Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

  1. Joshua Z Goldenberg1,
  2. Stephanie SY Ma2,
  3. Jane D Saxton1,
  4. Mark R Martzen3,
  5. Per O Vandvik4,
  6. Kristian Thorlund5,
  7. Gordon H Guyatt5,
  8. Bradley C Johnston6,7,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Functional Bowel Disorders Group

Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 21 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006095.pub3


How to Cite

Goldenberg JZ, Ma SSY, Saxton JD, Martzen MR, Vandvik PO, Thorlund K, Guyatt GH, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD006095. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006095.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Bastyr University, Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 2

    McMaster University, Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    Bastyr University, Bastyr University Research Institute, Kenmore, WA, USA

  4. 4

    Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway

  5. 5

    McMaster University, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

  6. 6

    The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  7. 7

    University of Toronto, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

*Bradley C Johnston, bradley.johnston@sickkids.ca. bjohnst@mcmaster.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Arvola 1999 {published data only}
  • Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, Mykkanen H, Salminen S, Maunula L, et al. Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics 1999;104(5):e64.
Beausoleil 2007 {published data only}
  • Beausoleil M, Fortier N, Guenette S, L'Ecuyer A, Savoie M, Franco M, et al. Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus Cl1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology 2007;21(11):732-6.
Bravo 2008 {published data only}
  • Bravo MV, Bunout D, Leiva L, de la Maza MP, Barrera G, de la Maza J, et al. Effect of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adult outpatients with amoxicillin treatment [Efecto del probiótico Saccharomycesboulardii en la prevención de ladiarrea asociada con antibióticos enadultos ambulatorios en tratamientocon amoxicilina]. Revista Médica de Chile 2008;136(8):981-8.
Can 2006 {published data only}
  • Can M, Beşirbellioglu BA, Avci IY, Beker CM, Pahsa A. Prophylactic Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a prospective study. Medical Science Monitor 2006;12(4):Pi19-22.
Cindoruk 2007 {published data only}
Duman 2005 {published data only}
  • Duman DG, Bor S, Ozütemiz O, Sahin T, Oğuz D, Iştan F, et al. Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea due to Helicobacter pylori eradication. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2005;17(12):1357-61.
Gao 2010 {published data only}
  • Gao XW, Mubasher M, Fang CY, Reifer C, Miller LE. Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2010;105(7):1636-41.
Hickson 2007 {published data only}
  • Hickson, M, D'Souza, AL, Muthu, N, Rogers, TR, Want, S, Rajkumar, C, & Bulpitt, CJ. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2007;335(7610):80.
Imase 2008 {published data only}
Klarin 2008 {published data only}
Koning 2008 {published data only}
  • Koning CJ, Jonkers DM, Stobberingh EE, Mulder L, Rombouts FM, Stockbrugger RW. The effect of a multispecies probiotic on the intestinal microbiota and bowel movements in healthy volunteers taking the antibiotic amoxycillin. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2008;103(1):178-89.
    Direct Link:
Kotowska 2005 {published data only}
Lewis 1998 {published data only}
  • Lewis SJ, Potts LF, Barry RE. The lack of therapeutic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-related diarrhoea in elderly patients. Journal of Infection 1998;36(2):171-4.
Lonnermark 2010 {published data only}
  • Lönnermark E, Friman V, Lappas G, Sandberg T, Berggren A, Adlerberth I. Intake of Lactobacillus plantarum reduces certain gastrointestinal symptoms during treatment with antibiotics. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2010;44(2):106-12.
McFarland 1995 {published data only}
  • McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, Elmer GW, Moyer KA, Melcher SA, et al. Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1995;90(3):439-48.
Miller 2008a {unpublished data only}

 

Miller 2008b {unpublished data only}

 

Nord 1997 {published data only}
  • Nord CE, Lidbeck A, Orrhage K, Sjostedt S. Oral supplementation with lactic acid-producing bacteria during intake of clindamycin. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 1997;3(1):124-32.
Plummer 2004 {published data only}
  • Plummer S, Weaver MA, Harris JC, Dee P, Hunter J. Clostridium difficile pilot study: effects of probiotic supplementation on the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea. International Microbiology 2004;7(1):59-62.
Pozzoni 2012 {published data only}
  • Pozzoni P, Riva A, Bellatorre AG, Amigoni M, Redaelli E, Ronchetti A, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adult hospitalized patients: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2012;107(6):922-31.
Psaradellis 2010 {published data only}
  • Psaradellis E, Sampalis J, Rampakakis E. Efficacy of BIO K+ CL1285 in the reduction of antibiotic-associated diarrhea - a placebo controlled double-blind randomized, multi-center study. Archives of Medical Science 2010;6(1):56-64.
Rafiq 2007 {unpublished data only}

 

Ruszczynski 2008 {published data only}
Safdar 2008 {published data only}
Selinger 2011 {unpublished data only}

 

Shimbo 2005 {published data only}
  • Shimbo I, Yamaguchi T, Odaka T, Nakajima K, Koide A, Koyama H, et al. Effect of Clostridium butyricum on fecal flora in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2005;11(47):7520-4.
Siitonen 1990 {published data only}
  • Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, Gordin A, Saxelin M, Wikberg R, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Annals of Medicine 1990;22(1):57-9.
Sullivan 2004 {published data only}
  • Sullivan A, Johansson A, Svenungsson B, Nord CE. Effect of Lactobacillus F19 on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in the intestinal microflora. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2004;54(4):791-7.
Surawicz 1989 {published data only}
  • Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, McFarland LV, Chinn J, van Belle G. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 1989;96(4):981-8.
Thomas 2001 {published data only}
  • Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR, Corr AP, Weaver AL, Lohse CM. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2001;76(9):883-9.
Wenus 2008 {published data only}
  • Wenus C, Goll R, Loken EB, Biong AS, Halvorsen DS, Florholmen J. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea by a fermented probiotic milk drink. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;62(2):299-301.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Agarwal 2003 {published data only}
  • Agarwal R, Sharma N, Chaudhry R, Deorari A, Paul VK, Gewolb IH, et al. Effects of oral Lactobacillus GG on enteric microflora in low-birth-weight neonates. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2003;36(3):397-402.
Allen 2012 {published data only}
  • Allen SJ, Wareham K, Bradley C, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, et al. A multicentre randomised controlled trial evaluating lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: the PLACIDE study protocol. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012;12:108.
Anukam 2006 {published data only}
  • Anukam K, Osazuwa E, Ahonkhai I, Ngwu M, Osemene G, Bruce AW, et al. Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Microbes and Infection 2006;8(6):1450-4.
Armuzzi 2001 {published data only}
Avadhani 2011 {published data only}
Basu 2007 {published data only}
Bekar 2011 {published data only}
  • Bekar O, Yilmaz Y, Gulten M. Kefir improves the efficacy and tolerability of triple therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Medicinal Food 2011;14(4):344-7.
Bellomo 1980 {published data only}
  • Bellomo G, Mangiagle A, Nicastro L, Frigerio G. A controlled double-blind study of SF68 strain as a new biological preparation for the treatment of diarrhoea in pediatrics. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1980;28(6i):927-36.
Benhamou 1999 {published data only}
  • Benhamou PH, Berlier P, Danjou G, Plique O, Jessueld D, Dupont C. Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: A computer monitored double-blind outpatients trial comparing a protective and a probiotic agent. Medecine et Chirurgie Digestives 1999;28(4):163-8.
Beniwal 2003 {published data only}
  • Beniwal RS, Arena VC, Thomas L, Narla S, Imperiale TF, Chaudhry RA, et al. A randomized trial of yogurt for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2003;48(10):2077-82.
Berni 2011 {published data only}
  • Berni Canani R, Cucchiara S, Cuomo R, Pace F, Papale F. Saccharomyces boulardii: a summary of the evidence for gastroenterology clinical practice in adults and children. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2011;15(7):809-22.
Black 1991 {published data only}
  • Black F, Einarsson K, Lidbeck A, Orrhage K, Nord CE. Effect of lactic acid producing bacteria on the human intestinal microflora during ampicillin treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1991;23(2):247-54.
Bleichner 1997 {published data only}
  • Bleichner G, Blehaut H, Mentec H, Moyse D. Saccharomyces boulardii prevents diarrhea in critically ill tube-fed patients. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Medicine 1997;23(5):517-23.
Brunser 2006 {published data only}
  • Brunser O, Gotteland M, Cruchet S, Figueroa G, Garrido D, Steenhout P. Effect of a milk formula with prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota of infants after an antibiotic treatment. Pediatric Research 2006;59(3):451-6.
Butler 2012 {published data only}
  • Butler CC, Duncan D, Hood K. Does taking probiotics routinely with antibiotics prevent antibiotic associated diarrhoea?. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 2012;344:e682.
Chapman 2011 {published data only}
Chen 2011 {published data only}
  • Chen CC, Walker WA. Clinical applications of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders in children. National Medical Journal of India 2011;24(3):153-60.
Cimperman 2011 {published data only}
  • Cimperman L, Bayless G, Best K, Diligente A, Mordarski B, Oster M, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized adults. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2011;45(9):785-9.
Clements 1981 {published data only}
  • Clements ML, Levine MM, Black RE, Robins-Browne RM, Cisneros LA, Drusano GL, et al. Lactobacillus prophylaxis for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1981;20(1):104-8.
Contardi 1991 {published data only}
  • Contardi I. Oral bacterial therapy in prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhea in childhood [Batterioterapia orale quale prevenzione della diarrea da antibiotici in eta pediatrica]. La Clinica Terapeutica 1991;136(6):409-13.
Conway 2007 {published data only}
  • Conway S, Hart A, Clark A, Harvey I. Does eating yogurt prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea? A placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial in general practice. British Journal of General Practice 2007;57(545):953-9.
Correa 2005 {published data only}
  • Correa NB, Peret Filho LA, Penna FJ, Lima FM, Nicoli JR. A randomized formula controlled trial of Bifidobacterium lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2005;39(5):385-9.
Cremonini 2002 {published data only}
  • Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, Armuzzi A, Gabrielli M, Santarelli L, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2002;97(11):2744-9.
    Direct Link:
de Bortoli 2007 {published data only}
  • de Bortoli N, Leonardi G, Ciancia E, Merlo A, Bellini M, Costa F, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized prospective study of triple therapy versus triple therapy plus lactoferrin and probiotics. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2007;102(5):951-6.
    Direct Link:
de Vrese 2011 {published data only}
  • de Vrese M, Kristen H, Rautenberg P, Laue C, Schrezenmeir J. Probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in a fermented milk product with added fruit preparation reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea and Helicobacter pylori activity. Journal of Dairy Research 2011;78(4):396-403.
Elmer 1999 {published data only}
  • Elmer GW, McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Danko L, Greenberg RN. Behaviour of Saccharomyces boulardii in recurrent Clostridium difficile disease patients. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1999;13(12):1663-8.
Erdeve 2004 {published data only}
Felley 2001 {published data only}
  • Felley CP, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Rivero JL, Sipponen P, Kaufmann M, Bauerfeind P, et al. Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2001;13(1):25-9.
Forestier 2008 {published data only}
  • Forestier C, Guelon D, Cluytens V, Gillart T, Sirot J, De Champs C. Oral probiotic and prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in intensive care unit patients. Critical Care 2008;12(3):R69.
Francavilla 2008 {published data only}
Goldman 2006 {published data only}
  • Goldman CG, Barrado DA, Balcarce N, Rua EC, Oshiro M, Calcagno ML, et al. Effect of a probiotic food as an adjuvant to triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Nutrition 2006;22(10):984-8.
Gotteland 2005 {published data only}
  • Gotteland M, Poliak L, Cruchet S, Brunser O. Effect of regular ingestion of Saccharomyces boulardii plus inulin or Lactobacillus acidophilus LB in children colonized by Helicobacter pylori. Acta Paediatrica 2005;94(12):1747-51.
Gotz 1979 {published data only}
  • Gotz V, Romankiewicz JA, Moss J, Murray HW. Prophylaxis against ampicillin-associated diarrhea with a lactobacillus preparation. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1979;36(6):754-7.
Guandalini 2000 {published data only}
  • Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, Dias JA, Casali LG, Hoekstra H, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;30(1):54-60.
Hafeez 2002 {published data only}
  • Hafeez A, Tariq P, Ali S, Kundi ZU, Khan A, Hassan M. The efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in children: A multicentre randomized controlled trial. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2002;12(7):432-4.
Hatakka 2001 {published data only}
  • Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, Meurman JH, Poussa T, Nase L, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 2001;322(7298):1327.
Heimburger 1994 {published data only}
  • Heimburger DC, Sockwell DG, Geels WJ. Diarrhea with enteral feeding: prospective reappraisal of putative causes. Nutrition 1994;10(5):392-6.
Hotz 1990 {published data only}
  • Hotz J. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study [Verhutung der antibiotika-assoziierten Diarrhoe durch Saccharomyces boulardii: Eine prospektive Studie]. Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie 1990;28(5):259-60.
Hurduc 2009 {published data only}
Jacobi 2011 {published data only}
Jirapinyo 2002 {published data only}
  • Jirapinyo P, Densupsoontorn N, Thamonsiri N, Wongarn R. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants by probiotics. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2002;85 Suppl 2:S739-42.
Kato 2004 {published data only}
Kollaritsch 1993 {published data only}
  • Kollaritsch H, Holst H, Grobara P, Wiedermann G. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea with Saccharomyces boulardii. Results of a placebo controlled double-blind study [Prophylaxe der Reisediarrhoe mit Saccharomyces boulardii. Ergebnisse einer plazebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie]. Fortschritte der Medizin 1993;111(9):152-6.
Kruis 2012 {published data only}
  • Kruis W, Chrubasik S, Boehm S, Stange C, Schulze J. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial to study therapeutic effects of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in subgroups of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. International Journal of Colorectal Disease 2012;27(4):467-74.
La Rosa 2003 {published data only}
  • La Rosa M, Bottaro G, Gulino N, Gambuzza F, Di Forti F, Ini G, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with Lactobacillus sporogens and fructo-oligosaccharides in children. A multicentric double-blind vs placebo study [Prevenzione della diarrea associata ad antibiotici con Lactobacillus sporogenes e frutto-oligosaccaridi. Studio pediatrico multicentrico in doppio cieco vs placebo]. Minerva pediatrica 2003;55(5):447-52.
Lawrence 2005 {published data only}
  • Lawrence SJ, Korzenik JR, Mundy LM. Probiotics for recurrent Clostridium difficile disease. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2005; Vol. 54, issue Pt 9:905-6.
Lei 2006 {published data only}
  • Lei V, Friis H, Michaelsen KF. Spontaneously fermented millet product as a natural probiotic treatment for diarrhoea in young children: an intervention study in Northern Ghana. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2006;110(3):246-53.
Lionetti 2006 {published data only}
  • Lionetti E, Miniello VL, Castellaneta SP, Magista AM, de Canio A, Maurogiovanni G, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri therapy to reduce side-effects during anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment in children: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2006;24(10):1461-8.
Madden 2005 {published data only}
  • Madden JA, Plummer SF, Tang J, Garaiova I, Plummer NT, Herbison M, et al. Effect of probiotics on preventing disruption of the intestinal microflora following antibiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. International Immunopharmacology 2005;5(6):1091-7.
Madeo 1999 {published data only}
  • Madeo M, Whitlock M, Martin CR. A randomized controlled trial comparing Lactobacillus combined with Bifidobacterium bifidum against fructo-oligosaccharides in reducing the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea: a preliminary investigation. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing 1999;3(2):83-7.
Marcone 2008 {published data only}
  • Marcone V, Calzolari E, Bertini M. Effectiveness of vaginal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus following conventional metronidazole therapy: how to lower the rate of bacterial vaginosis recurrences. New Microbiologica 2008;31(3):429-33.
Marshall 2008 {published data only}
  • Marshall JC. Daily use of a Lactobacilli probiotic prevented antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. ACP Journal Club 2008;149(1):10.
Martinez 2009 {published data only}
  • Martinez RC, Franceschini SA, Patta MC, Quintana SM, Gomes BC, De Martinis EC, et al. Improved cure of bacterial vaginosis with single dose of tinidazole (2 g), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 2009;55(2):133-8.
McFarland 1994a {published data only}
  • McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, Fekety R, Elmer GW, Moyer KA, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. JAMA 1994;271(24):1913-8.
Merenstein 2009 {published data only}
  • Merenstein DJ, Foster J, D'Amico F. A randomized clinical trial measuring the influence of kefir on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: the measuring the influence of Kefir (MILK) Study. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2009;163(8):750-4.
Mihatsch 2010 {published data only}
  • Mihatsch WA, Vossbeck S, Eikmanns B, Hoegel J, Pohlandt F. Effect of Bifidobacterium lactis on the incidence of nosocomial infections in very-low-birth-weight infants: a randomized controlled trial. Neonatology 2010;98(2):156-63.
Mohan 2008 {published data only}
  • Mohan R, Koebnick C, Schildt J, Mueller M, Radke M, Blaut M. Effects of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 supplementation on body weight, fecal pH, acetate, lactate, calprotectin, and IgA in preterm infants. Pediatric Research 2008;64(4):418-22.
Myllyluoma 2005 {published data only}
Myllyluoma 2007 {published data only}
  • Myllyluoma E, Ahlroos T, Veijola L, Rautelin H, Tynkkynen S, Korpela R. Effects of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment and probiotic supplementation on intestinal microbiota. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2007;29(1):66-72.
Nista 2004 {published data only}
Oleinichenko 1999 {published data only}
  • Oleinichenko EV, Mitrokhin SD, Nonikov VE, Minaev VI. Effectiveness of acipole in prevention of enteric dysbacteriosis due to antibacterial therapy [Effektivnost' atsipola v profilaktike disbakterioza kishechnika pri antibakterial'noi terapii]. Antibiotiki i Khimioterapiia 1999;44(1):23-5.
Ozdil 2011 {published data only}
  • Ozdil K, Calhan T, Sahin A, Senates E, Kahraman R, Yuzbasioglu B, et al. Levofloxacin based sequential and triple therapy compared with standard plus probiotic combination for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Hepato-Gastroenterology 2011;58(109):1148-52.
Park 2007 {published data only}
  • Park SK, Park DI, Choi JS, Kang MS, Park JH, Kim HJ, et al. The effect of probiotics on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Hepato-Gastroenterology 2007;54(79):2032-6.
Pereg 2005 {published data only}
  • Pereg D, Kimhi O, Tirosh A, Orr N, Kayouf R, Lishner M. The effect of fermented yogurt on the prevention of diarrhea in a healthy adult population. American Journal of Infection Control 2005;33(2):122-5.
Pirotta 2004 {published data only}
  • Pirotta M, Gunn J, Chondros P, Grover S, Hurley S, Garland S. The PAV trial: does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277]. BMC Family Practice 2004;5:5.
Plewinska 2006 {published data only}
  • Plewinska EM, Planeta-Malecka I, Bak-Romaniszyn L, Czkwianlanc E, Malecka-Panas E. Probiotics in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Gastroenterologia Polska 2006;13(4):315-9.
Pochapin 2000 {published data only}
Potts 1996 {published data only}
  • Potts L, Lewis SJ, Barry R. Randomised double blind placebo controlled study of the ability of saccharomyces boulardii to prevent antibiotic related diarrhoea. Gut 1996;38 Suppl 1:A61.
Pushkarev 2005 {published data only}
  • Pushkarev AM. Efficacy of probiotic bactisporin in therapy of intrahospital urinary infection. Urologii͡a 2005, (4):48-53.
Ranasinghe 2007 {published data only}
  • Ranasinghe JGS, Gamlath GRRDK, Samitha S, Abeygunawardena AS. Prophylactic use of yoghurt reduces antibiotic induced diarrhoea in children. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health 2007;36(2):53-6.
Rayes 2002a {published data only}
  • Rayes N, Hansen S, Seehofer D, Muller AR, Serke S, Bengmark S, et al. Early enteral supply of fiber and Lactobacilli versus conventional nutrition: a controlled trial in patients with major abdominal surgery. Nutrition 2002;18(7-8):609-15.
Rayes 2002b {published data only}
  • Rayes N, Seehofer D, Hansen S, Boucsein K, Muller AR, Serke S, et al. Early enteral supply of lactobacillus and fiber versus selective bowel decontamination: a controlled trial in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2002;74(1):123-7.
Rayes 2002c {published data only}
  • Rayes N, Seehofer D, Muller AR, Hansen S, Bengmark S, Neuhaus P. Influence of probiotics and fibre on the incidence of bacterial infections following major abdominal surgery - results of a prospective trial [Einfluss von Probiotika und Ballaststoffen auf die Inzidenz bakterieller Infektionen nach viszeralchirurgischen Eingriffen - Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Studie]. Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie 2002;40(10):869-76.
Reddy 2007 {published data only}
Robertson 2000 {published data only}
  • Robertson J. Lactobacillus GG reduced diarrhoea incidence in antibiotic treated children. Evidence-Based Nursing 2000;3(3):76.
Sahagún-Flores 2007 {published data only}
  • Sahagún-Flores JE, López-Peña LS, de la Cruz-Ramírez Jaimes J, García-Bravo MS, Peregrina-Gómez R, de Alba-García JE. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: triple treatment scheme plus Lactobacillus vs. triple treatment alone. Cirugia y Cirujanos 2007;75(5):333-6.
Schrezenmeir 2002 {published data only}
  • Schrezenmeir J, McCue M, Llamas C, Lam W, Lamsbach M, Comer GM. Benefits of oral supplementation with and without synbiotics in young children with acute bacterial infections. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75(2):400S.
Schrezenmeir 2004 {published data only}
  • Schrezenmeir J, Heller K, McCue M, Llamas C, Lam W, Burow H, et al. Benefits of oral supplementation with and without synbiotics in young children with acute bacterial infections. Clinical Pediatrics 2004;43(3):239-49.
Sepp 2011 {published data only}
  • Sepp E, Stsepetova J, Smidt I, Ratsep M, Koljalg S, Loivukene K, et al. Intestinal lactoflora in Estonian and Norwegian patients with antibiotic associated diarrhea. Anaerobe 2011;17(6):407-9.
Souza 2012 {published data only}
  • Souza DN, Jorge MT. The effect of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve on antibiotic-associated diarrhea treatment: randomized double-blind clinical trial. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 2012;45(1):112-6.
Stein 2007 {published data only}
  • Stein GY, Nanim R, Karniel E, Moskowitz I, Zeidman A. Probiotics as prophylactic agents against antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Harefuah 2007;146(7):520-2, 575.
Stockenhuber 2008 {published data only}
  • Stockenhuber A, Kamhuber C, Leeb G, Adelmann K, Prager E, Mach K, et al. Preventing antibiotic associated diarrhoea using a probiotic Lactobacillus Casei preparation. United European Gastroenterology Week. 2008.
Tankanow 1990 {published data only}
  • Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, Dickinson DG, McCormick LS, Garfinkel JF. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea. DICP 1990;24(4):382-4.
Tursi 2004 {published data only}
  • Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, Modeo ME. Effect of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on the effectiveness and tolerability of a new second-line 10-day quadruple therapy after failure of a first attempt to cure Helicobacter pylori infection. Medical Science Monitor 2004;10(12):CR662-6.
Vandenplas 2011 {published data only}
Wilhelm 2011 {published data only}
  • Wilhelm SM, Johnson JL, Kale-Pradhan PB. Treating bugs with bugs: the role of probiotics as adjunctive therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2011;45(7-8):960-6.
Witsell 1995 {published data only}
  • Witsell DL, Garrett CG, Yarbrough WG, Dorrestein SP, Drake AF, Weissler MC. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal morbidity: a prospective randomized trial. Journal of Otolaryngology 1995;24(4):230-3.
Woo 2008 {published data only}
  • Woo K. A probiotic drink prevented diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in older patients taking antibiotics. Evidence-Based Nursing 2008;11(2):57.
Wullt 2007 {published data only}
  • Wullt M, Johansson Hagslatt ML, Odenholt I, Berggren A. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v enhances the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids in patients with recurrent clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2007;52(9):2082-6.
Yoon 2011 {published data only}
Yost 1985 {published data only}
  • Yost RL, Gotz VP. Effect of a lactobacillus preparation on the absorption of oral ampicillin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1985;28(6):727-9.
Ziemniak 2006 {published data only}
  • Ziemniak W. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication taking into account its resistance to antibiotics. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2006;57 Suppl 3:123-41.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Akl 2012
  • Akl EA, Briel M, You JJ, Sun X, Johnston BC, Busse JW, et al. Potential impact on estimated treatment effects of information lost to follow-up in randomised controlled trials (LOST-IT): systematic review. BMJ 2012;344:e2809.
Akl 2013
  • Akl EA, Johnston BC, Neumann I, Alonso-Coello P, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH. Addressing dichotomous data for participants excluded from trial analysis: a guide for systematic reviewers. PLoS One 2013;8(2):e57132.
Begg 1989
Berrington 2004
D'Souza 2002
Dendukuri 2005
  • Dendukuri N, Costa V, McGregor M, Brophy JM. Probiotic therapy for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005;173(2):167-70.
Drisko 2005
  • Drisko J, Bischoff B, Giles C, Adelson M, Rao RV, McCallum R. Evaluation of five probiotics products for label claims by DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2005;50(6):1113-7.
Egger 1997
  • Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315(7109):629-34.
Ghantoji 2010
  • Ghantoji SS, Sail K, Lairson DR, DuPont HL, Garey KW. Economic healthcare costs of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review. Journal of Hospital Infection 2010;74(4):309-18.
Guyatt 2008
  • Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7650):924-6.
Harbord 2006
Hempel 2012
  • Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z, Miles JN, Shanman R, et al. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2012;307(18):1959-69.
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green (editors). Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org, 2011.
Johnston 2006
  • Johnston BC, Supina AL, Vohra S. Probiotics for pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2006;175(4):377-83.
Johnston 2011
Johnston 2012
  • Johnston BC, Ma SSY, Goldenberg JZ, Thorlund K, Vandvik PO, Loeb M, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012;157(12):878-88.
Langan 2012
  • Langan D, Higgins JP, Gregory W, Sutton AJ. Graphical augmentations to the funnel plot assess the impact of additional evidence on a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2012;65(5):511-9.
Lumley 2009
  • Lumley T. rmeta: Meta-Analysis. R package version 2.16, 2009.
McFarland 2010
R Development Core Team 2010
  • R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2010.
Review Manager 2012
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
Schwarzer 2010
  • Schwarzer G. meta: Meta-Analysis with R. R package version 1.6-0, 2010.
Sterne 2000
Sterne 2011
  • Sterne JA, Sutton AJ, Ioannidis JP, Terrin N, Jones DR, Lau J, et al. Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2011;343:d4002.
Sullivan 2002
Sun 2010
  • Sun X, Briel M, Walter SD, Guyatt GH. Is a subgroup effect believable? Updating criteria to evaluate the credibility of subgroup analyses. BMJ 2010;340:c117.
Thompson 1994
  • Thompson, S. G. Why sources of heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be investigated. BMJ 1994;309(6965):1351-1355.
Thompson 2002
Viechtbauer 2010
Whelan 2010
  • Whelan K, Myers CE. Safety of probiotics in patients receiving nutritional support: a systematic review of case reports, randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(3):687-703.
Williamson 2005
Wood 2008
  • Wood L, Egger M, Gluud LL, Schulz KF, Jüni P, Altman DG, et al. Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 2008;336(7644):601-5.