoking among bar workers prior to the Republic of Ireland smokefree workplace legislation. Irish Journal of Medical Science 2008;177:309-16.
  • Mullally BJ, Greiner BA, Allwright S, Paul G, Perry IJ. The effect of the Irish smoke-free workplace legislation on smoking among bar workers. European Journal of Public Health 2009;19:206-11.
Palmersheim 2006 {published data only}
  • Palmersheim K, Remington P, Gundersen D. The impact of a smoke-free ordinance on the health and attitudes of bartenders. The impact of a smoke-free ordinance on the health and attitudes of bartenders. Tobacco Surveillance Evaluation Programme. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Center, 2006.
Pearson 2009 {published data only}
  • Pearson J, Windsor R, El-Mohandes A, Perry DC. Evaluation of the immediate impact of the Washington D.C. smoke-free indoor air policy on bar employee environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Public Health Reports 2009;124 Suppl 1:135-42.
Pell 2008 {published data only}
Pell 2009 {published data only}
  • Pell JP, Haw S, Cobbe S, Newby DE, Pell ACH, Fischbacher C, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure and survival following acute coronary syndrome: prospective cohort study of 1261 consecutive admissions among never smokers. Heart 2009;95:1415-8.
Sargent 2004 {published data only}
Semple 2007 {published data only}
  • Ayres JG, Semple S, MacCalman L, Dempsey S, Hilton S, et al. Bar workers' health and environmental tobacco smoke exposure (BHETSE): symptomatic improvement in bar staff following smoke-free legislation in Scotland. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;66:339-46.
  • Semple S, Maccalman L, Naji AA, Dempsey S, Hilton S, Miller BG, Ayres JG. Bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke: the effects of Scottish smokefree legislation on occupational exposure. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 2007;51:571-80.
Seo 2007 {published data only}
Vasselli 2008 {published data only}
  • Vasselli S, Papini P, Gaelone D, Spizzichino L, De Campora E, Gnavi R, et al. Reduction incidence of myocardial infarction with a national legislative ban on smoking. Minerva Cardioangiologica 2008;56:197-203.
Verdonk-Kleinjan 2009 {published data only}
  • Verdonk-Kleinjan WMI, Knibbe RA, Tan FES, Willemsen MC, de Groot HN, de Vries H. Does the workplace smoking ban eliminate differences in risk for environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work. Health Policy 2009;92:197-202 (epub 2009 Apr 26).
Waa 2006 {published data only}
  • Waa A, McGough S. Reducing exposure to second hand smoke: changes associated with the implementation of the amended New Zealand Smoke-free Environments Act 1990: 2003-2006. (accessed 17th February 2010). Wellington: HSC Research and Evaluation Unit, 2006.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Akbar-Khanzadeh 2003 {published data only}
  • Akbar-Khanzadeh F. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in restaurants without separate ventilation systems for smoking and nonsmoking dining areas. Archives of Environmental Health 2003;58(2):97-103.
Akbar-Khanzadeh 2004 {published data only}
  • Akbar-Khanzadeh F, Milz S, Ames A, Spino S, Tex C. Effectiveness of clean indoor air ordinances in controlling environmental tobacco smoke in restaurants. Archives of Environmental Health 2004;59(12):677-85.
Albers 2004 {published data only}
  • Albers AB, Siegel M, Cheng DM, Rigotti NA, Biener L. Effects of Restaurant and Bar Smoking Regulations on Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Among Massachusetts Adults. American Journal of Public Health 2004;94:1959–64.
Albers 2007 {published data only}
  • Albers AB, Siegel M, Cheng DM, Biener L, Rigotti NA. Effect of smoking regulations in local restaurants on smokers’ anti-smoking attitudes and quitting behaviours. American Journal of Public Health 2007;16:101-6.
  • Albers AB, Siegel M, Cheng DM, Biener L, Rigotti NA. Relation between local restaurant smoking regulations and attitudes towards the prevalence and social acceptability of smoking: a study of youths and adults who eat out predominantly at restaurants in their town. Tobacco Control 2004;13(4):347-55.
Areias 2009 {published data only}
Bates 2002 {published data only}
Bauer 2005 {published data only}
  • Bauer JE, Hyland A, Li Q, Steger C, Cummings KM. A longitudinal assessment of the impact of smoke-free worksite policies on tobacco use. American Journal of Public Health 2005;95(6):1024-1029.
Biener 1999b {published data only}
Bloor 2006 {published data only}
Borders 2005 {published data only}
Borland 1991b {published data only}
Borland 1992 {published data only}
  • Borland R. Changes in prevalence of and attitudes to restrictions on smoking in the workplace among indoor workers in the State of Victoria, Australia, 1988-90. Tobacco Control 1992;1:19-24.
Borland 1992b {published data only}
Borland 1995 {published data only}
Borland 1997 {published data only}
Botello-Harbaum 2009 {published data only}
  • Botello-Harbaum MT, Haynie DL, Iannotti RJ, Wang J, Gase L, Simons-Morton B. Tobacco control policy and adolescent cigarette smoking status in the United States. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009;11:875-85.
Brenner 1992 {published data only}
Brenner 1994 {published data only}
Bronaugh 1990 {published data only}
C.-Thompson 1998 {published data only}
  • Clements-Thompson M, Klesges RC, Haddock K, Lando H, Talcott W. Relationships between stages of change in cigarette smokers and healthy lifestyle behaviors in a population of young military personnel during forced smoking abstinence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1998;66:1005-11.
Carroll 1989 {published data only}
Chaloupka 1992 {published data only}
Chapman 1997 {published data only}
Cooreman 1997 {published data only}
  • Cooreman J, Mesbah H, Leynaert B, Segala C. Evaluation of the impact of a smoking ban in a large Paris hospital [Evaluation des effets de la loi antitabac sur les habitudes et attitudes du personnel paramédical en activité dans un hopital de l'assistance publique de Paris]. Semaine des Hopitaux de Paris 1997;73(11-12):317-23.
Cropsey 2005 {published data only}
Darling 2006 {published data only}
  • Darling H, Reeder AI, Williams S, McGee R. Is there a relation between school smoking policies and youth cigarette smoking knowledge and behaviors?. Health Education Research 2006;21:108-15.
Daughton 1992 {published data only}
Dawley 1993 {published data only}
Dwyer 2005 {published data only}
  • Dwyer M. The integration of tobacco dependence treatment and tobacco-free standards into residential addictions treatment in New Jersey. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2005;28:331-40.
Eadie 2008 {published data only}
Echer 2008 {published data only}
  • Echer IC, Luz AM, Lucena A de F, Motta G de C, Goldim JR, Barreto SS. The contribution of social restrictions to smoking cessation. Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem 2008;29(4):520-7.
Emont 1990 {published data only}
  • Emont SL, Cummings KM. Organizational factors affecting participation in a smoking cessation program and abstinence among 68 auto dealerships. American Journal of Health Promotion 1990;5:107-114.
Emont 1992 {published data only}
  • Emont SL, Choi WS, Novotny TE, Giovino GA. Clean indoor air legislation, taxation, and smoking behaviour in the United States: an ecological analysis. Tobacco Control 1992;2:13-7.
Emont 1995 {published data only}
  • Emont SL, Zahniser SC, Marcus SE, Trontell AE, Mills S, Frazier EL, et al. Evaluation of the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention smoke- free policy. American Journal of Health Promotion 1995;9:456-61.
Evans 1999 {published data only}
Farkas 1999 {published data only}
Farkas 2000 {published data only}
Farrelly 1999 {published data only}
Fernandez 2008 {published data only}
  • Fernández E, Fu M, Martínez C, Martínez-Sánchez JM, López MJ, et al. Secondhand smoke in hospitals of Catlonia (Spain) before and after a comprehensive ban on smoking at the national level. Preventive Medicine 2008;47:624-8.
Fletcher 2009 {published data only}
  • Fletcher PC, Camblin A. Preliminary examination of first year female university students: smoking practices and beliefs in a city with no-smoking legislation. College Student Journal 2009;43(1):234-40.
Franchini 2008 {published data only}
Frieden 2005 {published data only}
  • Frieden TR, Mostashari F, Kerker BD, Miller N, Hajat A, Frankel M. Adult tobacco use levels after intensive tobacco control measures: New York City, 2002-2003. American Journal of Public Health 2005;95:1016-23.
Gallus 2006 {published data only}
Gasparrini 2006 {published data only}
  • Gasparrini A, Gorini G, Marcolina D, Albertini M, Fondelli MC, Tamang E, Nebot M. Second-hand smoke exposure in Florence and Belluno before and after the Italian smoke-free legislation. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione 2006;30(6):348-51.
Gerst 1995 {published data only}
  • Gerst D, Lamothe E, Ameille J, Giard AM. Results of a survey on the consequences of the ban of smoking at the workplace. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de Medecine du Travail 1995;56(1):56-8.
Goldstein 1992 {published data only}
  • Goldstein AO, Westbrook WR, Howell RE, Fischer PM. Hospital efforts in smoking control: Remaining barriers and challenges. Journal of Family Practice 1992;34(6):729-34.
Gomel 1993 {published data only}
  • Gomel. Pilot study of the effects of a workplace smoking ban on indexes of smoking, cigarette craving, stress and other health behaviours. Psychology and Health 1993;8:223-9.
Gorini 2008a {published data only}
  • Gorini G, Gasparrini A, Tamang E, Nebot M, Lopez MJ, et al. Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure after introduction of the Italian smoking ban: the Florence and Belluno survey. Tumori 2008;94:798-802.
Gorini 2008b {published data only}
Hamilton 2003 {published data only}
Hamilton 2008 {published data only}
  • Hamilton WL, Biener L, Brennan T. Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts. Health Education Research 2008;23(4):709-22.
Harvey 2002 {published data only}
  • Harvey HD, Fleming P, Patterson M. Ethical dilemmas and human rights considerations arising from the evaluation of a smoking policy in a health promoting setting. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2002;12(3):269-75.
Helakorpi 2004 {published data only}
  • Helakorpi S, Martelin T, Torppa J, Patja K, Vartiainen E, Uutela A. Did Finland's Tobacco Control Act of 1976 have an impact on ever smoking? An examination based on male and female cohort trends. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2004;58(8):649-54.
Hilton 2008 {published data only}
  • Hilton S, Cameron J, MacLean A, Petticrew M. Observations from behind the bar: changing patrons' behaviours in response to smoke-free legislation in Scotland. BMC Public Health 2008;8:238.
Hu 2005 {published data only}
Hyland 2007 {published data only}
  • Hyland A, Higbee C, Hassan L, Fong GT, Borland R, Cummings KM, Hastings G. Does smoke-free Ireland have more smoking inside the home and less in pubs than the United Kingdom? Findings from the international tobacco control policy evaluation project. European Journal of Public Health 2007;18:63-65.
Kassab 1992 {published data only}
  • Kassab J, Morgan G, Williams E, Davies C. Smoking prevalence and attitudes of Gwynedd Health Authority staff towards passive smoking and the Authority's non-smoking policy. Health Trends 1992;24(1):8-13.
Kelly 2009 {published data only}
Kinne 1993 {published data only}
Kitabayashi 2006 {published data only}
  • Kitabayashi Y, Narumoto J, Shibata K, Nakamae T, Kamei J, Sano K, et al. Effect of institutional smoking prohibition on Japanese inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2006;41(2):128-33.
Klein 2009 {published data only}
  • Klein EG, Forster JL, Erickson DJ, Lytle LA, Schillo B. The relationship between local clean indoor air policies and smoking behaviours in Minnesota youth. Tobacco Control 2009;18(2):132-7.
Kumar 2005 {published data only}
  • Kumar R. School tobacco control policies related to students' smoking and attitudes toward smoking: national survey results, 1999-2000. Health Education Behaviour 2005;32(6):780-94.
Larrrere 1994 {published data only}
  • Larrere C, Olivier J, Chretien I, Gelibert A, Hegron C, Lemaire E. [Etude sur l'application de la loi sur le tabagisme dans les petites et moyennes entreprises]. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de Medecine du Travail 1994;55(8):650.
Lee 2008 {published data only}
  • Lee DJ, Dietz NA, Arheart KL, Wilkinson JD, Clarke JD, Caban-Martinez AJ. Respiratory effects of secondhand smoke exposure among adults residing in a "clean" indoor air state. Journal of Community Health 2008;33:117-25.
Levy 2003 {published data only}
  • Levy DT, Friend K. Examining the effects of tobacco treatment policies on smoking related deaths using the SimSmoke computer simulation model. Tobacco Control 2002;11:47-54.
  • Levy DT, Friend K, Polishchuk E. Effect of clean indoor air laws on smokers: the clean air module of the SimSmoke computer simulation model. Tobacco Control 2001;10:345-51.
  • Levy DT, Mumford EA, Pesin B. Tobacco control policies and reductions in smoking rates and smoking-related deaths. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 2003;3:457-68.
Levy 2004 {published data only}
Levy 2005a {published data only}
Levy 2005b {published data only}
  • Levy DT, Romano E, Mumford E. The relationship of smoking cessation to sociodemographic characteristics, smoking intensity, and tobacco control policies. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005;7:387-96.
Levy 2006a {published data only}
  • Levy DT, Mumford EA, Compton C. Tobacco control policies and smoking in a population of low education women, 1992-2002. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2006;60 Suppl 2:ii20-ii26.
Levy 2006b {published data only}
  • Levy DT, Bales S, Lam NT, Nikolayev L. The role of public policies in reducing smoking and deaths caused by smoking in Vietnam: Results from the Vietnam tobacco policy simulation model. Social Science and Medicine 2006;62:1819-30.
  • Levy DT, Bauer JE, Lee HR. Simulation modelling and tobacco control: creating more robust public health policies. American Journal of Public Health 2006;96:494-8.
Lewit 1997 {published data only}
  • Lewit EM, Hyland A, Kerrebrock N, Cummings KM. Price, public policy, and smoking in young people. Tobacco Control 1997;6 Suppl 2:S17-24.
Lin 2006 {published data only}
  • Lin D, Stahl DC, Ikle D, Grannis FW, Jr. Employee attitudes and smoking behavior at the city of hope national medical center smoke-free campus. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2006;4(6):535-42.
Longo 1996 {published data only}
Longo 2001 {published data only}
Lushchenkova 2008 {published data only}
  • Lushchenkova O, Fernandez E, Lopez MJ, Fu M, Martinez-Sanchez JM, Nebot M, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure in Spanish adult non-smokers following the introduction of an anti-smoking law. Revista Española de Cardiologí 2008;61:687-94.
Marcus 1992 {published data only}
  • Marcus BH, Emmons KM, Abrams DB, Marshall RJ, Kane M, Novotny TE, et al. Restrictive workplace smoking policies: Impact on nonsmokers' tobacco exposure. Journal of Public Health Policy 1992;13:42-51.
Martínez 2009 {published data only}
  • Martínez C, Fu M, Martínez-Sánchez JM, Ballbè M, Puig M, García M, et al. Tobacco control policies in hospital before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain. BMC Public Health 2009;9:160.
Maurice 2006 {published data only}
  • Maurice E, Thorne S, Ajani U, Malarcher A, Merritt R, Husten C. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults and secondhand smoke rules and policies in homes and workplaces, United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 2006;55(42):1148-51.
McCaffrey 2006 {published data only}
  • McCaffrey M, Goodman PG, Kelleher K, Clancy L. Smoking, occupancy and staffing levels in a selection of Dublin pubs pre and post a national smoking ban, lessons for all. Irish Journal of Medical Science 2006;175(2):37-40.
McMullen 2005 {published data only}
Miller 2006 {published data only}
Minihan 1999 {published data only}
Minov 2008 {published data only}
  • Minov J, Karadzinska-Bislimovska J, Vasilevska K, Risteska-Kuc S, Stoleski S. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace in Macedonia: where are we now?. Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju 2008;59(2):103-9.
Mizoue 2000 {published data only}
Montner 1996 {published data only}
Moore 2001 {published data only}
Moskowitz 2000 {published data only}
Mullally 2008 {published data only}
  • Mullally BJ, Greiner BA, Allwright S, Paul G, Perry IJ. Prevalence of smoking among bar workers prior to the Republic of Ireland smokefree workplace legislation. Irish Journal of Medical Science 2008;177:309-16.
Murnaghan 2007 {published data only}
  • Murnaghan DA, Sihvonen M, Leatherdale ST, Kekki P. The relationship between school-based smoking policies and prevention programs on smoking behavior among grade 12 students in Prince Edward Island: a multilevel analysis. Preventive Medicine 2007;44:317-22.
Nebot 2009 {published data only}
  • Nebot M, Lopez MJ, Ariza C, Pérez-Ríos M, Fu M, et al. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to secondhand smoke in offices and hospitality venues: before and after study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117:344-7.
Nerin 2005 {published data only}
  • Nerin I, Crucelaegui A, Mas A, Villalba JA, Guillen D, Gracia A. Results of a comprehensive workplace program for the prevention and treatment of smoking addiction. Archivos de Bronconeumologia 2005;41(4):197-201.
Northrup 1998 {published data only}
  • Northrup DA, Ashley MJ, Ferrence R. The Ontario ban on smoking on school property: Perceived impact on smoking. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1998;89(4):224-8.
Offord 1992 {published data only}
Olive 1996 {published data only}
Ong 2003 {published data only}
  • Ong M, Lightwood J, Glantz S. Health and economic impacts of the proposed smokefree for health initiative. San Francisco: Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, 2003.
Ong 2004 {published data only}
Ong 2005 {published data only}
  • Ong MK, Glantz SA. Free nicotine replacement therapy programs vs implementing smoke-free workplaces: A cost-effectiveness comparison. American Journal of Public Health 2005;95:969-75.
Osthus 2007 {published data only}
  • Osthus S, Pape H, Lund KE. [Smoking restrictions and smoking prevalence in high schools]. Tidsskrift for den Norske Lægeforening : Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, ny Række 2007;127(9):1192-4.
Owen 1997 {published data only}
  • Owen N, Borland R. Delayed compensatory cigarette consumption after a workplace smoking ban. Tobacco Control 1997;6:131-5.
Panagiotakos 2007 {published data only}
  • Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C. Chronic exposure to second hand smoke and 30-day prognosis of patients hospitalised with acute coronary syndromes: the Greek study of acute coronary syndromes. Heart 2007;93:309-12.
Parry 2000b {published data only}
  • Parry O, Platt S, Thomson C. Out of sight, out of mind: Workplace smoking bans and the relocation of smoking at work. Health Promotion International 2000;15:125-33.
Patten 1995b {published data only}
  • Patten CA. Workplace smoking policy and changes in smoking behaviour in California: a suggested association. Tobacco Control 1995;4:36-41.
Patten 1995c {published data only}
  • Patten CA. Progress in protecting non-smokers from environmental tobacco smoke in California workplaces. Tobacco Control 1995;4:139-144.
Patten 1995d {published data only}
  • Patten CA, Bruce CK, Hurt RD, et al. Effects of a smokefree policy on an inpatient psychiatric unit. Tobacco Control 1995;4:372-9.
Paulozzi 1992 {published data only}
Pederson 1992 {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Bull SB, Ashley MJ, Kozma D. Restrictions on smoking: Changes in knowledge, attitudes and predicted behaviour in metropolitan Toronto from 1983 to 1988. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992;83:408-12.
Pederson 1993 {published data only}
Pederson 1996 {published data only}
  • Pederson LL, Bull SB, Ashley MJ. Smoking in the workplace: do smoking patterns and attitudes reflect the legislative environment?. Tobacco Control 1996;5:39-45.
Pentz 1989 {published data only}
  • Pentz MA, Brannon BR, Charlin VL, Barrett EJ, MacKinnon DP, Flay BR. The power of policy: the relationship of smoking policy to adolescent smoking. American Journal of Public Health 1989;79:857-62.
Petersen 1988 {published data only}
  • Petersen LR, Helgerson SD, Gibbons CM, Calhoun CR, Ciacco KH, Pitchford KC. Employee smoking behavior changes and attitudes following a restrictive policy on worksite smoking in a large company. Public Health Reports 1988;103:115-20.
Phillips 2007 {published data only}
Philpot 1999 {published data only}
Pickett 2006 {published data only}
Pierce 1994 {published data only}
  • Pierce JP, Shanks TG, Pertschuk M, Gilpin E, Shopland D, Johnson M, Bal D. Do smoking ordinances protect smokers from environmental tobacco smoke at work?. Tobacco Control 1994;3:15-20.
Prochaska 2006 {published data only}
Proescholdbell 2008 {published data only}
  • Proescholdbell SK, Foley KL, Johnson J, Malek SH. Indoor air quality in prisons before and after implementation of a smoking ban law. Tobacco Control 2008;17:123-7.
Ratschen 2008 {published data only}
  • Ratschen E, Britton J, McNeill A. Smoke-free hospitals-The English experience: results from a survey, interviews and site visits. BMC Health Services Research 2008;18:41.
Rayens 2008 {published data only}
  • Rayens MK, Burkhart PV, Zhang M, Lee S, Moser DK, et al. Reduction in asthma-related emergency department visits after implementation of a smoke-free law. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008;122:537-41.
Reitsma 2004 {published data only}
  • Reitsma AH, Manske S. Smoking in Ontario schools: does policy make a difference?. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2004;95:214-8.
Resnick 1989 {published data only}
Richiardi 2009 {published data only}
  • Richiardi L, Vizzini L, Merietti F, Barone-Adesi F. Cardiovascular benefits of smoking regulations: The effect of decreased exposure to passive smoking. Preventive Medicine 2009;48:167-72.
Ringel 2005 {published data only}
  • Ringel JS, Wasserman J, Andreyeva T. Effects of public policy on adolescents' cigar use: Evidence from the National Youth Tobacco Survey. American Journal of Public Health 2005;95:995-8.
Rosen 1995 {published data only}
Rosenstock 1986 {published data only}
Schaap 2008 {published data only}
  • Schaap MM, Kunst AE, Leinsalu M, Regidor E, Ekholm O. Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in18 European countries. Tobacco Control 2008;17(4):248-55.
Schnohr 2008 {published data only}
Scott 1989 {published data only}
  • Scott CJE, Gerberich SG. Analysis of a smoking policy in the workplace. AAOHN J 1989;37:265-73.
Semple 2007b {published data only}
Shavers 2006 {published data only}
  • Shavers VL, Fagan P, Jouridine Alexander LA, Clayton R, Doucet J, Baezconde-Garbanati L. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998–1999 and 2001–2002. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2006;60 Suppl 2:ii34-43.
Shields 2004 {published data only}
  • Shields M. The journey to quitting smoking. Health Reports 2004;16(3):19-36.
Shields 2007 {published data only}
  • Shields M. Smoking bans: Influence on smoking prevalence. Health Reports 2007;18(3):8-24.
Shirres 1996 {published data only}
  • Shirres G. Successful implementation of a no-smoking policy. Collegian 1996;3(4):30-8.
Siegel 2005 {published data only}
Siegel 2008 {published data only}
  • Siegel M, Albers AB, Cheng DM, Hamilton WL, Biener L. Local restaurant smoking regulations and the adolescent smoking initiation process. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2008;162:477-83.
Sinha 2004 {published data only}
Skeer 2005 {published data only}
Smith 1989 {published data only}
Sorensen 1991a {published data only}
  • Sorensen G, Rigotti NA, Rosen A, Pinney J, Prible R. Employee knowledge and attitudes about a work-site nonsmoking policy: Rationale for further smoking restrictions. Journal of Occupational Medicine 1991;33:1125-30.
Sorensen 1991b {published data only}
  • Sorensen G, Rigotti N, Rosen A, Pinney J, Prible R. Effects of a worksite nonsmoking policy: Evidence for increased cessation. American Journal of Public Health 1991;81:202-4.
Stark 2007 {published data only}
  • Stark MJ, Rohde K, Maher JE, Pizacani BA, Dent CW, et al. The impact of clean indoor air exemptions and preemption policies on the prevalence of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen among nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97:1457-63.
Stephens 1997 {published data only}
  • Stephens T, Pederson LL, Koval JJ, Kim C. The relationship of cigarette prices and no-smoking bylaws to the prevalence of smoking in Canada. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87:1519-21.
Stillman 1995 {published data only}
  • Stillman F, Warshow M, Aguinaga S. Patient compliance with a hospital no-smoking policy. Tobacco Control 1995;4:145-9.
Strobl 1998 {published data only}
Styles 1998 {published data only}
  • Styles G, Caewell S. No smoking at work: the effect of different types of workplace smoking restrictions on smokers' attitudes, behaviour and cessation intentions. Health Education Journal 1998;57:385-95.
Sussman 1990 {published data only}
  • Sussman S, Pentz MA, Hahn G. The relationship of a worksite no-smoking policy to employee smoking behavior and attitudes. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 1990;339:119-31.
Tang 2003 {published data only}
  • Tang H, Cowling DW, Lloyd JC, Rogers T, Koumjian KL, Stevens CM, et al. Changes of attitudes and patronage behaviors in response to a smoke-free bar law. American Journal of Public Health 2003;93(4):611-7.
Tang 2004 {published data only}
Tauras 2004 {published data only}
Tillgren 1998a {published data only}
  • Tillgren P, Jansson M, Hoijer Y, Ullen H. Maintaining a smoke-free policy: An observational and interview study at a university hospital in Sweden. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 1998;7(5):403-8.
Tramacere 2009 {published data only}
  • Tramacere I, Gallus S, Fernandez E, Zuccaro P, Colombo P, La Vecchia C. Medium-term effects of Italian smoke-free legislation: findings from four annual population-based surveys. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2009;63:559-62.
Trudeau 1995 {published data only}
Velasco 1996a {published data only}
  • Velasco J, Eells TD, Anderson R, Head M, Ryabik B, Mount R, et al. A two-year follow-up on the effects of a smoking ban in an inpatient psychiatric service. Psychiatric Services 1996;47(8):869-71.
Wakefield 1992 {published data only}
  • Wakefield MA, Wilson D, Owen N, Esterman A, Roberts L. Workplace smoking restrictions, occupational status, and reduced cigarette consumption. Journal of Occupational Medicine 1992;34:693-7.
Wakefield 2005 {published data only}
  • Wakefield M, Cameron M, Inglis G, Letcher T, Durkin S. Secondhand smoke exposure and respiratory symptoms among casino, club, and office workers in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2005;47:698-703.
Wakefield 2007 {published data only}
  • Wakefield M, Cameron M, Murphy M. Potential for smoke-free policies in social venues to prevent smoking uptake and reduce relapse: a qualitative study. Health Promotion International 2009;10:119-27.
White 2008 {published data only}
  • White VM, Hayman J, Hill DJ. Can population-based tobacco-control policies change smoking behaviors of adolescents from all socio-economic groups? Findings from Australia: 1987-2005. Cancer Causes and Control 2008;19:631-40.
Woodruff 1993 {published data only}

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Tominz 2006 {published data only}
  • Tominz R, Murolo G, Montina G, Poropat C, Zorzut F, Peresson M, Barbierato D. Exposure to passive smoking in local health units of northern Italy before and after the enforcement of the smoking ban. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione 2006;30:338-342.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Allwright 2002
  • Allwright S, McLaughlin JP, Murphy D, Pratt I, Ryan MP, Smith A, Guihen B. Report of the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the workplace. Dublin, Kildare: Health and Safety Authority, Office of Tobacco Control, 2002.
Barnoya 2005
Benowitz 2002
  • SRNT Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification. Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2002;4:149-59.
Boffetta 1998
  • Boffetta P, Agudo A, Ahrens W, Benhamou E, Benhamou S, Darby SC, et al. Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998;90:1440-50.
Cal EPA 1997
  • California Environmental Protection Agency. Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Final report. Cal/EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 1997.
Chapman 1999
  • Chapman S, Borland R, Scollo M, Brownson RC, Dominello A, Woodward S. The impact of smoke-free workplaces on declining cigarette consumption in Australia and the United States. American Journal of Public Health 1999;89(7):1018-23.
Davey Smith 2000
  • Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S, Egger M. Should health promotion be exempt from rigorous evaluation?. In: Edmondson R, Kelleher C editor(s). Health promotion. New discipline or multi-discipline?. Dublin: Irish Academc Press, 2000:18-28.
DHHS 1986
  • US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Office on Smoking and Health. The health consequences of involuntary smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. (accessed 01/09/05). Rockville: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1986.
EPOC 2009
  • Cochrane EPOC Group. Interrupted Time Series designs. 2009.
Fichtenberg 2002
Hackshaw 1997
IARC 2002
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Monographs Volume 83. Lyon: World Health Organization, 2002.
IARC 2004
  • IARC. Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Monographs May 2004; Vol. 83.
Main 2005
  • MaIn C, Mather L, Ogilvie D, Petticrew M, Sowden A, Thomas S, Whitehead M, Egan M. The inverse evidence law in tobacco control: findings from a systematic review of reviews. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2005;59(Suppl I):A24.
NCI 1999
  • National Cancer Institute. Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the report of the Californian Environmental Protection Agency. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Sciences, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 1999.
NHMRC 1997
  • Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Health effects of passive smoking. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1997.
NICE 2007
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Workplace interventions to promote smoking cessation. London: NICE, April 2007.
NRC 1986
  • National Research Council, Board on Environmental Studies, Toxicology. Committee on passive Smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke: measuring exposures and assessing health effects. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1986.
Ogilvie 2005
  • Ogilvie D, Egan M, Hamilton, Petticrew M. Systematic reviews of health effects of social interventions: 2. Best available evidence: how low should you go?. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2005;59:886-92.
Ottawa 1986
  • World Health Organization. Ottawa charter for health promotion. (accessed 16/1/2006) 1986.
SCOTH 2004
  • Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health (SCOTH). Secondhand Smoke: Review of Evidence since 1998. Update of evidence on health effects of secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke: Review of evidence since 1998. Update of evidence on health effects of secondhand smoke. London: Department of Health, 2004.
Tobacco Act 2002
  • Department of Health and Children, Republic of Ireland. Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2002 (section 47) Regulations 2003. Dublin: Department of Health and Children,
Wells 1998
WHO 1986
  • World Health Organization. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. First International Conference on Health Promotion. Ottawa, WHO/HPR/HEP/95.. Geneva: WHO, November 1986.
WHO 2003
  • World Health Organization. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva: WHO, 2003.
WHO 2005
  • World Health Organisation. Why is tobacco a public health priority?. (accessed 3 June 2005).