Intervention Review

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Parenting interventions for the prevention of unintentional injuries in childhood

  1. Denise Kendrick1,*,
  2. Caroline A Mulvaney1,
  3. Lily Ye1,
  4. Tony Stevens1,
  5. Julie A Mytton2,
  6. Sarah Stewart-Brown3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006020.pub3

How to Cite

Kendrick D, Mulvaney CA, Ye L, Stevens T, Mytton JA, Stewart-Brown S. Parenting interventions for the prevention of unintentional injuries in childhood. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD006020. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006020.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Nottingham, Division of Primary Care, Nottingham, UK

  2. 2

    University of the West of England at Bristol, Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, Bristol, UK

  3. 3

    Warwick Medical School, Health Sciences Research Unit, Coventry, UK

*Denise Kendrick, Division of Primary Care, University of Nottingham, Floor 13, Tower Building, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Armstrong 2000 {published data only}
Barlow 2007 {published data only}
  • Barlow J, Davis H, McIntosch E, Jarrett P, Mockford C, Stewart-Brown S. Role of home visiting in improving parenting and health in families at risk of abuse and neglect: results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2007;92(3):229-33.
Caldera 2007 {published data only}
  • Caldera D, Burrell L, Rodriguez K, Crowne SS, Rodhe C, Duggan A. Impact of a statewide home visiting program on parenting and on child health and development. Child Abuse & Neglect 2007;31:829-52.
Culp 2007 {unpublished data only}
Duggan 1999 {published data only}
Emond 2002 {published data only}
Feldman 1992 {published data only}
  • Feldman MA, Case L, Sparks B. Effectiveness of a child-care training program for parents at-risk for child neglect. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 1992;24(1):14-28.
Fergusson 2005 {published data only}
Gutelius 1977 {published data only}
  • Gutelius MF, Kirsch AD, McDonald S, Riddick Brooks M, McErlan T. Controlled study of child health supervision: behaviour results. Pediatrics 1977;60(3):294-304.
Hardy 1989 {published data only}
  • Hardy JB, Streett R. Family support and parenting education in the home: an effective extension of clinic-based preventive health care services for poor children. Journal of Pediatrics 1989;115(6):927-31.
IHDP 1990 {published data only}
  • The Infant Health & Development Program. Enhancing the outcomes of low-birth-weight, premature infants. A multisite, randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1990;263(22):3035-42.
Johnson 1993 {published data only}
Johnston 2004 {published data only}
  • Johnston B, Huebner CE, Tyll LT, Barlow WE, Thompson RS. Expanding developmental and behavioural services for newborns in primary care: effects on parental well being, practice and satisfaction. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004;26(4):356-66.
Kemp 2011 {published data only}
  • Kemp L, Harris E, McMahon C, Matthey S, Vimpani G, Anderson T, et al. Child and family outcomes of a long-term nurse home visitation programme: a randomised controlled trial. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 2011;96:533-540.
Kitzman 1997 {published data only}
  • Kitzman H, Olds DL, Henderson CR, Hanks C, Cole R, Tatelbaum R, et al. Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. A randomised controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997;278(8):644-52.
Koniak-Griffin 2003 {published data only}
Larson 1980 {published data only}
Llewellyn 2003 {published data only}
  • Llewellyn G, McConnell D, Honey A, Mayes R, Russo D. Promoting health and home safety for children of parents with intellectual disability: a randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2003;24(6):405-31.
Minkovitz 2003 (a) {published data only}
  • Minkovitz C, Hughart N, Strobino D, Scharfstein D, Grason H, Hou W, et al. A practice-based intervention to enhance quality of care in the first 3 years of life. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003;293(23):3081-91.
Minkovitz 2003 (b) {published data only}
  • Minkovitz C, Hughart N, Strobino D, Scharfstein D, Grason H, Hou W, et al. A practice-based intervention to enhance quality of care in the first 3 years of life. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003;293(23):3081-91.
Olds 1986 {published data only}
  • Olds DL, Henderson CR, Chamberlain R Jr, Tatelbaum R. Preventing child abuse and neglect: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics 1986;78(1):65-78.
St Pierre 1999 {published data only}
  • St Pierre R, Layzer JI. Using home visits for multiple purposes: the Comprehensive Child Development Program. The Future of Children 1999;1:134-151.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Akinbami 2001 {published data only}
  • Akinbami LJ, Cheng TL, Kornfeld D. A review of teen-tot programs: comprehensive clinical care for young parents and their children. Adolescence 2001;36(142):381-93.
Babul 2007 {published data only}
  • Babul S, Olsen L, Janseen P, McIntee P, Raina P. A randomized trial to access the effectiveness of an infant home safety programme. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 2007;14(2):109-17.
Baron-Epel 2006 {published data only}
  • Baron-Epel O, Hemmo-Lotem M, Mike-Doron R, Endy-Findling L, Balin L. Injury prevention counselling of families with children hospitalized due to injuries: the "Personalized Injury Prevention" program. 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion. South Africa, 2006.
Beirens 2006 {published data only}
  • Beirens T. Effectiveness of standardized safety information provided through Dutch well-child clinics to parents of 11-18 months old toddlers. World Safety Conference. 2006.
Bond 2006 {published data only}
  • Bond LA, Burns CE. Mothers' beliefs about knowledge, child development and parenting strategies: expanding the goals of parenting programs. The Journal of Primary Prevention 2006;27(6):555-71.
Conroy 1994 {published data only}
  • Conroy M. Increasing agreement on safe parenting in two-parent families at risk for physical child abuse (Dissertation). University of San Francisco 1994.
Culp 1998 {published data only}
Cupples 2011 {published data only}
  • Cupples ME, Stewart MC, Percy A, Hepper P, Murphy C, Halliday HL. A RCT of peer-mentoring for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas (the MOMENT study). Archives of Diseases in Childhood 2011;96:252-8.
Dawson 1989 {published data only}
Donnellan 1981 {published data only}
  • Donnellan GJ, et al. Prevention Service programs for infants of mentally-ill mothers: progress report. 89th Annual Meeting of the.American Psychological Association. Los Angeles, CA, August 24-28, 1981.
Ertem 2006 {published data only}
Feldman 2004 {published data only}
Fitzpatrick 1997 {published data only}
Gershater-Molko 2002 {published data only}
  • Gershater Molko RM, Lutzker JR, Wesch D. Project SafeCare: improving health, safety, and parenting skills in families reported for, and at-risk for, child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence 2003;18(6):377-86.
Gershater-Molko 2003 {published data only}
  • Gershater-Molko RM. A comprehensive evaluation of project Safecare: health, safety, bonding and recidivism in families reported for, and at risk for, child maltreatment, and finishing treatment (Dissertation). University of Kansas 2002.
Gray 1979 {published data only}
Guyer 2000 {published data only}
  • Guyer B, Hughart N, Strobino D, Jones A, Scharfstein D. Assessing the impact of pediatric-based developmental services on infants, families and clinicians: challenges to evaluating the Healthy Steps Program. Pediatrics 2000;105(3):E33.
Hedges 2005 {published data only}
  • Hedges S, Simmes D, Martinez A, Linder C, Brown S. A home visitation program welcomes home first-time moms and their infants. Home Healthcare Nurse 2005;23(5):286-9.
Hemmo-Lotom 2006 {published data only}
  • Hemmo-Lotom, M. Parental knowledge, attitudes and practice concerning prevention of children's falls. 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion. South Africa, 2006.
Huxley 1993 {published data only}
Jackson 2009 {published data only}
Johnson 2009 {published data only}
  • Johnson S, Whitelaw A, Glazebrook C, Israel C, Turner R, White IR, et al. Randomized trial of a parenting intervention for very preterm infants: outcome at 2 years. The Journal of Pediatrics 2009;155(4):488-94.
Jordaan 2006 {published data only}
  • Jordaan E. The usefulness of a new instrument, developed to measure the prevention effect of the home visitation programme, focussing on unintentional home injuries in young children in a low income South African setting. 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, South Africa. 2006.
Jouriles 2010 {published data only}
  • Jouriles EN, McDonald R, Rosenfiled D, Norwood WD, Spiller L, Stephens N, et al. Improving parenting in families referred for child maltreatment: a randomized controlled trial examining effects of project support. Journal of Family Psychology 2010;24(3):328-38.
Kluger 2000 {published data only}
  • Kluger MP, Alexander G, Curtis PA (editors). What Works in Child Welfare. CWLA, USA, 2000.
Lealman 1983 {published data only}
McAuley 2004 {published data only}
  • McAuley C, Knapp M, Beecham J, McCurry N, Sleed M. Young families under stress. Outcomes and costs of home start support. York, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2004.
Odendall 2009 {published data only}
  • Odendall W. The impact of a home visitation programme on household hazards associated with unintentional childhood injuries: a randomised controlled trial. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2009;41(1):182-90.
Powell 2004 {published data only}
  • Powell C, Baker-Henningham H, Walker S, Gernay J, Grantham-McGregor S. Feasibility of integrating early stimulation into primary care for undernourished Jamaican children: cluster randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2004;329(7457):89-93.
Quraishi 2005 {published data only}
  • Quraishi AY, Mickalide AD, Cody BE. Follow the leader: a national study of safety role modelling among parents and children. Washington, DC, National SAFE KIDS Campaign, April 2005.
Sharma 2006 {published data only}
  • Sharma G. Educational intervention in changing knowledge of mothers of under five children in reducing injuries among Nepalese children. 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, South Africa. 2006.
Smith 1984 {published data only}
Subhi 2009 {published data only}
  • Subhi B. Community orientation and promotion and home injuries prevention among Arab children in Israel. BASPCAN Seventh National Congress, Swansea. 2009.
Swart 2008 {published data only}
  • Swart L, Van Niekerk A, Seedat M, Jorddann E. Paraprofessional home visitation program to prevent childhood unintentional injuries in low-income communities: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Injury Prevention 2008;14(3):164-9.
Taban 2001 {published data only}
  • Taban N, Lutzker JR. Consumer evaluation of an ecobehavioural program for prevention and intervention of child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence 2001;16(3):323-30.
Trudeau 2010 {published data only}
  • Trudeau J, Stephens Stidhams S, Istre GR, Weir C, Johnson U. Using lay home educators to provide safety messages in Dallas, TX, USA. 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London. 2010.
Tsoumakas 2009 {published data only}
Van As, 2006 {published data only}
  • Van As A. Creating a safer environment for children: the need for an integrative family approach. In: 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, South Africa. 2006.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Barlow 2000
Barlow 2002
  • Barlow J, Coren E, Stewart-Brown S. Meta-analysis of parenting programmes in improving maternal psychosocial health. British Journal of General Practice 2002;52:223-33.
Barlow 2003
  • Barlow J, Parsons J. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural health adjustment in 0-3 children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003680]
Barlow 2006
Barlow 2008
  • Barlow J, Davis H, McIntosh E, Kirkpatrick E, Peters R, Jarrett P, et al. The Oxfordshire Home Visiting study. Unpublished report 2008.
Beautrais 1981
Beautrais 1982
Bijur 1986
  • Bijur PE, Stewart-Brown S, Butler N. Child behavior and accidental injury in 11,966 preschool children. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1986;140(5):487-92.
Bijur 1988a
Bijur 1988b
  • Bijur PE, Golding J, Haslum M. Persistence of occurrence of injury: can injuries of preschool children predict injuries of school-aged children?. Pediatrics 1988;82(5):707-12.
Bradbury 1999
Brown 1978
Bussing 1996
  • Bussing R, Menvielle E, Zima B. Relationship between behavioral problems and unintentional injuries in US children. Findings of the 1988 National Health Interview Survey. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1996;150(1):50-6.
Caldwell 2003
  • Caldwell BM, Bradley RH. Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Administration manual. Tempe, AZ, Family & Human Dynamics Research Institute, Arizona State University, 2003.
Coren 2002
  • Coren E, Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S. Systematic review of the effectiveness of parenting programmes for teenage parents. Journal of Adolescence 2002;26(1):79-103.
DTI 2003
  • Department of Trade and Industry. 24th (final) report of the Home and Leisure Accident Surveilance System - 2000, 2001, 2002 data. London, Department of Trade and Industry, 2003.
Duggan 2004
  • Duggan A, McFarlane E, Fuddy L, Burrell L, Higman SM, Windham A, et al. Randomized trial of a statewide home visiting program: impact in preventing child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect 2004;28:597-622.
Duggan 2007
Edwards 2006
  • Edwards P, Green J, Roberts I, Lutchmun S. Deaths from injury in children and employment status in family: analysis of trends in class specific death rates. British Medical Journal 2006;333:119-21.
Elkan 2000
  • Elkan R, Kendrick D, Hewitt M, Robinson JJ, Tolley K, Blair M, et al. The effectiveness of domiciliary health visiting: a systematic review of international studies and a selective review of the British literature. Health Technology Assessment 2000;4(13):1-339.
Fraser 2000
  • Fraser JA, Armstrong KL, Morris JP, Dadds MR. Home visiting intervention for vulnerable families with newborns: follow-up results of a randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse and Neglect 2000;24(11):1399-429.
Goodson 2000
  • Goodson BD, Layzer JI, St. Pierre RG, Bernstein L, Lopez M. Effectiveness of a comprehensive, five-year family support program for low-income children and their families: findings from the Comprehensive Child Development Program. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 2000;15(1):5-39.
Harris 1994
Higgins 2005
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Hippisley-Cox 2002
  • Hippisley-Cox J, Groom L, Kendrick D, Coupland C, Webber E, Savelyich B. Cross-sectional survey of socioeconomic variations in severity and mechanism of childhood injuries in Trent 1992-7. British Medical Journal 2002;324:1132-4.
Hunt 2003
  • Hunt C. The parenting puzzle - how to get the best out of family life. The parenting puzzle - how to get the best out of family life. Oxford, Family Links, 2003.
Johnson 2000
  • Johnson Z, Molloy B, Scallan E, Fitzpatrick P, Rooney B, Keegan T, et al. Community Mothers programme - seven year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of non-professional intervention in parenting. Journal of Public Health Medicine 2000;22(3):337-42.
Johnston 2006
  • Johnston BD, Huebner CE, Anderson ML, Tyll LT, Thompson RS. Healthy Steps in an integrated delivery system. Child and parent outcomes at 30 months. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2006;160:793-800.
Kemp 2008
  • Kemp L, Harris E, McMahon C, Matthey S, Vimpani G, Anderson T, et al. Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MESCH) trial: design, method and sample description. BMC Public Health 2008;8:424-35.
Kendrick 1999
Kendrick 2000
  • Kendrick D, Elkan R, Hewitt M, Dewey M, Blair M, Robinson J, et al. Does home visiting improve parenting and the quality of the home environment? A systematic review and meta analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2000;82(6):443-51.
Kendrick 2012
Lam 2005
  • Lam LT. Attention deficit disorder and hospitalisation owing to intra- and interpersonal violence among children and young adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2005;36(1):19-24.
McLennan 2000
Miller 2004
  • Miller AR, Brehaut JC, Raina P, McGrail KN, Armstrong RW. Use of medical services by methlyphenidate-treated children in the general population. Ambulatory Pediatrics 2004;4(2):174-80.
O'Connor 2000
  • O'Connor TG, Davies L, Dunn J, Golding J. Distribution of accidents, injuries, and illnesses by family type. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Pediatrics 2000;106(5):E68.
Olds 1994
  • Olds DL, Henderson Jr CR, Kitzman H. Does prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation have enduring effects on qualities of parental caregiving and child health at 25 to 50 months of life?. Pediatrics 1994;93(1):89-98.
ONS 2009
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Roberts 1996
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Sanders 2002
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Schwebel 2004
  • Schwebel DC, Brezausek CM, Ramey SL, Ramey CT. Interactions between child behavior patterns and parenting: implications for children's unintentional injury risk. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2004;29:93-104.
Smithson 2011
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Soubhi 2004
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Totsika 2004
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Zwi 2011