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Kinship care for the safety, permanency, and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment

  1. Marc Winokur1,*,
  2. Amy Holtan2,
  3. Keri E Batchelder3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 31 JAN 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 SEP 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006546.pub3


How to Cite

Winokur M, Holtan A, Batchelder KE. Kinship care for the safety, permanency, and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD006546. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006546.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Colorado State University, Social Work Research Center, School of Social Work, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

  2. 2

    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare (RKBU North), Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsø, Norway

  3. 3

    Colorado Department of Human Services, Office of Performance and Strategic Outcomes, Denver, Colorado, USA

*Marc Winokur, Social Work Research Center, School of Social Work, Colorado State University, 110 Education, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523, USA. marc.winokur@colostate.edu.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 31 JAN 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Akin 2011 {published data only}
  • Akin BA. Predictors of foster care exits to permanency: a competing risks analysis of reunification, guardianship and permanency. Children and Youth Services Review 2011;33(6):999-1011.
  • Akin RA. Predictors of Foster Care Exits to Permanency: A Competing Risks Analysis of Reunification, Guardianship, and Adoption [PhD thesis]. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2011.
Barth 1994 {published data only}
  • Barth RP, Courtney M, Berrick JD, Albert V. Time to adoption. From Child Abuse to Permanency Planning: Child Welfare Services, Pathways and Placements. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994. [MEDLINE: 5970]
Belanger 2002 {published data only}
  • Belanger SA. The Advisability of Kinship Foster Placements: A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors and Psychopathology of Children in Traditional and Kinship Foster Care [PhD thesis]. New York: Fordham University, 2002.
Benedict 1996a {published data only}
Bennett 2000 {published data only}
  • Bennett PA. Understanding Foster Parents' Perceptions of the Behavior of Foster Children [PhD thesis]. Buffalo: State University of New York at Buffalo, 2000. [MEDLINE: 1915]
Berger 2009 {published data only}
  • Berger LM, Bruch SK, Johnson EI, James S, Rubin D. Estimating the "impact" of out-of-home placement on child well-being: approaching the problem of selection bias. Child Development 2009;80(6):1856-76.
Berrick 1994 {published data only}
  • Berrick JD, Barth RP, Needell B. A comparison of kinship foster homes and foster family homes: implications for kinship foster care as family preservation. Children and Youth Services Review 1994;16(1-2):33-63. [MEDLINE: 3314]
Berrick 1997 {published data only}
Berrick 1999 {published data only}
  • Berrick JD, Needell B. Recent trends in kinship care: public policy, payments, and outcomes for children. In: Curtis PA, Dale G Jr, Kendall JC editor(s). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research into Policy and Practice. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999. [MEDLINE: 5215]
Bilaver 1999 {published data only}
Brooks 1998 {published data only}
  • Brooks D, Barth RP. Characteristics and outcomes of drug-exposed and non drug-exposed children in kinship and non-relative foster care. Children and Youth Services Review 1998;20(6):475-501. [MEDLINE: 5420]
Chamberlain 2006 {published data only}
Chapman 2004 {published data only}
Chew 1998 {published data only}
  • Chew RJ. Development, Attachment and Play in Drug-Exposed Children of Multiple Foster Care Placements [PhD thesis]. Alameda: California School of Professional Psychology at Alameda, 1998.
Christopher 1998 {published data only}
  • Christopher J. A Comparison of Foster Care Teenagers in Kern County: High School Graduates vs Dropouts (California) [MSW thesis]. Bakersfield: California State University, 1998.
Clyman 1998 {published data only}
  • Clyman R, Riley A, Lewin A, Messer S. Service utilization by young children in out-of-home placement. A system of care for children's mental health: expanding the research base. Annual Research Conference Proceedings. 1998:2-7. [MEDLINE: 3066]
Cole 2006 {published data only}
  • Cole SA. Building secure relationships: attachment in kin and unrelated foster caregiver-infant relationships. Families in Society 2006;87(4):497-508. [MEDLINE: 4312]
Connell 2006a {published data only}
  • Connell CM, Katz KH, Saunders L, Tebes JK. Leaving foster care - the influence of child and case characteristics on foster care exit rates. Children and Youth Services Review 2006;28(7):780-98. [MEDLINE: 770]
Connell 2006b {published data only}
  • Connell CM, Vanderploeg JJ, Flaspohler P, Katz KH, Saunders L, Tebes JK. Changes in placement among children in foster care: a longitudinal study of child and case influences. Social Service Review 2006;80(3):398-418. [MEDLINE: 4336]
Courtney 1995 {published data only}
  • Courtney ME. Reentry to foster care of children returned to their families. Social Service Review 1995;69(2):226-41. [MEDLINE: 5740]
Courtney 1996a {published data only}
Courtney 1996b {published data only}
Courtney 1997a {published data only}
  • Courtney ME, Piliavin I, Wright BRE. Transitions from and returns to out-of-home care. Social Service Review 1997;71(4):652-67. [MEDLINE: 5450]
Courtney 1997b {published data only}
  • Courtney ME, Needell B. Outcomes of kinship care: lessons from California. Child Welfare Research Review. Vol. 2, New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. [MEDLINE: 5553]
Davis 2005 {published data only}
  • Davis A. Outcomes of African American Adolescents in Kinship and Family Foster Care: An Exploration of Racial Identity Development [PhD thesis]. Albany: University at Albany, State University of New York, 2005.
Del Valle 2009 {published data only}
  • Del Valle JF, López MM, Carme M, Bravo A. Twenty years of foster care in Spain: profiles, patterns and outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review 2009;31(8):847-53.
De Robertis 2004 {published data only}
  • De Robertis MT, Litrownik AJ. The experience of foster care: relationship between foster parent disciplinary approaches and aggression in a sample of young foster children. Child Maltreatment 2004;9(1):92-102.
Dunn 2010 {published data only}
  • Dunn DM, Culhane SE, Taussig HN. Children's appraisals of their experiences in out-of-home care. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(10):1324-30.
Farmer 2010 {published data only}
  • Farmer EMZ, Mustillo SA, Wagner HR, Burns BJ, Kolko DJ, Barth RP, et al. Service use and multi-sector use for mental health problems by youth in contact with child welfare. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(6):815-21.
Farruggia 2009 {published data only}
Ford 2007 {published data only}
  • Ford LL. Familial Protective Factors and Early Indications of Resilience in Cases of Child Neglect [PhD thesis]. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois at Chicago, 2007.
Frame 2000 {published data only}
Frame 2002 {published data only}
Fuller 2005 {published data only}
  • Fuller TL. Child safety at reunification: a case-control study of maltreatment recurrence following return home from substitute care. Children and Youth Services Review 2005;27(12):1293-306. [MEDLINE: 837]
Geenen 2006 {published data only}
  • Geenen S, Powers LE. Are we ignoring youths with disabilities in foster care? An examination of their school performance. Social Work 2006;51(3):233-41.
Grogan-Kaylor 2000 {published data only}
  • Grogan-Kaylor AC. The Effect of Population Level Characteristics of the Foster Care Caseload on Reunification from Foster Care [PhD thesis]. Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000. [MEDLINE: 3965]
Harris 2003 {published data only}
  • Harris DM. Alabama Families and Children in Formal Kinship Care, Informal Kinship Care, and Unrelated Family Foster Care: A Comparative Analysis [PhD thesis]. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 2003. [MEDLINE: 3831]
Helton 2010 {published data only}
  • Helton JJ. Children with a Disability, Physical Abuse, Entry into Out-of-Home Care, and Stability of Out-of-Home Placements [PhD thesis]. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2010.
Holtan 2005 {published data only}
  • Holtan A, Ronning JA, Handegard BH, Sourander A. A comparison of mental health problems in kinship and nonkinship foster care. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;14(4):200-7. [MEDLINE: 850]
Hurlburt 2010 {published data only}
  • Hurlburt MS, Chamberlain P, Degarmo D, Zhang J, Price JM. Advancing prediction of foster placement disruption using Brief Behavioral Screening. Child Abuse & Neglect 2010;34(12):917-26.
Iglehart 1994 {published data only}
Iglehart 1995 {published data only}
  • Iglehart AP. Readiness for independence: comparison of foster care, kinship care, and non-foster care adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review 1995;17(3):417-32. [MEDLINE: 5781]
Jenkins 2002 {published data only}
  • Jenkins MH. Quality of Care Study of 76 Kinship and 105 Non-Kinship Foster Children [PhD thesis]. New York: Yeshiva University, 2002.
Johnson 2005 {published data only}
Jones-Karena 1998 {published data only}
  • Jones-Karena J. Functioning and Adjustment of Children in Kinship Care versus Non Relative Foster Family Care Placements [PhD thesis]. Buffalo: State University of New York at Buffalo, 1998.
Jonson-Reid 2003 {published data only}
Keller 2010 {published data only}
  • Keller TE, Salazar AM, Courtney ME. Prevalence and timing of diagnosable mental health, alcohol, and substance use problems among older adolescents in the child welfare system. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(4):626-34.
Koh 2008a {published data only}
  • Koh E. Permanency Outcomes of Children in Kinship and Non-Kinship Foster Care: Minimizing the Effects of Selection Bias with Propensity Score Matching [PhD thesis]. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2008.
Koh 2008b {published data only}
  • Koh E, Testa MF. Propensity score matching of children in kinship and nonkinship foster care: do permanency outcomes still differ?. Social Work Research 2008;32(2):105-16.
Koh 2009 {published data only}
  • Koh E. Permanency outcomes of children in kinship and non-kinship foster care: testing the external validity of kinship effects. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(3):389-98.
Landsverk 1996 {published data only}
  • Landsverk J, Davis I, Ganger W, Newton R, Johnson I. Impact of child psychosocial functioning on reunification from out-of-home placement. Children and Youth Services Review 1996;18(4-5):447-62. [MEDLINE: 5653]
Lawler 2008 {published data only}
  • Lawler MJ. Maltreated Children's Relationships and Emotional Availability with Kin versus Non-Kin Foster Mothers: A Sociobiological Perspective [PhD thesis]. California: University of California, 2008.
  • Lawler MJ. Maltreated children's emotional availability with kin and non-kin foster mothers: a sociobiological perspective. Children and Youth Services Review 2008;30(10):1131-43.
Lernihan 2006 {published data only}
  • Lernihan U, Kelly G. Kinship care as a route to permanent placement. In: Iwaniec D editor(s). The Child's Journey Through Care: Placement Stability, Care Planning, and Achieving Permanency. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2006:99-112.
Leslie 2000a {published data only}
  • Leslie LK, Landsverk J, Ezzet-Lofstrom R, Tschann JM, Slymen DJ, Garland AF. Children in foster care: factors influencing outpatient mental health service use. Child Abuse & Neglect 2000;24(4):465-76. [MEDLINE: 4948]
Linares 2010 {published data only}
Lutman 2009 {published data only}
  • Lutman E, Hunt J, Waterhouse S. Placement stability for children in kinship care: a long-term follow-up of children placed in kinship care through care proceedings. Adoption & Fostering 2009;33(3):28-39.
McCarthy 2007 {published data only}
  • McCarthy GDE. Doing Well and Doing Poorly in Care: Caregivers' Attachment Status and Other Risk and Resilience Predictors of Children's Outcomes in Kinship, Foster, and Adoptive Placements [PhD thesis]. Northhampton, MA: Smith College, 2007.
McIntosh 2002 {published data only}
  • McIntosh MM. Barriers to Reunification in the Child Welfare System: An Analysis of Kinship and Non-Kinship Placements [MSW thesis]. Long Beach: California State University, 2002. [MEDLINE: 4803]
McMillen 2004 {published data only}
McMillen 2005 {published data only}
  • McMillen JC, Zima BT, Scott LD, Auslander WF, Munson MR, Ollie MT, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older youths in the foster care system. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;44(1):88-95. [MEDLINE: 913]
Mennen 2010 {published data only}
  • Mennen FE, Brensilver M, Trickett PK. Do maltreated children who remain at home function better than those who are placed?. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(12):1675-82.
Metzger 1997 {published data only}
  • Metzger JW. The Role of Social Support in Mediating the Well-Being of Children Placed in Kinship Foster Care and Traditional Foster Care [PhD thesis]. New York: New York University, 1997.
Metzger 2008 {published data only}
Mosek 2001 {published data only}
  • Mosek A, Adler L. The self-concept of adolescent girls in non-relative versus in kin foster care. International Social Work 2001;44(2):149-62. [MEDLINE: 4904]
Orgel 2007 {published data only}
  • Orgel LJ. Maltreatment History, Attachment, Gender, and Behavior Problems in Four-and Five-Year-Old Children in Substitute Care [PhD thesis]. Santa Barbara, CA: Fielding Graduate University, 2007.
Pabustan-Claar 2007a {published data only}
  • Pabustan-Claar J. Using Relative and Non-Relative as Foster Care Placement: A Comparison of Permanency Outcomes for School-Aged Children [PhD thesis]. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Los Angeles, 2007.
Palacios 2009 {published data only}
  • Palacios J, Jiménez JM. Kinship foster care: protection or risk?. Adoption & Fostering 2009;33(3):64-75.
Ringeisen 2009 {published data only}
  • Ringeisen H, Casanueva C, Cross TP, Urato M. Mental health and special education services at school entry for children who were involved with the child welfare system as infants. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2009;17(3):177-92.
Rubin 2008 {published data only}
  • Rubin DM, Downes KJ, O'Reilly ALR, Mekonnen R, Luan X, Localio R. Impact of kinship care on behavioral well-being for children in out-of-home care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2008;162(6):550-6.
Rudenberg 1991 {published data only}
  • Rudenberg MB. The Comparison between Familial and NonFamilial Out-of-Home Placement on the Self-Esteem and Behavior of Children [PhD thesis]. San Diego, CA: United States International University, 1991. [MEDLINE: 2269]
Ryan 2010a {published data only}
  • Ryan JP, Hong JS, Herz D, Hernandez PM. Kinship foster care and the risk of juvenile delinquency. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(12):1823-30.
Sakai 2011 {published data only}
  • Sakai C, Lin H, Flores G. Health outcomes and family services in kinship care: analysis of a national sample of children in the child welfare system. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2011;165(2):159-65.
Sallnas 2004 {published data only}
  • Sallnas M, Vinnerljung B, Kyhle Westermark P, Sallnäs M, Westermark PK. Breakdown of teenage placements in Swedish foster and residential care. Child & Family Social Work 2004;9(2):141-52. [MEDLINE: 4508]
Scannapieco 1997 {published data only}
  • Scannapieco M, Hegar RL, McAlpine C. Kinship care and foster care: a comparison of characteristics and outcomes. Families in Society 1997;78(5):480-7. [MEDLINE: 5437]
Schneiderman 2010 {published data only}
  • Schneiderman JU, McDaniel D, Xie B, Clark JSA. Child welfare caregivers: an evaluation of access to pediatric health care. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(5):698-703.
Shin 2003 {published data only}
Sivright 2004 {published data only}
  • Sivright NL. The Role of Kinship Care in Permanency Outcomes [PhD thesis]. New York: Yeshiva University, 2004.
Smith 2002 {published data only}
Smith 2003 {published data only}
Sripathy 2004 {published data only}
  • Sripathy R. Foster Parents' Perceptions of Children's Well-Being in Kinship and Non-Kinship Care [PhD thesis]. Garden City, NY: Adelphi University, 2004.
Strijker 2003 {published data only}
Strijker 2008 {published data only}
  • Strijker J, Knorth EJ, Knot-Dickscheit J. Placement history of foster children: a study of placement history and outcomes in long-term family foster care. Child Welfare 2008;87(5):107-24.
Surbeck 2000 {published data only}
  • Surbeck BBC. The Social Environment's Impact on the Functioning of Children in Kinship and Non Kinship Care [PhD thesis]. New Brunswick: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2000.
Tarren-Sweeney 2006a {published data only}
Tarren-Sweeney 2006b {published data only}
Tarren-Sweeney 2008a {published data only}
Tarren-Sweeney 2008b {published data only}
Testa 1999 {published data only}
Testa 2001 {published data only}
Timmer 2004 {published data only}
Tompkins 2003 {published data only}
  • Tompkins W Jr. Mental and Physical Health and Educational Performance Outcomes among Children in Three Out-of-Home Placement Types [PhD thesis]. New York: Columbia University, 2003.
USDHHS 2005 {published data only}
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children, Families. National survey of child and adolescent well-being, No.2: foster children's caregivers and caregiving environments. Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study 2005.
Valicenti-McDermott 2008 {published data only}
  • Valicenti-McDermott M, Demb HB. Foster care: are there differences in the cognitive and psychiatric characteristics of young children with developmental disabilities in kinship vs. non-kinship homes?. Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities 2008;11(1):1-9.
Villagrana 2008 {published data only}
  • Villagrana M. Mental Health Service Use by Children and Youth in the Child Welfare System: A Focus on Need and Predisposing Factors and Caregiver Type [PhD thesis]. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California, 2008.
  • Villagrana M. Mental health services for children and youth in the child welfare system: a focus on caregivers as gatekeepers. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(5):691-7.
Vogel 1999 {published data only}
Wells 1999 {published data only}
Wilson 1999 {published data only}
Winokur 2008 {published data only}
  • Winokur MA, Crawford GA, Longobardi RC, Valentine DP. Matched comparison of children in kinship care and foster care on child welfare outcomes. Families in Society 2008;89(3):338-46.
Zima 2000 {published data only}
  • Zima BT, Bussing R, Freeman S, Belin TR, Forness SR, Yang X. Behavior problems, academic skill delays and school failure among school-aged children in foster care: their relationship to placement characteristics. Journal of Child and Family Studies 2000;9(1):87-103. [MEDLINE: 4961]
Zimmerman 1998 {published data only}
  • Zimmerman E, Daykin D, Moore V, Wuu C, Li J. Kinship and non-kinship foster care in New York City: pathways and outcomes. United Way of New York City 1998. [MEDLINE: 5374]
Zinn 2009 {published data only}
  • Zinn A. Foster family characteristics, kinship, and permanence. Social Service Review 2009;83(2):185-219.
Zuravin 1993 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Aarons 2010 {published data only}
  • Aarons GA, James S, Monn AR, Raghavan R, Wells RS, Leslie LK. Behavior problems and placement change in a national child welfare sample: a prospective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2010;49(1):70-80.
Adamson 1969 {published data only}
  • Adamson G. When Auntie or Grannie is Mum. Gabriola Island, Canada: New Society, 1969.
Ainsworth 1998 {published data only}
  • Ainsworth F, Maluccio AN. Kinship care: false dawn or new hope?. Australian Social Work 1998;51(4):3-8. [MEDLINE: 5349]
Ajduković 2004 {published data only}
  • Ajduković M, Franz BS. Youth self-report of children in children's homes and foster families in Croatia. Drustvena Istrazivanja 2004;13(6):1031-54. [MEDLINE: 906]
Ajduković 2005 {published data only}
Albert 2008 {published data only}
Almgren 2001 {published data only}
  • Almgren G, Marcenko MO. Emergency room use among a foster care sample: the influence of placement history, chronic illness, psychiatric diagnosis, and care factors. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 2001;1(1):55-64. [MEDLINE: 1938]
Altshuler 1998 {published data only}
  • Altshuler SJ. Child well-being in kinship foster care: similar to, or different from, non-related foster care?. Children and Youth Services Review 1998;20(5):369-88. [MEDLINE: 5350]
Altshuler 1999 {published data only}
  • Altshuler SJ. The well-being of children in kinship foster care. In: Gleeson J, Hairston CF editor(s). Kinship Care: Improving Practice through Research. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, 1999:117-44. [MEDLINE: 4044]
Anaut 1999 {published data only}
  • Anaut M, Chouvier B, Tyrrell J. North African and French children placed in care: a comparative study of psychological and educational outcomes. Merging Past, Present and Future in Cross-Cultural Psychology: Selected Papers from the 14th International Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. Swets and Zeitlinger Publishers, 1999. [MEDLINE: 2022]
Anderson 1995 {published data only}
  • Anderson GR, Glesson JP. Overview. Kinship Care Forum. Chicago: National Resource Center for Permanency Planning, City University of New York; Jane Addams Center for Social Policy and Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1995. [MEDLINE: 5821]
Aquilino 1991 {published data only}
Armsden 2000 {published data only}
  • Armsden G, Pecora PJ, Payne VH, Szatkiewicz JP. Children placed in long-term foster care: an intake profile using the child behavior checklist/4-18. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2000;8(1):49-64. [MEDLINE: 5063]
Backovic 2006 {published data only}
  • Backovic D, Marinkovic JA, Grujicic-Sipetic S, Maksimovic M. Differences in substance use patterns among youths living in foster care institutions and in birth families. Drugs 2006;13(4):341-51. [MEDLINE: 4309]
Bada 2008 {published data only}
  • Bada HS, Langer J, Twomey J, Bursi C, Lagasse L, Bauer CR, et al. Importance of stability of early living arrangements on behavior outcomes of children with and without prenatal drug exposure. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2008;29(3):173-82.
Barber 2003 {published data only}
  • Barber JG, Delfabbro PH. The first four months in a new foster placement: psychosocial adjustment, parental contact and placement disruption. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 2003;30(2):69-85. [MEDLINE: 529]
Barth 1995 {published data only}
Barth 2008a {published data only}
  • Barth RP, Green R, Webb MB, Wall A, Gibbons C, Craig C. Characteristics of out-of-home caregiving environments provided under child welfare services. Child Welfare: Connecting Research, Policy and Practice 2008;87(3):5-39.
Bass 2004 {published data only}
  • Bass S, Shields MK, Behrman RE. Children, families, and foster care: analysis and recommendations. Future of Children 2004;14(1):4-29. [MEDLINE: 4484]
Beatty 1995 {published data only}
  • Beatty SG. Levels of Emotional Adjustment in Children in Foster Care [PhD thesis]. Denton: Texas Woman's University, 1995. [MEDLINE: 2129]
Becker 2007 {published data only}
  • Becker MA, Jordan N, Larsen R. Predictors of successful permanency planning and length of stay in foster care: the role of race, diagnosis and place of residence. Children and Youth Services Review 2007;29(8):1102-13.
Benedict 1990 {published data only}
Benedict 1994 {published data only}
Benedict 1996b {published data only}
  • Benedict MI, Zuravin S, Stallings RY. Adult functioning of children who lived in kin versus nonrelative family foster homes. Child Welfare 1996;75(5):529-49. [MEDLINE: 5621]
Berman 2004 {published data only}
  • Berman S, Carpenter S. Children in foster and kinship care at risk for inadequate health care coverage and access. Findings Brief: Health Care Financing & Organization 2004;7(4):1-4. [: 4479]
Berrick 1995 {published data only}
  • Berrick JD, Needell B, Barth RP. Kinship care in California: an empirically based curriculum. Berkeley Child Welfare Research Center. California University, 1995:151. [MEDLINE: 5820]
Berridge 1987 {published data only}
  • Berridge D, Cleaver H. Foster Home Breakdown. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987.
Biehal 2007 {published data only}
  • Biehal N. Reuniting children with their families: reconsidering the evidence on timing, contact and outcomes. British Journal of Social Work 2007;37(5):807-23.
Billing 2002 {published data only}
  • Billing A, Macomber JE, Kortenkamp K. Children cared for by relatives: what do we know about their well-being?. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families. The Urban Institute, 2002; Vol. Series B, issue B-46:1-7. [MEDLINE: 4825]
Blumberg 1996 {published data only}
  • Blumberg E, Landsverk J, Ellis-Macleod E, Ganger W, Culver S. Use of the public mental health system by children in foster care: client characteristics and service use patterns. Journal of Mental Health Administration 1996;23(4):389-405. [MEDLINE: 1397]
Broad 2001 {published data only}
  • Broad B. Kinship care: supporting children in placements with extended family and friends. Adoption & Fostering 2001;25(2):33-41. [MEDLINE: 2704]
Broad 2004 {published data only}
  • Broad B. Kinship care for children in the UK: messages from research, lessons for policy and practice. European Journal of Social Work 2004;7(2):211-27. [MEDLINE: 4525]
Browne 2005 {published data only}
  • Browne K, Hamilton-Giachristis C, Johnson R, Chow S, Ostergren M, Leth I, et al. A European survey of the number and characteristics of children less than three years old in residential care at risk of harm. Adoption & Fostering 2005;29(4):23-33. [MEDLINE: 330]
Browning 1994 {published data only}
  • Browning CJ. Public- and private-sector out-of-home care in Denmark. Social Service Review 1994;68(1):20-32. [MEDLINE: 5889]
Burge 2007 {published data only}
  • Burge P. Prevalence of mental disorders and associated service variables among Ontario children who are permanent wards. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2007;52(5):305-14.
Burrus 2007 {published data only}
  • Burrus SWM. Do Dads Matter? Child Welfare Outcomes for Two-Parent Families Involved with Child Welfare [PhD thesis]. Northcentral University, 2007.
Cantos 1996 {published data only}
Cariglia 1999 {published data only}
  • Cariglia NAP. "...In the Best Interest of the Child.": A Study of the Kinship Care Program of the Department of Social Services in Fitchburg, Massachusetts [PhD thesis]. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1999.
Carlson 2002 {published data only}
  • Carlson GLJ. An Examination of Selected Variables Affecting the Outcomes for Adult Former Foster Children Placed in Baltimore City: The impact of Placement Stability and Type of Out-of-Home Care [PhD thesis]. College Park: University of Maryland, 2002:378-a. [MEDLINE: 554]
Carpenter 2001 {published data only}
Carpenter 2003 {published data only}
  • Carpenter SC, Clyman R, Moore L, Xu S, Berman S. Are children in kinship care at greater risk than those in traditional foster care?. Pediatric Research 2003;53(4):1099. [MEDLINE: 2582]
Carpenter 2004a {published data only}
  • Carpenter SC, Berman S, Clyman R, Moore LA, Xu S. Are children in kinship care getting the mental health services they need?. Pediatric Research 2004;55(4):1292. [MEDLINE: 2581]
Carpenter 2004b {published data only}
  • Carpenter SC, Clyman RB. The long-term emotional and physical wellbeing of women who have lived in kinship care. Children and Youth Services Review 2004;26(7):673-86. [MEDLINE: 4516]
Chamberlain 2008 {published data only}
Chen 2000 {published data only}
  • Chen JL. Outcomes for Children in Kin and Nonkin Placement in Foster Care [MSW thesis]. Fullerton: California State University, Fullerton, 2000.
Chipungu 1998 {published data only}
  • Chipungu SS, Everett JE, Verdieck MJ. Children placed in foster care with relatives: a multi-state study. Executive summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ACF, ACYF 1998. [MEDLINE: 5372]
Clawar 1984 {published data only}
  • Clawar SS. Weighing children's opinions... desired living arrangements, family life, educational experiences and foster family care. Children Today 1984;13(5):30-3. [MEDLINE: 450]
Clyman 2002 {published data only}
CNNP 1996 {published data only}
  • Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Health needs of young children in foster care. Family Economics and Nutrition Review 1996;9(2):36-7. [MEDLINE: 5611]
Cole 2001 {published data only}
  • Cole S. Security of Attachment of Infants in Foster Care [PhD thesis]. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University, 2001. [MEDLINE: 4797]
Cole 2005a {published data only}
  • Cole SA. Foster caregiver motivation and infant attachment: how do reasons for fostering affect relationships?. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 2005;22(5-6):441-57. [MEDLINE: 4392]
Cole 2005b {published data only}
Colon 1978 {published data only}
Colton 1994 {published data only}
Colton 1995 {published data only}
  • Colton M, Heath A, Aldgate J. Factors which influence the educational attainment of children in foster family care. Community Alternatives 1995;7(1):15-36. [MEDLINE: 625]
Connell 2009 {published data only}
  • Connell CM, Vanderploeg JJ, Katz KH, Caron C, Saunders L, Tebes JK. Maltreatment following reunification: predictors of subsequent Child Protective Services contact after children return home. Child Abuse & Neglect 2009;33(4):218-28.
Courtney 1992 {published data only}
  • Courtney ME, Barth RP. Pathways from kinship foster care. Berkeley Family Welfare Research Group. California University, 1992:5. [MEDLINE: 6184]
Courtney 1994 {published data only}
  • Courtney ME. Factors associated with the reunification of foster children with their families. Social Service Review 1994;68(1):80-108. [MEDLINE: 5880]
Courtney 1996 {published data only}
  • Courtney ME. Kinship foster care and children's welfare: the California experience. Focus 1996;17(3):42-8. [MEDLINE: 5671]
Courtney 2001 {published data only}
  • Courtney M, Piliavin I, Grogan K, Nesmith A. Foster youth transitions to adulthood: a longitudinal view of youth leaving care. Child Welfare 2001;80(6):685-717. [MEDLINE: 2947]
Courtney 2009 {published data only}
Cousins 2010 {published data only}
  • Cousins W, Taggart L, Milner S. Looked after or overlooked? An exploratory investigation of the mental health issues of adolescents living in state care in Northern Ireland. Psychology, Health & Medicine 2010;15(5):497-506.
Cranley 2003 {published data only}
  • Cranley M, Bianchi JP, Eleson C, Hall L, Jacobson B, Jackson K, et al. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003. Madison: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc, 2003. [MEDLINE: 2886]
Crawford 2006 {published data only}
Cuddeback 2002 {published data only}
CWLA 1995 {published data only}
  • Child Welfare League of America. Kinship Care Survey: Summary of Initial Findings. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, 1995.
Danzy 1997 {published data only}
  • Danzy J, Jackson SM. Family preservation and support services: a missed opportunity for kinship care. Child Welfare 1997;76(1):31-44.
David 1982 {published data only}
  • David J. The Effects of Placement in Foster Family Homes on Selected Aspects of School Adjustment and Academic Achievement [PhD thesis]. New York: Fordham University, 1982.
Davidson-Arad 2003 {published data only}
  • Davidson-Arad B, Englechin-Segal D, Wozner Y. Short-term follow-up of children at risk: comparison of the quality of life of children removed from home and children remaining at home. Child Abuse & Neglect 2003;27(7):733-50. [MEDLINE: 1033]
Davis 1993 {published data only}
  • Davis IP, Landsverk J, English DJ. Study of reunification risks and successes. Child and Family Research Group 1993. [MEDLINE: 6072]
Davis 1996 {published data only}
  • Davis IP, English DJ, Landsverk JA. Outcomes of permanency planning for 1165 foster children. Clearinghouse for Child Abuse and Neglect Information 1996. [MEDLINE: 5812]
De Cadiz 2006 {published data only}
  • De Cadiz BTG, Rivero AM, Balluerka N, Herce C, Achucarro C. Self-concept of children in family foster care: differences in relation to foster care type, upbringing history, and biological family problems. Infancia Y Aprendizaje 2006;29(2):147-66. [MEDLINE: 768]
Delfabbro 2002 {published data only}
Delfabbro 2003 {published data only}
  • Delfabbro P, Barber J, Cooper L. Predictors of short-term reunification in South Australian substitute care. Child Welfare 2003;82(1):27-51. [MEDLINE: 1070]
DiGiuseppe 2003 {published data only}
Du 2002 {published data only}
  • Du Y, Tang H, Bao Y, Wang Y, Zhen W. Behavior problems of children in special families. Chinese Mental Health Journal 2002;16(1):41-3. [MEDLINE: 1873]
Dubowitz 1990 {published data only}
  • Dubowitz H. The physical and mental health and educational status of children placed with relatives. Final report. Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland Medical School 1990. [MEDLINE: 6349]
Dubowitz 1992 {published data only}
  • Dubowitz H, Feigelman S, Zuravin S, Tepper V, Davidson N, Lichenstein R. The physical health of children in kinship care. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1992;146(5):603-10. [MEDLINE: 224]
Dubowitz 1993a {published data only}
  • Dubowitz H, Zuravin S, Starr RH, Feigelman S, Harrington D. Behavior problems of children in kinship care. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1993;14(6):386-93. [MEDLINE: 6042]
Dubowitz 1993b {published data only}
Dubowitz 1994b {published data only}
  • Dubowitz H, Feigelman S, Harrington, Starr R Jr, Zuravin S, Sawyer R. Children in kinship care: how do they fare?. Children and Youth Services Review 1994;16(1-2):85-106. [MEDLINE: 3313]
Dubowitz 1994c {published data only}
Duhrssen 1958 {published data only}
  • Duhrssen A. The development of institutional and foster home children [Heimkinder und pflegekinder in ihrer entwicklung]. Verlag Fur Medizinische Psychologie. Oxford: Verlag Fur Medizinische Psychologie, 1958. [MEDLINE: 2534]
Dworsky 2005 {published data only}
Eggertson 2008 {published data only}
Ehrle 2002a {published data only}
  • Ehrle J, Geen R. Children cared for by relatives: what services do they need?. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, 2002; Vol. Series B, issue B-47:1-7. [MEDLINE: 4824]
Ehrle 2002b {published data only}
English 1994 {published data only}
Falcon 2000 {published data only}
  • Falcon TA. A Comparison of Foster Care and Kinship Care Adolescents' Academic Achievement and Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System [MSW thesis]. Long Beach: California State University, Long Beach, 2000:57 pp.. [MEDLINE: 3828]
Fan 2010 {published data only}
  • Fan F, Su LY, Gill MK, Birmaher B. Emotional and behavioral problems of Chinese left-behind children: a preliminary study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2010;45(6):655-64.
Farmer 1991 {published data only}
  • Farmer E, Parker R. Trials and Tribulations: Returning Children from Care to their Families. London: HMSO, 1991.
Farmer 2001 {published data only}
  • Farmer EMZ, Burns BJ, Chapman MV, Phillips SD, Angold A, Costello EJ. Use of mental health services by youth in contact with social services. Social Service Review 2001;75(4):605-24. [MEDLINE: 1169]
Farmer 2009a {published data only}
Farmer 2009b {published data only}
  • Farmer ElMZ, Southerland D, Mustillo SA, Burns BJ. Returning home in systems of care: rates, predictors, and stability. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2009;17(3):133-46.
Fechter-Leggett 2010 {published data only}
  • Fechter-Leggett MO, O'Brien K. The effects of kinship care on adult mental health outcomes of alumni of foster care. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(2):206-13.
Feigelman 1995 {published data only}
  • Feigelman S, Zuravin S, Dubowitz H, Harrington D, Starr RH, Tepper V. Sources of health care and health needs among children in kinship care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1995;149(8):882-6. [MEDLINE: 5750]
Fernandez 2007 {published data only}
Festinger 1996 {published data only}
Flint 1973 {published data only}
  • Flint B. A longitudinal study of a group of children reared in a severely depriving environment during infancy and early childhood: sixteen years investigation. Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto 1973:14. [MEDLINE: 3702]
Fluke 2008 {published data only}
  • Fluke JD, Shusterman GR, Hollinshead DM, Yuan YY. Longitudinal analysis of repeated child abuse reporting and victimization: multistate analysis of associated factors. Child Maltreatment 2008;13(1):76-88.
Folman 1995 {published data only}
  • Folman RD. Resiliency and Vulnerability Among Abused and Neglected Children in Foster Care [PhD thesis]. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1995. [MEDLINE: 2133]
Fong 2006 {published data only}
Foster 2011 {published data only}
  • Foster EM, Hillemeier MM, Bai Y. Explaining the disparity in placement instability among African-American and white children in child welfare: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. Children and Youth Services Review 2011;33(1):118-25.
Fox 2008 {published data only}
Franck 2002 {published data only}
  • Franck KL, Buehler C. Kin and family foster care: a focus on needs and services. Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations. 2002. [MEDLINE: 4765]
Freedman 1994 {published data only}
  • Freedman G, Rugs D, Johnston A. Parent reported family functioning in foster and biological families of dependent children. A System of Care for Children's Mental Health: Expanding the Research Base. Annual Research Conference Proceedings. 1994:369-72. [MEDLINE: 2585]
Garland 2003 {published data only}
  • Garland AF, Landsverk JA, Lau AS. Racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use among children in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review 2003;25(5-6):491-507. [MEDLINE: 1052]
Gaudin 1993 {published data only}
  • Gaudin J, Sutphen R. Foster care vs. extended family care for children of incarcerated mothers. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 1993;19(3-4):129-47. [MEDLINE: 3324]
Gebel 1996 {published data only}
  • Gebel TJ. Kinship care and non-relative family foster care: a comparison of caregiver attributes and attitudes. Child Welfare 1996;75(1):5-18. [MEDLINE: 5644]
Geen 2003 {published data only}
  • Geen R. Foster children placed with relatives often receive less government help. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Washington DC: Urban Institute, 2003; Vol. Series A, issue A-59:1-5. [MEDLINE: 2903]
Gennaro 1998 {published data only}
  • Gennaro S, York R, Dunphy P. Vulnerable infants: kinship care and health. Pediatric Nursing 1998;24(2):119-25. [MEDLINE: 5354]
Ghera 2009 {published data only}
Gibbison 2005 {published data only}
Gil 1982 {published data only}
  • Gil E, Bogart K. An exploratory study of self-esteem and quality of care of 100 children in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review 1982;4(4):351-63. [MEDLINE: 2460]
Goerge 1995 {published data only}
  • Goerge RM, Wulczyn FH, Harden AW. An update from the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive: foster care dynamics 1983-1993; California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Texas. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ACYF 1995. [MEDLINE: 5803]
Gottesman 2001 {published data only}
  • Gottesman MM. Children in foster care: a nursing perspective on research, policy, and child health issues. Society of Pediatric Nurses Journal 2001;6(2):55-64. [MEDLINE: 4888]
Graf 1987 {published data only}
  • Graf EO. "Careers of placement" of youths in educational establishments [Plazierungskarrieren von Jugendlichen in Erziehungsheimen]. Vierteljahresschrift fur Heilpadagogik und ihre Nachbargebiete 1987;56:47-60. [MEDLINE: 2352]
Gramkowski 2009 {published data only}
  • Gramkowski B, Kools S, Paul S, Boyer CB, Monasterio E, Robbins N. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 2009;22(2):77-85.
Grogan-Kaylor 2001 {published data only}
  • Grogan-Kaylor A. The effect of initial placement into kinship foster care on reunification from foster care: a bivariate probit analysis. Journal of Social Service Research 2001;27(4):1-31. [MEDLINE: 4860]
Groppenbacher 2002 {published data only}
  • Groppenbacher E, Hoard C, Miller S. Providing mental health services to young children in foster care: a family-by-family, moment-by-moment approach to change. Zero to Three 2002;22(5):33-7. [MEDLINE: 375]
Haist 2005 {published data only}
  • Haist MP, Jennings ETJ. After the Adoption and Safe Families Act: Permanency Outcomes Among Children in Kinship Foster Care [PhD thesis]. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 2005.
Hansen 2004 {published data only}
  • Hansen RL, Mawjee FL, Barton K, Metcalf MB, Joye NR. Comparing the health status of low-income children in and out of foster care. Child Welfare 2004;83(4):367-80. [MEDLINE: 4470]
Harden 2002 {published data only}
Harden 2004 {published data only}
  • Harden BJ, Clyman RB, Kriebel DK, Lyons ME. Kith and kin care: parental attitudes and resources of foster and relative caregivers. Children and Youth Services Review 2004;26(7):657-71. [MEDLINE: 4519]
Harman 2000 {published data only}
  • Harman JS, Childs GE, Kelleher KJ. Mental health care utilization and expenditures by children in foster care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2000;154(11):1114-7. [MEDLINE: 79]
Havlicek 2010 {published data only}
  • Havlicek J. Patterns of movement in foster care: an optimal matching analysis. Social Services Review 2010;84(3):403-35.
Hayward 2007 {published data only}
  • Hayward RA, De Panfilis D. Foster children with an incarcerated parent: predictors of reunification. Children and Youth Services Review 2007;29(10):1320-34.
Hazel 1978 {published data only}
  • Hazel N. Family placement - a hopeful alternative. Journal of Adolescence 1978;1(4):363-9.
Hegar 2009 {published data only}
  • Hegar RL, Rosenthal JA. Kinship care and sibling placement: child behavior, family relationships, and school outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review 2009;31(6):670-9.
Hessle 1989 {published data only}
Hill 2008 {published data only}
Hinterlong 2008 {published data only}
  • Hinterlong J, Ryan S. Creating grander families: older adults adopting younger kin and nonkin. The Gerontologist 2008;48(4):527-36.
Hjern 2004 {published data only}
  • Hjern A, Vinnerljung B, Lindblad F. Avoidable mortality among child welfare recipients and intercountry adoptees: a national cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2004;58(5):412-7. [MEDLINE: 988]
Holloway 1997 {published data only}
  • Holloway JS. Outcome in placements for adoption or long term fostering. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1997;76(3):227-30. [MEDLINE: 1374]
Holtan 2008 {published data only}
Holtan 2009 {published data only}
Hornby 1995 {published data only}
  • Hornby H, Zeller D, Karraker D. Kinship care in America: a national policy study. Edmund S. Muskie Institute of Public Affairs, University of Southern Maine 1995. [MEDLINE: 5815]
Hornick 1989 {published data only}
  • Hornick JP, Phillips DM, Kerr N. Gender differences in behavioral problems of foster children: implications for special foster care. Community Alternatives: International Journal of Family Care 1989;1:35-52. [MEDLINE: 2319]
Houston 1998 {published data only}
  • Houston SD. Kinship Care vs. Traditional Foster Care: Perceptions of Chemically Dependent African American Mothers [MSW thesis]. Long Beach: California State University, 1998. [MEDLINE: 3821]
Hughes 1969 {published data only}
  • Hughes S. Services to children living with relatives or guardians. Children 1969; Vol. 16, issue 3:109-13. [MEDLINE: 3807]
Hulsey 1989 {published data only}
  • Hulsey TC, White R. Family characteristics and measures of behavior in foster and nonfoster children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1989;59(4):502-9. [MEDLINE: 6414]
Hunt 1999 {published data only}
  • Hunt J, MacLeod A. The Best-Laid Plans: Outcomes of Judicial Decisions in Child Protection Cases. London: The Stationery Office, 1999.
Hurley 2009 {published data only}
  • Hurley M. Predictors of Child Well-Being: The Impact of Relative Caregiver and Permanent Placement Type on Children in Foster Care [PhD thesis]. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University, 2009.
Iafrate 2001 {published data only}
  • Iafrate R. Family communication and perception of boundaries as predictors of adolescent foster children's well-being [Comunicazione familiare e percezione dei confini come predittori del benessere di adolescenti in affido]. Eta Evolutiva 2001;69:72-9. [MEDLINE: 1930]
Iglehart 2004 {published data only}
Ingley 2008 {published data only}
  • Ingley G, Earley L. 'One in, one out'? The dilemma of having multiple children in foster placements. Adoption & Fostering 2008;32(3):73-85.
Ingram 1996 {published data only}
Jackson 1994 {published data only}
Jaffe 2004 {published data only}
  • Jaffe DB. A Study of Reunification and Recidivism in Family Foster Care [MSW thesis]. Long Beach: California State University, 2004. [MEDLINE: 4374]
James 2004a {published data only}
James 2004b {published data only}
Jantz 2002 {published data only}
  • Jantz A, Baseman A. Alternative kinship care programs. Children's Voice 2002;11(3):28-32. [MEDLINE: 356]
Jee 2005 {published data only}
Jee 2006 {published data only}
  • Jee SH, Barth RP, Szilagyi MA, Szilagyi PG, Aida M, Davis MM. Factors associated with chronic conditions among children in foster care. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2006;17(2):328-41. [MEDLINE: 775]
Johnson 1995 {published data only}
Jones 1998 {published data only}
Joyce 2008 {published data only}
  • Joyce M, McCrae L, Pitman S. The lottery of systems: ways forward for children in need - kinship or foster care?. Child, Youth, and Family Work Journal 2008;22:51-62.
Kamaiko-Solano 2003 {published data only}
  • Kamaiko-Solano WD. Developmental Outcomes of Young Children with Histories of Prenatal Drug Exposure in Foster Care Placement and the Characteristics of the Caregiving Environment [PhD thesis]. Garden City, NY: Adelphi University, 2003. [MEDLINE: 1832]
Kappenberg 2006 {published data only}
  • Kappenberg ES, Halpern DF. Kinship center attachment questionnaire: development of a caregiver-completed attachment measure for children younger than 6 years. Educational and Psychological Measurement 2006;66(5):852-73. [MEDLINE: 743]
Kaye 2007 {published data only}
  • Kaye S. Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors of Adolescents in Kinship Care: Findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being [PhD thesis]. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, 2007.
Keller 2001 {published data only}
  • Keller TE, Wetherbee K, Le Prohn NS, Payne V, Sim K, Lamont ER. Competencies and problem behaviors of children in family foster care: variations by kinship placement status and race. Children and Youth Services Review 2001;23(12):915-40. [MEDLINE: 4852]
Kirton 2008a {published data only}
  • Kirton D. Kinship care: fostering effective family and friends placements. British Journal of Social Work 2008;38(8):1659-60.
Kirton 2008b {published data only}
  • Kirton D. Keeping them in the family: outcomes for children placed in kinship care through care proceedings. British Journal of Social Work 2008;38(8):1659-60.
Kools 2009 {published data only}
  • Kools S, Paul SM, Norbeck JS, Robbins NR. Dimensions of health in young people in foster care. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 2009;21(2):221-33.
Kortenkamp 2002 {published data only}
  • Kortenkamp K, Ehrle J. The Well-Being of Children Involved with the Child Welfare System: A National Overview. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-43. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies. Washington DC: Urban Institute, 2002. [MEDLINE: 2952]
Kosenen 1993 {published data only}
  • Kosenen M. Descriptive study of foster and adoptive care services in a Scottish agency. Community Alternative 1993;5(2):126-8.
Kreutzmann 1995 {published data only}
  • Kreutzmann G. A one year Greenlandic study of temporary and permanent placement of children and adolescents outside their homes. Arctic Medical Research 1995;54(1):68-73.
Kufeldt 1995 {published data only}
  • Kufeldt K, Armstrong J, Dorosh M. How children in care view their own and their foster families: a research study. Child Welfare 1995;74(3):695-715. [MEDLINE: 5788]
Laan 2001 {published data only}
  • Laan NMA, Loots GMP, Janssen CGC, Stolk J. Foster care for children with mental retardation and challenging behaviour: a follow-up study. British Journal of Developmental Disabilities 2001;47(Pt 1):3-13.
Le Blanc 1991 {published data only}
  • Le Blanc M, McDuff P, Tremblay RE. Family types, living conditions, operation of family systems and social maladjustment during latency and adolescence in underprivileged milieus. Sante mentale au quebec 1991;16(1):45-75. [MEDLINE: 647]
Leslie 2000b {published data only}
  • Leslie LK, Landsverk J, Horton MB, Ganger W, Newton RR. The heterogeneity of children and their experiences in kinship care. Child Welfare United States 2000;79(3):315-34. [MEDLINE: 4949]
Leslie 2002 {published data only}
Leslie 2005 {published data only}
  • Leslie LK, Gordon JN, Meneken L, Premji K, Michelmore KL, Ganger W. The physical, developmental, and mental health needs of young children in child welfare by initial placement type. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2005;26(3):177-85. [MEDLINE: 4364]
Lewandowski 2002 {published data only}
  • Lewandowski CA, Pierce L. Assessing the effect of family-centered out-of-home care on reunification outcomes. Research on Social Work Practice 2002;12(2):205-21. [MEDLINE: 4734]
Lewis 1987 {published data only}
Linderkamp 2009 {published data only}
  • Linderkamp F, Schramm SA, Michau S. The psychosocial adjustment of foster children and foster parents: results of a prospective longitudinal study [Die psychische entwicklung von pflegekindern und pflegeeltern: ergebnisse einer prospektiven länngsschnittstudie]. Verhaltenstherapie und Psychosoziale Praxis 2009;41(4):863-80.
Link 1996 {published data only}
  • Link MK. Permanency outcomes in kinship care: a study of children placed in kinship care in Erie County, New York. Child Welfare 1996;75(5):509-28. [MEDLINE: 5620]
Litrownik 2003 {published data only}
  • Litrownik AJ, Newton R, Mitchell BE, Richardson KK. Long-term follow-up of young children placed in foster care: subsequent placements and exposure to family violence. Journal of Family Violence 2003;18(1):19-28. [MEDLINE: 4603]
Lopez 2010 {published data only}
  • Lopez M, Montserrat C, Del Valle JF, Bravo A. Non-relative family foster care in Spain: practice and outcomes assessment. Childhood and Learning 2010;33(2):269-80.
Lu 2008 {published data only}
Lux 2001 {published data only}
  • Lux JA. Emotional Well-Being of Children in Family Foster Care: A Comparison at Entry and Discharge [MSW thesis]. Long Beach, USA: California State University, 2001:108 pp.. [MEDLINE: 3836]
Lyman 1996 {published data only}
MacIntyre 1970 {published data only}
  • MacIntyre JM. Adolescence, identity, and foster family care. Children 1970;17(6):213-7. [MEDLINE: 7080]
Mackintosh 2006 {published data only}
  • Mackintosh VH, Myers BJ, Kennon SS. Children of incarcerated mothers and their caregivers: factors affecting the quality of their relationship. Journal of Child and Family Studies 2006;15(5):579-94. [MEDLINE: 4322]
Maclean 2003 {published data only}
  • Maclean K, Gunion M. Learning with care: the education of children looked after away from home by local authorities in Scotland. Adoption & Fostering 2003;27(2):20-31. [MEDLINE: 4584]
Mallon 2010 {published data only}
  • Mallon GP. Safety, permanency, and well-being revisited. Child Welfare 2010;89(3):5-8.
Maluccio 1999 {published data only}
  • Maluccio AN. Foster care and family reunification. In: Curtis PA, Dale G, Kendall JC editor(s). The Foster Care Crisis: Translating Research into Policy and Practice. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999:211-24. [MEDLINE: 5210]
Marinković 2004 {published data only}
  • Marinković J, Backović D, Kocijancić R. Health status of adolescents deprived of parental care [Zdravstveno stanje adolescenata bez roditeljskog staranja]. Medicinski Pregled 2004;57(11-12):588-91. [MEDLINE: 4487]
Marinković 2007 {published data only}
  • Marinković J, Backović D. Relationship between type of placement and competencies and problem behavior of adolescents in long-term foster care. Children and Youth Services Review 2007;29(2):216-25.
Martin 2002 {published data only}
  • Martin MH, Barbee AP, Antle BF, Sar B. Expedited permanency planning: evaluation of the Kentucky adoptions opportunities project. Child Welfare Series 2002;81(2):203-24.
Mascorro 2003 {published data only}
  • Mascorro MI. Factors that Relate to Competency and Behavioral Problems in Foster Care Children [PhD thesis]. Minneapolis, MN: Walden University, 2003. [MEDLINE: 1834]
Mason 2003 {published data only}
  • Mason M, Castrianno LM, Kessler C, Holmstrand L, Huefner J, Payne V, et al. A comparison of foster care outcomes across four child welfare agencies. Journal of Family Social Work 2003;7(2):55-72. [MEDLINE: 4666]
McCrae 2010 {published data only}
  • McCrae JS, Lee BR, Barth RP, Rauktis ME. Comparing three years of well-being outcomes for youth in group care and nonkinship foster care. Child Welfare 2010;89(2):229-49.
McLean 1996 {published data only}
McMahon 2001 {published data only}
  • McMahon JJ, Clay-Warner J. Explaining the link between child abuse and criminality: the role of social service placement and family characteristics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southern Sociological Society, Atlanta, GA. 2001.
McMillen 1999 {published data only}
McQuaid 1994 {published data only}
  • McQuaid EL. Foster Parent-Child Relationships [PhD thesis]. Denver: University of Denver, 1994. [MEDLINE: 2178]
McSherry 2010 {published data only}
  • McSherry D, Weatherall K, Larkin E, Malet MF, Kelly G. Who goes where?: Young children's pathways through care in Northern Ireland. Adoption & Fostering 2010;34(2):23-37.
Mech 1994 {published data only}
Merritt 2008 {published data only}
  • Merritt DH. Placement preferences among children living in foster or kinship care: a cluster analysis. Children and Youth Services Review 2008;30(11):1336-44.
Millham 1986 {published data only}
  • Millham S, Bullock R, Hosie K, Haak M. Lost in Care. Aldershot: Gower, 1986.
Minnis 2006 {published data only}
Minty 2000 {published data only}
  • Minty B. A review of the effects of living long-term in substitute care in the context of a discussion of outcome criteria. Social Work and Social Sciences Review 2000;8(3):169-93. [MEDLINE: 23]
Mitchell 2002 {published data only}
  • Mitchell BE. Physical Health of Maltreated Children Shortly After Entry Into Foster Care: Assessment and Prediction of Documented Medical Problems and Caregiver-Reported Health Status [PhD thesis]. San Diego: San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego, 2002.
Monheit 1997 {published data only}
  • Monheit L, Mauffret SE, Pandolfo MC, Levi G. Psychological vulnerability and depression in foster care and foster home children [Vulnerabilita psicologica e depressione nei bambini in affidamento familiare e istituzionale]. Psichiatria-Dell'Infancia-e-Dell'Adolescenza 1997;64(2):195-204. [MEDLINE: 2081]
Montserrat 2006 {published data only}
  • Montserrat C, Casas F. Kinship foster care from the perspective of quality of life: research on the satisfaction of the stakeholders. Applied Research in Quality of Life 2006;1(3-4):227-37.
Moore 2001 {published data only}
  • Moore J, Palacio QE. Evaluation of multiple attachments and coping strategies of adolescents placed in foster families [L'articulation des attachements multiples et des strategies de coping chez les adolescents places en famille d'accueil]. Revista Interamericana de Psicologia 2001;35(1):127-41. [MEDLINE: 1961]
Mosek 1993 {published data only}
  • Mosek A. Well-being and parental contact of foster children in Israel: a different situation from the USA?. International Social Work 1993;36(3):261-75. [MEDLINE: 2237]
Moss 2009 {published data only}
Moutassem-Mimouni 1999 {published data only}
  • Moutassem-Mimouni B. Adult outcome of children abandoned at birth in Algeria. A comparative study of the outcome of adults raised in foster families and those raised in an institution. Psychiatrie De L'Enfant 1999;42(2):623-45. [MEDLINE: 1205]
Needell 1996 {published data only}
  • Needell B. Placement Stability and Permanence for Children Entering Foster Care as Infants [PhD thesis]. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, 1996.
O'Donnell 2001 {published data only}
  • O'Donnell JM. Paternal involvement in kinship foster care services on one father and multiple father families. Child Welfare 2001;80(4):453-79.
Ober 2008 {published data only}
  • Ober MD. The Effect of Kinship Care on Mental Health of Foster Care Alumni [PhD thesis]. Keene, NH: Antioch University, 2008.
Oosterman 2007 {published data only}
  • Oosterman M, Schuengel C, Slot NW, Bullens RAR, Doreleijers TAH. Disruptions in foster care: a review and meta-analysis. Children and Youth Services Review 2007;29(1):53-76.
Oyemade 1974 {published data only}
Pabustan-Claar 2007b {published data only}
  • Pabustan-Claar J. Achieving permanence in foster care for young children: a comparison of kinship and non-kinship placements. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work 2007;16(1-2):61-94.
Park 2010 {published data only}
  • Park JM, Helton J. Transitioning from informal to formal substitute care following maltreatment investigation. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(7):998-1003.
Payne 2000 {published data only}
Pears 2005 {published data only}
Pecora 1998 {published data only}
  • Pecora PJ, Le Prohn NS, Nollan KA, Downs AC. How are the children doing? Assessing youth outcomes in family foster care. Outcomes of Youth in Family Foster Care. Seattle, WA: The Casey Family Program, 1998. [MEDLINE: 5380]
Pecora 2006 {published data only}
  • Pecora PJ, Williams J, Kessler RC, Hiripi E, O'Brien K, Emerson J, et al. Assessing the educational achievements of adults who were formerly placed in family foster care. Child & Family Social Work 2006;11(3):220-31. [MEDLINE: 4282]
Perez 1998 {published data only}
  • Perez PL. Kinship Care Families: Attitudes and Barriers Toward Legal Permanency for Children in Relative Placements [MSW thesis]. Long Beach: California State University, 1998. [MEDLINE: 5178]
Prosser 1997 {published data only}
  • Prosser WR. Family structure, substitute care, and educational achievement. Institute for Research on Poverty 1997; Vol. Discussion Paper No.1140-97. [MEDLINE: 5472]
Raghunandan 2010 {published data only}
  • Raghunandan S, Leschied A. The effectiveness of kinship services with children exposed to partner violence: exploring a dual victim treatment approach. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services 2010;91(1):52-9.
Rickert 2008 {published data only}
  • Rickert JM. The Perceived Strengths of Children and Adolescents in Kinship versus Non Kinship Foster Care: The Influence of Child Functioning, Placement Stability, and Caregiver Strain [PhD thesis]. Albany, NY: University at Albany, State University of New York, 2008.
Ritchie 2005 {published data only}
Ritter 2005 {published data only}
  • Ritter SA, Finkel B, Wallace J. Provider research on kin caregiver service barriers in New York. The Gerontologist 2005;45(Suppl 2):143. [MEDLINE: 4433]
Rock 1988 {published data only}
  • Rock SL, Flanzer SM, Bradley RH, Pardeck JT. Frequency of maladaptive behavior in foster children. Early Child Development and Care 1988;30(1-4):133-9. [MEDLINE: 6524]
Romney 2006 {published data only}
  • Romney SC, Litrownik AJ, Newton RR, Lau A. The relationship between child disability and living arrangement in child welfare. Child Welfare 2006;85(6):965-84. [MEDLINE: 696]
Rose 2010 {published data only}
Rowe 1984 {published data only}
  • Rowe J, Caine M, Hundleby M, Keane A. Long Term Foster Care. London: Batsford, 1984.
Rowe 1989 {published data only}
  • Rowe J, Hundleby M, Garnett L. Child Care Now: A Survey of Placement Patterns. London: BAAF, 1989.
Roy 2000 {published data only}
Roy 2006 {published data only}
Rubin 2004 {published data only}
Ryan 2005 {published data only}
  • Ryan JP, Testa MF. Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency: investigating the role of placement and placement instability. Children and Youth Services Review 2005;27(3):227-49. [MEDLINE: 904]
Ryan 2010b {published data only}
  • Ryan SD, Hinterlong J, Hegar RL, Johnson LB. Kin adopting kin: in the best interest of the children?. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(12):1631-9.
Sawyer 1994 {published data only}
Schneiderman 2011 {published data only}
  • Schneiderman JU, Leslie LK, Arnold-Clark JS, McDaniel D, Xie B. Pediatric health assessments of young children in child welfare by placement type. Child Abuse & Neglect 2011;35(1):29-39.
Schwartz 2005 {published data only}
  • Schwartz AE. Facing Connective Complexity: A Comparative Study of the Effects of Kinship Foster Care and Non-Kinship Foster Care Placements on the Identity of African American Adolescents [PhD thesis]. Austin: University of Texas, 2005. [MEDLINE: 1620]
Schwartz 2007 {published data only}
  • Schwartz A. 'Caught' versus 'Taught': ethnic identity and the ethnic socialization experiences of African-American adolescents in kinship and non-kinship foster placements. Children and Youth Services Review 2007;29(9):1201-19.
Shin 2004 {published data only}
  • Shin SH. Development outcomes of vulnerable youth in the child welfare system. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 2004;9(1-2):39-56. [MEDLINE: 4537]
Shlonsky 2002 {published data only}
  • Shlonsky AR. Relative Permanence: An Evaluation of KinGAP, California's Subsidized Guardianship Program for Kinship Caregivers [PhD thesis]. Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley, School of Social Welfare, 2002. [MEDLINE: 459]
Shore 2002 {published data only}
  • Shore N, Sim KE, Le Prohn NS, Keller TE. Foster parent and teacher assessments of youth in kinship and non-kinship foster care placements: are behaviors perceived differently across settings?. Children and Youth Services Review 2002;24(1-2):109-34. [MEDLINE: 4707]
Simard 1993 {published data only}
  • Simard M, Vachon J, Moisan M. Problems in reintegrating children placed in foster care into their families [Les difficultés de la réinsertion familiale des enfants places]. Apprentissage-et-Socialisation 1993;16(3):241-52. [MEDLINE: 2193]
Sinclair 2000 {published data only}
  • Sinclair I, Wilson K, Gibbs I. Supporting foster placements. University of York Report to the Department of Health 2000.
Smith 1986 {published data only}
  • Smith PM. Evaluation of Kent placements. Adoption & Fostering 1986;10(1):29-33. [MEDLINE: 2395]
Smith 2007 {published data only}
Smithgall 2004 {published data only}
  • Smithgall C, Mason S. Identified problems and service utilization patterns among kinship families accessing mental health services. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 2004;9(3):41-55. [MEDLINE: 4538]
Snowden 2008 {published data only}
  • Snowden J, Leon S, Sieracki J. Predictors of children in foster care being adopted: a classification tree analysis. Children and Youth Services Review 2008;30(11):1318-27.
Sousa 2005 {published data only}
  • Sousa L, Pires S, Galante H. Growing up in foster families: attachment patterns, psychopathology and parental educational styles impact [Crescer em familias de acolhimento: Padroes de vinculacao, psicopatologia e influencia dos estilos educativos parentais]. Psychologica 2005;40:279-303. [MEDLINE: 1682]
Stahmer 2009 {published data only}
  • Stahmer AC, Hurlburt M, Horwitz SM, Landsverk J, Zhang JJ, Leslie LK. Associations between intensity of child welfare involvement and child development among young children in child welfare. Child Abuse & Neglect 2009;33(9):598-611.
Starr 1999 {published data only}
  • Starr RH, Dubowitz H, Harrington D, Feigelman S. Behavior problems of teens in kinship care: cross-informant reports. In: Hegar RL, Scannapieco M editor(s). Kinship Foster Care: Policy, Practice, and Research. USA: Oxford University Press, 1999:193-207. [MEDLINE: 5147]
Stiffman 2002 {published data only}
Stott 2010 {published data only}
Strijker 2005 {published data only}
  • Strijker J, Zandberg T, Van Der Meulen BF. Typologies and outcomes for foster children. Child and Youth Care Forum 2005;34(1):43-55. [MEDLINE: 4345]
Strijker 2010 {published data only}
  • Strijker JS. Placement breakdown among foster children with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Developmental Disabilities 2010;56(Pt 2):111-21.
Sun 2003 {published data only}
Sykes 2002 {published data only}
  • Sykes J, Sinclair I, Gibbs I, Wilson K. Kinship and stranger foster carers: how do they compare?. Adoption & Fostering 2002;26(2):38-48. [MEDLINE: 4742]
Tarren-Sweeney 2010a {published data only}
  • Tarren-Sweeney M. Concordance of mental health impairment and service utilization among children in care. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2010;15(4):481-95.
Tarren-Sweeney 2010b {published data only}
  • Tarren-Sweeney M. An exploratory investigation of abnormal pain response among preadolescent children in foster care. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2010;15(1):65-79.
Taussig 2001 {published data only}
Taussig 2002 {published data only}
Taussig 2011 {published data only}
  • Taussig HN, Clyman RB. The relationship between time spent living with kin and adolescent functioning in youth with a history of out-of-home placement. Child Abuse & Neglect 2011;35(1):78-86.
Tepper 1991 {published data only}
  • Tepper VJ, Starr RH Jr, Dubowitz H, Feigelman S, Zuravin S. Mental health of children placed with relatives: predictors of outcome. American Psychological Association Meeting. San Francisco (CA), 1991:7. [MEDLINE: 6290]
Terling-Watt 2001 {published data only}
  • Terling-Watt T. Permanency in kinship care: an exploration of disruption rates and factors associated with placement disruption. Children and Youth Services Review 1923;23(2):111-26.
Testa 1996 {published data only}
  • Testa MF, Shook KL, Cohen LS, Woods MG. Permanency planning options for children in formal kinship care. Child Welfare 1996;75(5):451-70. [MEDLINE: 402]
Testa 1997 {published data only}
  • Testa MF, Shook KL. Kinship foster care: 1 test of inclusive fitness and other theories of relative caregiving. American Sociological Association. 1997. [MEDLINE: 621]
Testa 2002 {published data only}
Thoburn 1989 {published data only}
  • Thoburn J. The effectiveness of permanent substitute family placement for older children in care. In: Hudson J, Galaway B editor(s). The State as Parent. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989:369-85. [MEDLINE: 2598]
Thomas 2010 {published data only}
  • Thomas R. The Kinship Care Regional Project. The Child, Youth, and Family Work Project 2010;25:55-64.
Thornton 1991 {published data only}
Troutman 2000 {published data only}
  • Troutman B, Ryan S, Cardi M. The effects of foster care placement on young children's mental health. Protecting Children 2000;16(1):30-4. [MEDLINE: 5037]
Turner 2003 {published data only}
  • Turner M, Cogshell T. A comparison between adolescents in single-parent homes and non-parental homes: an assessment of well-being. The Gerontologist 2003;43(1 Suppl 1):317. [MEDLINE: 4626]
Unknown 2009 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Research report. Children's Voice 2009;18(4):44.
Unrau 2005a {published data only}
  • Unrau YA, Grinnell RM. Exploring out-of-home placement as a moderator of help-seeking behavior among adolescents who are high risk. Research on Social Work Practice 2005;15(6):516-30. [MEDLINE: 834]
Unrau 2005b {published data only}
Urban Institute 2006 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Urban Institute brief analyzes kinship care surveys. Children's Voice 2006;15(6):47. [: 1057736x]
USGAO 1999 {published data only}
  • United States General Accounting Office. Foster care: kinship care quality and permanency issues. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives 1999:120. [MEDLINE: 5145]
Valicenti-McDermott 2004 {published data only}
  • Valicenti-McDermott MR, Demb H. Foster care: are there differences in the cognitive and psychiatric characteristics of young children with developmental disabilities (DD) in kinship vs. non kinship homes?. Pediatric Research 2004;55(4):398. [MEDLINE: 2580]
Van Santen 2010 {published data only}
  • Van Santen E. Predictors of exit type and length of stay in non-kinship family foster care: the German experience. Children and Youth Services Review 2010;32(10):1211-22.
VDSS 1994 {published data only}
  • Virginia Department of Social Services. Kinship care in Virginia. Virginia Deptartment of Social Services 1994; Vol. House Document No.71. [MEDLINE: 5966]
Vinnerljung 1996 {published data only}
  • Vinnerljung B. Foster Children as Adults. Lund: Arkiv Forlag, 1996.
Vinnerljung 2005 {published data only}
Wade 2000 {published data only}
  • Wade P. Children's Program Outcome Review Team: 1999 Evaluation Results. Nashville, TN: Tennessee State Commission on Children and Youth, 2000:119. [MEDLINE: 2990]
Wade 2001 {published data only}
  • Wade P. Children's Program Outcome Review Team: 2000 Evaluation Results. Nashville, TN: Tennessee State Commission on Children and Youth, 2001:130. [MEDLINE: 2976]
Wall 2007 {published data only}
Walsh 1981 {published data only}
  • Walsh JA, Walsh RA, Stuart M. Risk factors, superior adaptive capacity, and characteristics of the foster home as predictors of maintenance of foster placement. Meeting of the Western Psychological Association. Los Angeles (CA), 1981. [MEDLINE: 3560]
Walton 2007 {published data only}
  • Walton B. Predictors of Improvement for Children Served in Developing Systems of Care. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2007.
Webster 2000 {published data only}
  • Webster D, Barth RP, Needell B. Placement stability for children in out-of-home care: a longitudinal analysis. Child Welfare 2000;79(5):614-32. [MEDLINE: 4950]
Wilson 1996 {published data only}
Won 2009 {published data only}
  • Won JY. The Relationships between Social Ties, Social Support, and Material Hardship Among Youth Aging out of Foster Care [PhD thesis]. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 2009.
Wulczyn 1992 {published data only}
  • Wulczyn FH, George RM. Foster care in New York and Illinois: the challenge of rapid change. Social Service Review 1992;66(2):278-94. [MEDLINE: 1550]
Wulczyn 2004 {published data only}
  • Wulczyn F. Family reunification. Future of Children 2004;14(1):94-113. [MEDLINE: 4482]
Zhao 2009 {published data only}
  • Zhao Q, Li X, Fang X, Stanton B, Zhao G, Zhao J, et al. Life improvement, life satisfaction, and care arrangement among AIDS orphans in rural Henan, China. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2009;20(2):122-32.
Zuravin 1998 {published data only}
  • Zuravin SJ, Benedict M, Stallings R. The adult functioning of former kinship and nonrelative foster care children. In: Hegar RL, Scannapieco M editor(s). Kinship Foster Care: Policy, Practice, and Research. USA: Oxford University Press, 1998:208-22. [MEDLINE: 5143]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
AIHW 2012
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Ayala-Quillen 1998
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Barth 2008b
  • Barth RP, Guo S, McCrae JS. Propensity score matching strategies for evaluating the success of child and family service programs. Research on Social Work Practice 2008;18(3):212-22.
Berrick 1994a
Berrick 1998
Berridge 1998
  • Berridge D, Brodie I. Children's Homes Revisited. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd, 1998.
Broad 2005a
  • Broad B. Family and friends care, or kinship care, for children and young people who can no longer live with their parents. International Conference of Children and Youth in Emerging and Transforming Societies. Oslo, Norway, 2005.
Broad 2005b
  • Broad B. Improving the Health and Well-Being of Young People Leaving Care. Dorset, UK: Russell House Publishing, 2005.
Brooks 2002
  • Brooks SL. Kinship and adoption. Adoption Quarterly 2002;5(3):55-66.
CBS 2011
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Chinn 2000
Cohen 1999
  • Cohen JD, Cooper BA. Kinship support network: Edgewood's program model and client characteristics. Children and Youth Services Review 1999;21(4):311-38.
Cuddeback 2004
CWLA 1994
  • Child Welfare League of America. Kinship Care: A Natural Bridge. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, 1994.
DFE 2010
  • Department for Education. Children looked after in England (including adoption and care leavers) year ending 31 March 2010. www.education.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000960/sfr27-2010v2.pdf (accessed 28 July 2012).
Dubowitz 1994a
Geen 2000
  • Geen R. In the interest of children: rethinking federal and state policies affecting kinship care. Policy & Practice of Public Human Services 2000;58(1):19-27.
Gibbs 2000
  • Gibbs P, Muller U. Kinship foster care moving to the mainstream: controversy, policy, and outcomes. Adoption Quarterly 2000;4(2):57-87.
Gleeson 1999
  • Gleeson JP. Kinship care as a child welfare service. What do we really know?. In: Gleeson JP, Hairston CF editor(s). Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research. Washington, DC: CWLA Press, 1999.
Higgins 2002
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011
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Hornby 1996
  • Hornby H, Zeller D, Karraker D. Kinship care in America: what outcomes should policy seek?. Child Welfare 1996;75(5):397-418.
Juni 2001
Leos-Urbel 2002
  • Leos-Urbel J, Bess R, Geen R. The evolution of federal and state policies for assessing and supporting kinship caregivers. Children and Youth Services Review 2002;24(1-2):37-52.
MCESI 2003
  • The Ministry of Children, Equality, Social Inclusion. Regulations on foster care [Forskrift om fosterhjem]. www.lovdata.no/cgi-wift/ldles?doc=/sf/sf/sf-20031218-1659.html (accessed 23 October 2012).
Moher 1999
NAW 2011
  • National Assembly of Wales. Adoptions, outcomes, and placements for children looked after by local authorities: year ending 31 March 2011. www.wales.gov.uk/topics/statistics/2011/110915sdr1662011en.pdf (accessed 28 July 2012).
Paxman 2006
  • Paxman M. Outcomes for children and young people in kinship care. An issue paper. Centre for Parenting & Research, NSW Department of Community Services 2006.
Sallnas 2000
  • Sallnas M. Residential Care in Child Welfare: Development, Ideology, and Structure. Stockholm: Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, 2000.
Scannapieco 1999
  • Scannapieco M, Hegar RL. Kinship foster care in context. In: Hegar RL, Scannapieco M editor(s). Kinship Foster Care: Policy, Practice, and Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999:1-13.
Schmid 2007
  • Schmid H. Children and youth at risk in Israel: findings and recommendations to improve their well-being. Children and Youth Services Review 2007;29(8):1114-28.
Scottish Government 2011
  • The Scottish Government. Children looked after statistics 2009-10. www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2011/02/23091516 (accessed 28 July 2012).
Spence 2004
Statistics Norway 2011
  • Statistics Norway. Children in state custody December 31 by measure and county [1987-2011]. www.ssb.no/emner/02/barn_og_unge/2012/tabeller/barnevern//barnev0100.html (accessed 23 October 2012).
Testa 1992
USDHHS 2011a
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The AFCARS report: Preliminary FY 2010 estimates as of June 2011. www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/tar/report18.htm (accessed 28 July 2012).
USDHHS 2011b
  • US Department of Health and Human Services. Child Maltreatment 2010. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2011.
Zuravin 1999
  • Zuravin SJ, Benedict M, Stallings R. The adult functioning of former kinship and nonrelative foster care children. In: Hegar RL, Scannapieco M editor(s). Kinship Foster Care: Policy, Practice, and Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.