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Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries

  1. Anupa Shah1,*,
  2. Karen Blackhall2,
  3. Katharine Ker2,
  4. Daksha Patel3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Injuries Group

Published Online: 7 OCT 2009

Assessed as up-to-date: 6 AUG 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006527.pub3


How to Cite

Shah A, Blackhall K, Ker K, Patel D. Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006527. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006527.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    London School of Health & Tropical Medicine, Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group, ICEH, London, UK

  2. 2

    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Cochrane Injuries Group, London, UK

  3. 3

    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, International Centre for Eye Health, London, UK

*Anupa Shah, Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group, ICEH, London School of Health & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK. cevg@lshtm.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 7 OCT 2009

SEARCH

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Ocular injury is a preventable cause of blindness, yet it remains a significant disabling health problem that affects all age groups. Injuries may occur in the home, in the workplace, during recreational activities or as a result of road crashes. Types of injuries vary from closed globe (contusion or lamellar laceration) to an open globe injury, which includes penetration and even perforation of the globe. To date, the main strategy to prevent these injuries has been to educate people to identify high-risk situations and to take correct action to avoid danger.

Objectives

To assess the evidence for the effectiveness of educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Injuries and the Cochrane Eyes & Vision Group Specialised Registers, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister (now includes National Research Register), AgeInfo, HMIC Health Management Information Consortium, WHOLIS (World Health Organization Library Information System), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences), MEDCARIB (Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), ISI Web of Science: (Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S)), ERIC, ZETOC and SPORTdiscus. We also checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted study authors in an effort to identify published, unpublished and ongoing trials. Searches were last updated in August 2008.

Selection criteria

We included any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled before-and-after studies which evaluated any educational intervention aimed at preventing eye injuries.

Data collection and analysis

Four authors independently screened the electronic search results and data extracted. Three authors entered data into RevMan 5. As we judged there to be substantial heterogeneity between participants and interventions, we did not pool the studies' results, but have reviewed the results narratively.

Main results

We included two RCTs and three controlled before-and-after studies in this review. One study reported eye injuries as an outcome and four studies reported change in behaviour or knowledge.

Authors' conclusions

The included studies do not provide reliable evidence that educational interventions are effective in preventing eye injuries. There is a need for well-conducted RCTs with adequate allocation concealment and masking (blinding). Studies should have a longer follow-up time and more studies need to be conducted in low and middle-income countries.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Educational interventions for preventing eye injuries

Eye injuries are a preventable cause of blindness, yet remain a significant disabling health problem that affects all age groups. Despite health and safety requirements and widespread legislation, injuries can still occur at home, in the workplace, during recreational activities or as a result of road crashes.

The authors of this review searched for randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies looking at the effectiveness of educational interventions, such as written materials, video or audio tapes, for the prevention of eye injuries. The authors found five studies involving different types of people, using various educational interventions and based in different countries, that met the inclusion criteria. Due to the low quality of the studies identified, the authors concluded that there is no reliable evidence that educational interventions are effective in preventing eye injuries.

The review authors recommend that further high quality randomised controlled trials, with longer follow-up periods are conducted. More trials should be based in low and middle-income countries in order to carry out a comparison with those in high-income countries.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

預防眼睛損傷的教育介入措施

導因於眼睛損傷的失明是可以預防的,然而它存在著影響所有年齡群體之嚴重的失能健康問題。受傷可能發生在家中,工作場所,休閒娛樂的活動中或起因於交通意外。受傷的類型多樣化,從閉鎖性的眼球(挫傷或層狀撕裂)到開放性的眼球損傷皆有,其包括眼球穿透甚至穿孔。迄今預防這些損傷的主要策略為教育民眾認知高危險的狀況並採取正確的行為以避免危險。

目標

評估預防眼睛損傷之教育介入措施效果的證據

搜尋策略

我們檢索Cochrane Injuries及the Cochrane Eyes & Vision Group Specialised Registers, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister (now includes National Research Register), AgeInfo, HMIC Health Management Information Consortium, WHOLIS (World Health Organization Library Information System), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences), MEDCARIB (Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), ISI Web of Science: (Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIEXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) Conference Proceedings Citation IndexScience (CPCIS)), ERIC, ZETOC及SPORTdiscus。我們也確認相關文章的參考文獻並連繫研究作者努力確認已出版,未出版及進行中的試驗。最新更新的搜尋是在2008年8月。

選擇標準

我們蒐集所有注重於預防眼睛損傷之教育介入措施的隨機對照試驗(randomised controlled trials (RCTs))及前後對照研究(controlled beforeandafter studies)。

資料收集與分析

4名作者分別獨立審閱電子搜尋結果並摘錄資料。3名作者輸入資料至RevMan 5。當我們判斷參與者及介入措施之間有很大的異質性時,我們便不將研究結果加總,而是回顧其結果。

主要結論

在這篇回顧中我們蒐集了2篇隨機對照試驗和3篇前後對照研究。1篇研究報告以眼睛損傷作為結果,而4篇研究報告則是以行為或知識改變作為結果。

作者結論

蒐集的研究並未提供教育介入措施對於預防眼睛損傷效果可信的證據。適當的分組隱匿及遮蔽(盲法)之良好的隨機對照試驗是需要的。研究應該要有較長的追蹤期且需要更多的研究以中低收入的國家為基礎來進行。

翻譯人

本摘要由高雄榮民總醫院金沁琳翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。

總結

預防眼睛損傷的教育介入措施:導因於眼睛損傷的失明是可以預防的,然而它存在著影響所有年齡群體之嚴重的失能健康問題。儘管具備健康和安全的條件及廣泛的法規,受傷仍會發生在家中,工作場所,休閒娛樂活動中或起因於交通意外。這篇回顧的作者搜尋了隨機對照試驗和前後對照研究其關注於預防眼睛損傷之教育介入措施(如書面材料,影片或錄音帶)的效果。作者找到5篇符合納入標準的研究其包含不同類型的民眾,使用各種教育介入措施並以不同的國家為基礎。由於研究的一致性不佳,作者總結無可信的證據顯示教育介入措施對於預防眼睛損傷是有效的。回顧的作者建議進行更進一步高品質的隨機對照試驗及較長的追蹤期間。更多的試驗應以中低收入國家為基礎以完成與高收入國家的結果比較。