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Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour

  1. Zarko Alfirevic1,*,
  2. Declan Devane2,
  3. Gillian ML Gyte3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006066.pub2


How to Cite

Alfirevic Z, Devane D, Gyte GML. Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD006066. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006066.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Liverpool, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

  2. 2

    National University of Ireland Galway, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Galway, Ireland

  3. 3

    The University of Liverpool, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

*Zarko Alfirevic, Department of Women's and Children's Health, The University of Liverpool, First Floor, Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust, Crown Street, Liverpool, L8 7SS, UK. zarko@liverpool.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions), comment added to review
  2. Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

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  1. 1
    Isis Amer-Wahlin, Anneke Kwee, Combined cardiotocographic and ST event analysis: a review, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2015,

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  2. 2
    M. Rei, D. Ayres-de-Campos, J. Bernardes, Neurological damage arising from intrapartum hypoxia/acidosis, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2015,

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  3. 3
    Ank de Jonge, Raymond de Vries, Antoine L. M. Lagro-Janssen, Address Malata, Eugene Declercq, Soo Downe, Eileen K. Hutton, The Importance of Evaluating Primary Midwifery Care for Improving the Health of Women and Infants, Frontiers in Medicine, 2015, 2,

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    Tekoa L. King, Whitney Pinger, Evidence-Based Practice for Intrapartum Care: The Pearls of Midwifery, Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 2014, 59, 6
  5. 5
    Sidhartha Tan, Fault and Blame, Insults to the Perinatal Brain may be Remote from Time of Birth, Clinics in Perinatology, 2014, 41, 1, 105

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  7. 7
    Jennifer E Lutomski, Sarah Meaney, Richard A Greene, Anthony C Ryan, Declan Devane, Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour, The Cochrane Library,
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    Jennifer E Lutomski, Sarah Meaney, Richard A Greene, Anthony C Ryan, Declan Devane, Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour, The Cochrane Library,
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    Christine E East, Lisa Begg, Paul B Colditz, Rosalind Lau, Fetal pulse oximetry for fetal assessment in labour, The Cochrane Library,
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    Luke Jardine, In women in labor, what are the benefits and harms of continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM)?, Cochrane Clinical Answers,
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    Christine E East, Leo R Leader, Penelope Sheehan, Naomi E Henshall, Paul B Colditz, Rosalind Lau, Intrapartum fetal scalp lactate sampling for fetal assessment in the presence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate trace, The Cochrane Library,