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Risk assessment tools for the prevention of pressure ulcers

  1. Zena EH Moore1,*,
  2. Seamus Cowman2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Wounds Group

Published Online: 5 FEB 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 19 DEC 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006471.pub3


How to Cite

Moore ZEH, Cowman S. Risk assessment tools for the prevention of pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD006471. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006471.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, School of Nursing, Dublin, Ireland

  2. 2

    Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Dublin, Ireland

*Zena EH Moore, School of Nursing, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, D2, Ireland. zmoore@rcsi.ie.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 5 FEB 2014

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Saleh 2009 {published data only}
Webster 2011 {published data only}
  • Webster J, Coleman K, Mudge A, Marquart L, Gardner G, Stankiewicz M, et al . Pressure ulcers: effectiveness of risk-assessment tools. A randomised controlled trial (the ULCER trial). BMJ Quality and Safety 2011;20(4):297-306.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Anthony 1998 {published data only}
Bale 1995 {published data only}
  • Bale S, Finlay I, Harding KG. Pressure sore prevention in a hospice. Journal of Wound Care 1995;4(10):465-8.
Bergstrom 1998 {published data only}
Chan 1997 {published data only}
  • Chan WH, Chow KW, French P, Lai YS, Tse LK. Which pressure sore risk calculator? A study of the effectiveness of the Norton scale in Hong Kong. International Journal of Nursing Studies 1997;34(2):165-9.
Defloor 2005 {published data only}
Gunningberg 1999 {published data only}
Gunningberg 2001 {published data only}
  • Gunningberg L, Lindohlm C, Carlsson M, Sjoden PO. Reduced incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with hip fractures: a 2 year follow up of quality indicators. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 2001;13(5):399-407.
Hodge 1990 {published data only}
  • Hodge J, Mounter J, Garner G, Rowley G. Clinical trial of the Norton scale in acute care settings. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 1990;8(1):39-48.
Lyne 1999 {published data only}
  • Lyne P, Papanikolaou P, Lycett E. Pressure sore risk assessment: preliminary report of a study using multivariate methods to define and weight risk factors. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing 1999;3(3):136-8.
Salvadena 1992 {published data only}
  • Salvadalena GD, Snyder ML, Brogdon KE. Clinical trial of the Braden scale on an acute care medical unit. Journal of Enterostomal Therapy Nursing 1992;19(5):160-5.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
AHCPR 1992
  • Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Pressure ulcers in adults: prediction and prevention. Clinical Practice Guideline Number 3. Publication Number: 92-0047. Rockville,: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, 1992.
Alarcon 1999
Allman 1997
Anthony 2008
Bennett 2004
Berlowitz 1990
Black 2007
  • Black J,  Baharestani MM,  Cuddigan J,  Dorner B,  Edsberg L,  Langemo D, et al. National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel’s updated pressure ulcer staging system. Advances in Skin and Wound Care 2007;20(5):269-74.
Bo 2003
Braden 1987
Cullum 1995
  • Cullum N, Deeks J, Fletcher A. The prevention and treatment of pressure sores. Effective Health Care Bulletin 1995;2(1):1-16.
Defloor 2004
Donner 2004
Elley 2004
  • Elley CR, Chondros P, Kerse NM, Primary Care Alliance for Clinical Trials (PACT) Network. Randomised trials - cluster versus individual randomisation. Australian Family Physician 2004;33(9):759-63.
EPUAP 2002
  • European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Summary report on the prevalence of pressure ulcers. EPUAP Review 2002;4(2):49-57.
EPUAP 2009
  • European Pressure Advisory Panel, National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: quick reference guide. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: quick reference guide. Washington DC: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2009.
Fox 2002
  • Fox C. Living with a pressure ulcer: a descriptive study of patient's experiences. British Journal of Community Nursing Wound Care 2002;10(6 Suppl):10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 22.
Friedman 1996
  • Friedman LM, Demets DL, Furberg CD. Baseline assessment. In: Friedman LM, Demets DL, Furberg CD editor(s). Fundamentals of Clinical Trials. 3rd Edition. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser, 1996.
Gallagher 2008
  • Gallagher P, Barry P, Hartigan I, McCluskey P, O'Connor K, O'Connor M. Prevalence of pressure ulcers in three university teaching hospitals in Ireland. Journal of Tissue Viability 2008;17(4):103-09.
Gould 2002
  • Gould D, Goldstone L, Gammon J, Kelly D, Maidwell A. Establishing the validity of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales: a novel approach using illustrated patient scenarios. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2002;39(2):215-28.
Haalboom 1999
  • Haalboom JRE, den Boer J, Buskens E. Risk-assessment tools in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Ostomy/Wound Management 1999;45(2):20-34.
Haalboom 2000
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Hahn 2005
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Halfens 2000
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Henoch 2003
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Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011
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Hollis 1999
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Hopkins 2006
Lefebvre 2011
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Lindgren 2002
Margolis 2002
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McGough 1999
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Medical Research Council 2002
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Moher 2001
  • Moher D,  Schulz KF,  Altman DG,  CONSORT GROUP (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials). The consort statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2001;134(8):656-62.
Montori 2001
Moore 2004
Moore 2011
Moore 2012
  • Moore Z, Cowman S. Pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention practices in care of the older person in the Republic of Ireland. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2012;21(3-4):362–71.
NICE 2001
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Pressure ulcer risk assessment and prevention. Inherited Clinical Guideline B. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/clinicalguidelinepressuresoreguidancercn.pdf. London: National Institute of Clinical Excellence, 2001.
Norton 1975
  • Norton D, McLaren R, Exton-Smith AN. An Investigation of Geriatric Nursing Problems in Hospital. 2nd Edition. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1975.
NPUAP 1998
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Pancorbo-Hidalgo 2006
Puffer 2005
Ramstadius 2000
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RevMan 2008 [Computer program]
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Rycroft-Malone 2000
  • Rycroft-Malone J, McInness E. Guideline recommendations. Clinical Practice Guidelines, Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment and Prevention, Technical Report. London: Royal College of Nursing, 2000:20-42.
Schoonhoven 2002
  • Schoonhoven L, Haalboom JRE, Bousema MT, Algra A, Grobbee DE, Grypdonck MH, et al. Prospective cohort study of routine use or risk assessment scales for prediction of pressure ulcers. BMJ 2002;325(7368):797-800.
Scott 2006
  • Scott JR, Gibran NS, Engrav LH, Mack CD. Rivara FP. Incidence and characteristics of hospitalized patients with pressure ulcers: State of Washington, 1987 to 2000. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery 2006;117(2):630-4.
SIGN 2010
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Search filters. http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html#random (accessed 22 September 2010).
Spilsbury 2007
U.S. Census Bureau 2004 [Computer program]
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Waterlow 1985
  • Waterlow J. A risk assessment card. Nursing Times 1985;81(49):51-5.