For early squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, the outcome is similar after either primary surgery or primary radiotherapy. There are reports that this is not the case for early adenocarcinoma (AC) of the uterine cervix: some studies have reported that the outcome is better after primary surgery. There are no systematic reviews about surgery versus chemoradiation in the treatment of cervical cancer. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006248. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006248.