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Exercise programs for people with dementia

  1. Dorothy Forbes1,
  2. Emily J Thiessen1,
  3. Catherine M Blake2,*,
  4. Scott C Forbes3,
  5. Sean Forbes4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group

Published Online: 4 DEC 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 13 AUG 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub3


How to Cite

Forbes D, Thiessen EJ, Blake CM, Forbes SC, Forbes S. Exercise programs for people with dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006489. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Alberta, Faculty of Nursing, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

  2. 2

    University of Western Ontario, School of Nursing, Health Sciences Addition H022, London, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    University of Alberta, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

  4. 4

    University of Florida, Department of Physical Therapy, Gainesville, FL, USA

*Catherine M Blake, School of Nursing, Health Sciences Addition H022, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada. cmblake@uwo.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 4 DEC 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Christofoletti 2008 {published data only}
  • Christofoletti G, Oliani MM, Gobbi S, Stella F, Bucken-Gobbi LT, Renato Canineu P. A controlled clinical trial on the effects of motor intervention on balance and cognition in institutionalized elderly patients with dementia. Clinical Rehabilitation 2008;22(7):618-26.
Conradsson 2010 {published data only}
  • Conradsson M, Littbrand H, Lindelof N, Gustafson Y, Rosendahl E. Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aging & Mental Health 2010;14(5):565-76.
  • Littbrand H, Lundin-Olsson L, Gustafson Y, Rosendahl E. The effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on activities of daily living: a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2009;57(10):1741-9.
Eggermont 2009a {published data only}
  • Eggermont LH, Swaab DF, Hol EM, Scherder EJ. Walking the line: a randomised trial on the effects of a short term walking programme on cognition in dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2009;80(7):802-4.
Eggermont 2009b {published data only}
  • Eggermont LH, Knol, DL, Hol EM, Swaab DF, Scherder EJ. Hand motor activity, cognition, mood, and the rest-activity rhythm in dementia: a clustered RCT. Behavioural Brain Research 2009;196:271-8.
Francese 1997 {published data only}
  • Frances T, Sorrell J, Butler FR. The effects of regular exercise on muscle strength and functional abilities of late stage Alzheimer's residents. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 1997;12(3):122-7.
Holliman 2001 {published data only}
  • Holliman DC, Orgassa UC, Forney JP. Developing an interactive physical activity group in a geriatric psychiatry facility. Activities, Adaptation and Aging 2001;26(1):57-69.
Hwang 2010 {published data only}
  • Hwang HH, Choi YJ. The effects of the dance therapy program through rhythmic exercise on cognitive memory performance of the elderly with dementia. Proceedings of the 21st Pan-Asian Congress of Sports and Physical Education 2010;4:12-7.
Kemoun 2010 {published data only}
  • Kemoun G, Thibaud M, Roumagne N, Carette P, Albinet C, Toussaint L, et al. Effects of a physical training programme on cognitive function and walking efficiency in elderly persons with dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2010;29(2):109-14.
Rolland 2007 {published data only}
  • Rolland Y, Pillard F, Klapouszczak A, Reynish E, Thomas D, Andrieu S, et al. Exercise program for nursing home residents with Alzheimer's Disease: a one-year randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 2007; Vol. 55, issue 2:158-65.
Santana-Sosa 2008 {published data only}
Steinberg 2009 {published data only}
  • Steinberg M, Leoutsakos JM, Podewils LJ, Lyketsos CG. Evaluation of a home-based exercise program in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: the Maximizing Independence in Dementia (MIND) study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2009;24(7):680-5.
Stevens 2006 {published data only}
  • Stevens J, Killeen M. A randomised controlled trial testing the impact of exercise on cognitive symptoms and disability of residents with dementia. Contemporary Nurse 2006;21(1):32-40.
Van de Winckel 2004 {published data only}
Venturelli 2011 {published data only}
  • Venturelli M, Scarsini R, Schena F. Six-month walking program changes cognitive and ADL performance in patients with Alzheimer. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias 2011;26(5):381-8.
Vreugdenhil 2012 {published data only}
Williams 2008 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aman 2009 {published data only}
Anon 1986 {published data only}
  • Anon. Study links exercise, improved mental ability. Geriatrics 1986;41(3):24.
Arcoverde 2008 {published data only}
  • Arcoverde C, Deslandes A, Rangel A, Rangel A, Pavao R, Nigri F, et al. Role of physical activity on the maintenance of cognition and activities of daily living in elderly with Alzheimer's Disease. Arquivos De Neuro-Psiquiatria 2008;66(2B):323-7.
Batman 1999 {published data only}
  • Batman MW. The effects of therapeutic aquatic exercise on patients with Alzheimer's Disease. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B The Sciences and Engineering 1999;60(6):2933.
Burgener 2008 {published data only}
  • Burgener SC, Yang Y, Gilbert R, Marsh-Yant S. The effects of a multimodal intervention on outcomes of persons with early-stage dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias 2008;23(4):382-94.
Christofoletti 2011 {published data only}
  • Christofoletti G, Oliani MM, Bucken-Gobbi LT, Gobbi S, Beinotti F, Stella F. Physical activity attenuates neuropsychiatric disturbances and caregiver burden in patients with dementia. Clinics 2011;66(4):613-8.
Heyn 2008 {published data only}
  • Heyn PC, Johnson KE, Kramer AF. Endurance and strength training outcomes on cognitively impaired and cognitively intact older adults: a meta-analysis. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging 2008;12(6):401-9.
Kerse 2008 {published data only}
  • Kerse N, Peri K, Robinson E, Wilkinson T, von Randow M, Kiata L, et al. Does a functional activity programme improve function, quality of life, and falls for residents in long term care? Cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2008;Oct 9:337.
Kwak 2008 {published data only}
Littbrand 2006 {published data only}
  • Littbrand H, Rosendahl E, Lindelof N, Lundin Olsson L, Gustafson Y, Nyberg L. A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program for older people dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities: evaluation of the applicability with focus on cognitive function. Physical Therapy 2006;86(4):489-98.
Littbrand 2011 {published data only}
  • Littbrand H, Carlsson M, Lundin-Olsson L, Lindelof N, Haglin L, Gustafson Y, et al. Effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on functional balance: preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2011;59(7):1274-82.
Netz 1994 {published data only}
  • Netz Y, Yaretzki A, Salganik I, Jacob T, Finkeltov B, Argov E. The effect of supervised physical activity on cognitive and affective state of geriatric and psychogeriatric in-patients. Clinical Gerontologist 1994;15(1):47-56.
Netz 2007 {published data only}
Obisesan 2011 {published data only}
  • Obisesan T, Gillum R, Umar N, Bond V, Williams D. Gene, exercise and memory study (GEMS): a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of standardized aerobic exercise on neurocognition and neurodegeneration in African Americans with mild Alzheimer's Disease. Alzheimer's and Dementia Conference: Alzheimer's Association International Conference, AAIC 11 Paris France. Conference Start: 20110716 Conference End: 20110721. 2011; Vol. 7 (4 suppl 1):S615-6.
Onor 2007 {published data only}
  • Onor ML, Trevisiol M, Negro C, Alessandra S, Saina M, Aguglia E. Impact of a multimodal rehabilitative intervention on demented patients and their caregivers. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias 2007;22(4):261-72.
Oswald 2007 {published data only}
  • Oswald WD, Gunzelmann T, Ackermann A. Effects of a multimodal activation program (SimA-P) in residents of nursing homes. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity 2007;4(2):91-102.
Powell 1974 {published data only}
Rodgers 2002 {published data only}
  • Rodgers ME. Effects of a structured low-level exercise program on age-related cognitive decline in veteran patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2002;63(6-B):2810.
Scherder 2005 {published data only}
  • Scherder EJ, Van Paasschen J, Deijen JB, Van Der Knokke S, Orlebeke JF, Burgers I, et al. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment. Aging and Mental Health 2005;9(3):272-80.
Tappen 2000 {published data only}
  • Tappen RM, Roach KE, Touhy TA. Effect of a comprehensive exercise program on function in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. Proceedings of the World Alzheimer Congress; 2000 Jul 9-13, Washington, DC. 2000.
van Uffelen 2005 {published data only}
  • van Uffelen JG, Hopman-Rock M, Chin A Paw MJ, van Mechelen W. Protocol for Project FACT: a randomised controlled trial on the effect of a walking program and vitamin B supplementation on the rate of cognitive decline and psychosocial wellbeing in older adults with mild cognitive impairment [ISRCTN19227688]. BMC Geriatrics 2005;5:18.
Viscogliosi 2000 {published data only}
  • Viscogliosi C, Desrosiers J, Gauthier P, Beauchemin R. Effect of a multi-strategic group program on performance of the activities of daily living for elderly people with mild cognitive deficits. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy; Revue Canadienne d'Ergotherapie 2000;67(5):314-23.
Williams 2007 {published data only}
  • Williams CL, Tappen RM. Effect of exercise on mood in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 2007;22(5):389-97.
Yagüez 2011 {published data only}

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Hasselbalch 2012 {published data only}
  • Hasselbalch SG, Hoffmann K, Frederiksen KS, Sobol NA, Beyer N, Vogel A, et al. A multicentre randomized clinical trial of physical exercise in Alzheimer's disease (AD): rationale and design of the ADEX study. European journal of neurology 2012 Conference: 16th Congress of the European Federation of Neurological Societies, EFNS Stockholm Sweden. Conference Start: 20120908 Conference End: 20120911. 2012:65.
NCT01935024 {published data only}
  • Assessing the benefits of an outpatient aerobic activity program in patients with Alzheimer's disease. ClinicalTrials.gov http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT019350242013.
Volkers 2011 {published data only}
  • Volkers KM, Scherder EJ. The effect of regular walks on various health aspects in older people with dementia: protocol of a randomized-controlled trial. BMC Geriatrics 2011;11:38.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Cerga-Pashoja 2010 {published data only}
  • Cerga-Pashoja A, Lowery D, Bhattacharya R, Griffin M, Iliffe S, Lee J, et al. Evaluation of exercise on individuals with dementia and their carers: a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2010;11(53).
Cyarto 2010 {published data only}
  • Cyarto EV, Cox KL, Almeida OP, Flicker L, Ames D, Byrne G, et al. The fitness for the Ageing Brain Study II (FABS II): protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Trials 2010;11(120).
Gennep van 2011 {published data only}
  • Gennep van, M. Effects of a program combining walking and cognitive training on memory and behavior of older persons with dementia.  http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3121, 2011.
Laks 2012 {published data only}
  • Laks, J. Physical exercise as an additional treatment for Alzheimer disease. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01515982 2012.
Lamb 2011 {published data only}
  • Lamb S. Physical activity programmes for community dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia (DAPA - Dementia and Physical Activity). ISRCTN32612072.
Logsdon 2012 {published data only}
  • Logsdon RG. Two interventions for early stage dementia: a comparative efficacy trial. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01550718 2012.
Pitkala 2010 {published data only}
  • Pitkala K, Raivio M, Laakkonen ML, Tilvis R, Kautiainen H, Strandberg T. Effects of intensive exercise intervention on Alzheimer's patients - a randomized, controlled trial. European Geriatric Medicine 2011 Conference: 7th Congress of the EUGMS Malaga Spain. Conference Start: 20110928 Conference End: 20110930. 2011:S59.
  • Pitkala KH, Poysti MM, Laakkonen ML, Tilvis RS, Savikko N, Kautiainen H, et al. Effects of the Finnish Alzheimer Disease Exercise Trial (FINALEX): a randomized controlled trial. JAMA Internal Medicine 2013;173(10):894-901.
  • Pitkala KH, Raivio MM, Laakkonen M-L, Tilvis RS, Kautiainen H, Strandberg T. Exercise rehabilitation on home-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease - a randomized, controlled trial. Study protocol. Trials 2010;11(92).
Potemkowski 2011 {published data only}
  • Potemkowski A, Kolenda J, Ratajczak A, Ratajczak M. Influence of physical activity on cognitive dysfunction in patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer dementia. Neurodegenerative Diseases. 10th International Conference AD/PD - Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases: Advances, Concepts and New Challenges Barcelona Spain. Conference Start: 20110309 Conference End: 20110313. 2011.
Rosendahl 2012 {published data only}
  • Rosendahl, E. A high-intensity functional exercise program for older people with dementia and living in residential care facilities (The Umeå Dementia and Exercise Study). ISRCTN: http://isrctn.org/ISRCTN31767087, 2012.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Aarsland 2010
  • Aarsland D, Sardahaee FS, Anderssen S, Ballard C, Alzheimer's Society Systematic Review group. Is physical activity a potential preventive factor for vascular dementia? A systematic review. Aging & Mental Health 2010;14(4):386-95.
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  • Alzheimer Society of Canada. Rising Tide: The Impact of Dementia on Canadian Society. www.alzheimer.ca/˜/media/Files/national/Advocacy/ASC_Rising_Tide_Full_Report_e.ashx Date accessed 6 Nov 2013 2010:65.
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
  6. References to other published versions of this review
Forbes 2008b
  • Forbes DA, Forbes SC, Markle-Reid M, Morgan D, Wood J, Culum I. Physical activity programs and dementia. (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008;3:DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub2.