|Breugelmans 2004||Prospective survey during 3 study periods. |
Serological test (IgG and IgM against toxoplasma) at first prenatal visit. Seronegative women were retested every 6 weeks, in addition a test on cord blood was done at birth.
Definition of seroconversion: women initially IgG negative with subsequent IgG detection.
|Belgium. Hospital setting. |
23 years of observation (from 1979 to 2001).
27,827 pregnant women:
2986 pregnant women before the intervention;
8300 pregnant women after the first round of intervention;
16,541 pregnant women after the second round of intervention.
|First period (from 1979 to 1982): control. Incidence of toxoplasmosis studied in 2986 consecutive pregnant women. |
Second period (from 1983 to 1990): first round of intervention. 8300 pregnant women received at first prenatal visit, and subsequently during monthly antenatal classes, a list of recommendations to avoid toxoplasma infection.
Third period (from 1991 to 2001): second round of intervention. 16,541 pregnant women received leaflets explaining what toxoplasmosis is and what measures should be taken to avoid it in pregnancy. Reiteration of the information during antenatal classes.
|Seroconversion rate during pregnancy.||I period: 1.43%. |
II period: 0.53%.
III period: 0.09%.
|In this population the incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is 8/1,000 pregnancies, and the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis is 2/1,000 live births.|
|Molé 1992||Intervention study; the definition of the control group, if any, is not reported in the abstract.|
Serological test at first prenatal visit. Seronegative women were regularly retested. An educational intervention on how to avoid infection during pregnancy was provided to all seronegative pregnant women.
|Cuba. Hospital and ambulatory setting of 4 municipalities in Manzanillo.|
2058 pregnant women.
|Prenatal education on how to avoid toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy was delivered to seronegative pregnant women (84% of the total sample).||Seroconversion rate during pregnancy.||1.38%.||Full text of the article not available. Data reported here have been obtained from the published abstract.|
|Pawlowski 2001||Survey during 2 study periods. Pre-post study. |
Questionnaire about knowledge of toxoplasmosis and correct behavior administered to pregnant women in 1991 to 1992 and 1997.
|Poland. Hospital setting. |
4311 pregnant women in the first period (1991 to 1992); 2710 women in the second period (1997).
|Starting from 1991 various educational activities were implemented (training of health professionals, printed material given to pregnant women, mass media campaign, school education programmes).||Good knowledge of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. |
Correct behavior in pregnant women.
|I period: 24.3%. |
II period: 45.3%.
II period: 55.2%.
|It is not possible to compare the change in correct behavior, measured only in the second survey in 1997.|