Children with HIV are at an increased risk of acquiring TB. Tuberculosis is a common cause of acute and chronic respiratory disease and death in HIV-infected children living in areas of high TB prevalence. Even with treatment, HIV-infected children with TB have a worse outcome than HIV uninfected children. Hence preventing TB infection and disease in HIV-infected children is desirable and a potentially an important public health intervention. Isoniazid, an anti-tuberculosis medication, has been used to effectively prevent TB in HIV uninfected children. There are currently no guidelines on the use of TB preventive therapy in HIV-infected children.